Athabasca oil sands
The Athabasca oil sands are large deposits of bitumen or heavy crude oil, located in northeastern Alberta, Canada – centred on the boomtown of Fort McMurray. These oil sands, hosted in the McMurray Formation, consist of a mixture of crude bitumen, silica sand, clay minerals, water; the Athabasca deposit is the largest known reservoir of crude bitumen in the world and the largest of three major oil sands deposits in Alberta, along with the nearby Peace River and Cold Lake deposits. Together, these oil sand deposits lie under 141,000 square kilometres of boreal forest and muskeg and contain about 1.7 trillion barrels of bitumen in-place, comparable in magnitude to the world's total proven reserves of conventional petroleum. The International Energy Agency lists the economically recoverable reserves, at 2007 prices and modern unconventional oil production technology, to be 178 billion barrels, or about 10% of these deposits; these contribute to Canada's total proven reserves being the third largest in the world, after Saudi Arabia and Venezuela's Orinoco Belt.
By 2009, the two extraction methods used were in situ extraction, when the bitumen occurs deeper within the ground, surface or open-pit mining, when the bitumen is closer to the surface. Only 20 percent of bitumen can be extracted using open pit mining methods, which involves large scale excavation of the land with huge hydraulic power shovels and 400-ton heavy hauler trucks. Surface mining leaves toxic tailings ponds. In contrast, in situ uses more specialized techniques such as steam-assisted gravity drainage. "Eighty percent of the oil sands will be developed in situ which accounts for 97.5 percent of the total surface area of the oil sands region in Alberta." In 2006 the Athabasca deposit was the only large oil sands reservoir in the world, suitable for large-scale surface mining, although most of this reservoir can only be produced using more developed in-situ technology. Critics contend that government and industry measures taken to reduce environmental and health risks posed by large-scale mining operations are inadequate, causing unacceptable damage to the natural environment and human welfare.
Objective discussion of the environmental impacts has been clouded by polarized arguments from industry and from advocacy groups. The Athabasca oil sands are named after the Athabasca River which cuts through the heart of the deposit, traces of the heavy oil are observed on the river banks; the bitumen was used by the indigenous Cree and Dene Aboriginal peoples to waterproof their canoes. The oil deposits are located within the boundaries of Treaty 8, several First Nations of the area are involved with the sands; the Athabasca oil sands first came to the attention of European fur traders in 1719 when Wa-pa-su, a Cree trader, brought a sample of bituminous sands to the Hudson's Bay Company post at York Factory on Hudson Bay where Henry Kelsey was the manager. In 1778, Peter Pond, another fur trader and a founder of the rival North West Company, became the first European to see the Athabasca deposits after exploring the Methye Portage which allowed access to the rich fur resources of the Athabasca River system from the Hudson Bay watershed.
In 1788, fur trader Alexander Mackenzie, after whom the Mackenzie River was named, traveled along routes to both the Arctic and Pacific Ocean wrote: "At about 24 miles from the fork are some bituminous fountains into which a pole of 20 feet long may be inserted without the least resistance. The bitumen is in a fluid state and when mixed with gum, the resinous substance collected from the spruce fir, it serves to gum the Indians' canoes." He was followed in 1799 by mapmaker David Thompson and in 1819 by British Naval officer John Franklin. John Richardson did the first serious scientific assessment of the oil sands in 1848 on his way north to search for Franklin's lost expedition; the first government-sponsored survey of the oil sands was initiated in 1875 by John Macoun, in 1883, G. C. Hoffman of the Geological Survey of Canada tried separating the bitumen from oil sand with the use of water and reported that it separated readily. In 1888, Robert Bell, the director of the Geological Survey of Canada, reported to a Senate Committee that "The evidence... points to the existence in the Athabasca and Mackenzie valleys of the most extensive petroleum field in America, if not the world."
Count Alfred von Hammerstein, who arrived in the region in 1897, promoted the Athabaska oil sands for over forty years, taking photos with descriptive titles such as "Tar Sands and Flowing Asphaltum in the Athabasca District," that are now in the National Library and National Archives Canada. Photos of the Athabasca oil sands were featured in Canadian writer and adventurer, Agnes Deans Cameron's, best-selling book entitled The New North: Being Some Account of a Woman's Journey through Canada to the Arctic which recounted her 10,000 mi roundtrip to the Arctic Ocean. Following this journey and the publication of her book, she travelled extensively as lecturer, with magic lantern slides of her Kodak images, promoting immigration to western Canada at Oxford, Cambridge, St. Andrew's University and the Royal Geographical Society, her photographs were reproduced in 2011-2012 in an exhibit at the Canadian Museum of Civilization in Ottawa, Canada. Cameron was enthusiastic about the Athabaska region and the Athabaska oil sands which included photos of Count Alfred
Beiseker is a village in the Canadian province of Alberta 70 kilometres northeast of Calgary. It is considered to be an outermost part of the Calgary Region, is included within Calgary's Census Metropolitan Area; the village is surrounded by rural Rocky View County, the closest neighbouring communities are Irricana and Acme. Lying in a belt of rich black soil, Beiseker was developed as an agricultural service centre, it was founded by the Calgary Colonization Company, whose purpose was to promote settlement by demonstrating the grain-growing potential of the area. The village's name came from a partner and vice president of the company. Initial colonization took place in 1908 when the company recruited a number of ethnic German settlers from the Great Plains of the Dakotas; this is reflected in the number of German family names. The village began to grow in 1910 when the branch line of the Canadian Pacific Railway was completed. In 1910, the first general store was opened in a large two story building which housed the school and dance hall.
The Grand Trunk Pacific line - now owned by Canadian National Railway - was constructed in 1912 to the east of the central business district. Telephone arrived in 1912 and electricity in 1928. With the construction and intersection of Highways 9, 72 and 806 at the northeast edge of the village, Beiseker came to have a favourable location in terms of road and rail access. Since it is located equidistant from Calgary and Drumheller, Beiseker began to emerge as a local service and trade centre for the surrounding rural agricultural area. Village status was achieved in 1921; the surrounding area's great potential for grain-growing is shown by Beiseker's status as "World Wheat King Capital", or as a top producing area of wheat. Beiseker Community School is located in the village, it is part of the Rocky View Schools system, teaches from kindergarten to grade 12. The village is home to Baptist and Anglican congregations; as Beiseker is at the intersection of three provincial highways, equipped with a campground and motel, it is a popular stop for campers and other travellers coming to and from Saskatoon and Drumheller.
There is a small airport which serves the community, located a five kilometres east of town along Alberta Highway 9. Beiseker serves as a centre for local agricultural services including fertilizer, seed cleaning, soil testing. There is a local UFA outlet, a Canadian Malting Co. grain elevator serving farmers in the area. Local industries serve the oilpatch, there are many sites extracting natural gas in the immediate area surrounding Beiseker, as well as several major pipelines. Beiseker has a number of small businesses on its main street offering a variety of services, including a local credit union, grocery store and hair dressers, as well as several small restaurants; the Canadian office of Lampson International, a large international company specializing in construction cranes, is based in Beiseker. There is a biomedical incinerator based in Beiseker, which handles medical waste from hospitals in the province and abroad. William Samuel McGee lived for several years on a farm with his wife and daughter just outside Beiseker and is buried in the area.
His name was to be the inspiration for the poem The Cremation of Sam McGee by Robert W. Service. Several locations in and around Beiseker were featured in the filming of Ang Lee's Academy Award-winning film Brokeback Mountain, including the site of the'Twist Ranch' that figures in the penultimate scene of the film. In 2016, Beiseker was selected as a filming location for FX Network's show Fargo. In 2018, Beiseker hosted the production for the Netflix series Black Summer. In the early 1990s, the Village of Beiseker began promoting itself with the mascot, "Squirt the Skunk", which included promotional items such as pins and postcards. A "Squirt the Skunk" statue, 13 ft in height, was erected in the campground near Highway 72. In addition, a "Squirt the Skunk" costume was made so the mascot may appear at village events. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Village of Beiseker recorded a population of 819 living in 331 of its 338 total private dwellings, a 4.3% change from its 2011 population of 785.
With a land area of 2.85 km2, it had a population density of 287.4/km2 in 2016. In the 2011 Census, the Village of Beiseker had a population of 785 living in 323 of its 338 total dwellings, a -2.4% change from its 2006 population of 804. With a land area of 2.84 km2, it had a population density of 276.4/km2 in 2011. The population of the Village of Beiseker was 837 according to its 2008 municipal census. List of communities in Alberta List of villages in Alberta Official website
A heliport is an area of land, water, or structure used or intended to be used for the landing and takeoff of helicopters, includes its buildings and facilities. In other words, it is a small airport suitable for use by helicopters and some other vertical lift platforms. Designated heliports contain one or more touchdown and liftoff area and may have limited facilities such as fuel or hangars. In some larger towns and cities, customs facilities may be available. Early advocates of helicopters hoped that heliports would become widespread, but they have become contentious in urban areas due to the excessive noise caused by helicopter traffic. Other terms used to refer to a heliport are: Helistop - A term sometimes used to describe a minimally developed heliport for boarding and discharging passengers or cargo. Helipad - A term oftentimes confused with heliport or helistop; the only reference of this term in the U. S. by the FAA is found in the Aeronautical Information Manual Pilot/Controller Glossary of Terms, which says: A small, designated area with a prepared surface, on a heliport, landing/takeoff area, apron/ramp, or movement area used for takeoff, landing, or parking of helicopters.
In other words, the TLOF. Helideck - Used to describe the landing area on a vessel or offshore structure on which helicopters may land and take off; the airspace surrounding the heliport is called the Primary Surface. This area coincides in size with the designated take-off and landing area; this surface is a horizontal plane equal to the elevation of the established heliport elevation. The Primary Surface is further broken down into three distinct regions; these are, the Final Approach and Takeoff area and the Safety Area. The TLOF is a load-bearing paved area centered in the FATO, on which the helicopter lands and/or takes off; the FATO is a defined area over which the pilot completes the final phase of the approach to a hover or a landing and from which the pilot initiates takeoff. The FATO elevation is the lowest elevation of the edge of the TLOF; the Safety Area is a defined area on a heliport surrounding the FATO intended to reduce the risk of damage to helicopters accidentally diverging from the FATO.
In a large metropolitan and urban areas a heliport can serve passengers needing to move within the city or to outlying regions. Heliports can be situated closer to a town or city center than an airport for fixed-wing aircraft; the advantage in flying by helicopter to a destination or to the city's main airport is that travel can be much faster than driving. As an example, the Downtown Manhattan Heliport in New York City provides scheduled service to John F. Kennedy International Airport and is used to move wealthy persons and important goods to destinations as far away as Maryland; some skyscrapers feature rooftop heliports or helistops to serve the transport needs of executives or clients. Many of these rooftop sites serve as Emergency Helicopter Landing Facilities in case emergency evacuation is needed; the U. S. Bank Tower in Los Angeles is an example. Police departments use heliports as a base for police helicopters, larger departments may have a dedicated large heliport facility dedicated such as the LAPD Hooper Heliport.
Heliports are common features at hospitals where they serve to facilitate Helicopter Air Ambulance and MEDEVACs for transferring patients into and out of hospital facilities. Some large trauma centers have multiple heliports. Heliports allow hospitals to accept patients that may be flown in from remote accident sites where there are no local hospitals or facilities capable of providing the level of emergency care required; the National EMS Pilots Association has published multiple white papers and safety recommendations for the enhancement of hospital heliport operations to improve patient safety. While heliports can be oriented in any direction they will have definitive approach and departure paths. However, heliports are not numbered in the same way. Recommended standard practice by both the Federal Aviation Administration and the International Civil Aviation Organization is to orient an H in the center of the TLOF in line with the preferred approach/departure direction. An information box should be included in the TLOF area which provides the maximum gross weight the heliport is rated for as well as the maximum size helicopter the heliport has been designed to accommodated, based on the Rotor Diameter and Overall Length of the largest design helicopter that will service the heliport.
Under normal conditions it is standard practice to paint the maximum gross weight a heliport is designed to support in thousands of pounds. Along with the maximum helicopter dimensions in feet. Arrows are oftentimes painted on the heliport to indicate to pilots the preferred approach/departure paths. Other common markings can include radio frequencies, company logos and magnetic north. To conduct nighttime operations at a heliport it must have lighting installed that meets specific aeronautical standards. Heliport perimeter lights are installed around the TLOF area an may be flush mounted on the TLOF itself or mounted just off the TLOF perimeter on short metal or concrete extensions. One alternative to lighting the TLOF if certain criteria is met is to light the area of the FATO instead; some locations, due to environmental conditions, illuminate the TLOF and FATO. Lighting should never constitute an obstruction that a helicopter may impact and for this reason in the U. S. heliport lighting is not allowed to extend above the TLOF
Black Diamond, Alberta
Black Diamond is a sister town to Turner Valley. It has a hospital, shops and residences, elementary school, high school, hockey rink and a Boys and Girls Club. Black Diamond was so named on account of coal deposits near the original town site. Little oil or gas remains, it is located in the Municipal District of Foothills No. 31. Black Diamond is nestled in the foothills of the Canadian Rockies in the midst of some of Canada's best ranch country. A three-kilometer trail next to the roadway between Black Diamond and Turner Valley is named the Friendship Trail. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Town of Black Diamond recorded a population of 2,700 living in 1,098 of its 1,108 total private dwellings, a 13.8% change from its 2011 population of 2,373. With a land area of 3.84 km2, it had a population density of 703.1/km2 in 2016. In the 2011 Census, the Town of Black Diamond had a population of 2,373 living in 945 of its 1,001 total dwellings, a 24.9% change from its 2006 population of 1,900.
With a land area of 3.21 km2, it had a population density of 739.3/km2 in 2011. The population of the Town of Black Diamond according to its 2009 municipal census is 2,308. List of communities in Alberta List of towns in Alberta Official website
Banff is a town within Banff National Park in Alberta, Canada. It is located in Alberta's Rockies along the Trans-Canada Highway 126 km west of Calgary and 58 km east of Lake Louise. At 1,400 to 1,630 m above sea level, Banff is the community with the second highest elevation in Alberta, after Lake Louise; the Town of Banff was the first municipality to incorporate within a Canadian national park. The town is a member of the Calgary Regional Partnership. Banff is one of Canada's most popular tourist destinations. Known for its mountainous surroundings and hot springs, it is a destination for outdoor sports and features extensive hiking, biking and skiing destinations within the area. Sunshine Village, Ski Norquay and Lake Louise Ski Resort are the three nearby ski resorts located within the national park. Banff was first settled in the 1880s, after the transcontinental railway was built through the Bow Valley. In 1883, three Canadian Pacific Railway workers stumbled upon a series of natural hot springs on the side of Sulphur Mountain.
In 1885, Canada established a federal reserve of 26 km2 around the Cave and Basin hot springs, began promoting the area as an international resort and spa as a way to support the new railway. In 1887, the reserve area was increased to 673 km2 and named "Rocky Mountain Park"; this was the beginning of Canada's National Park system. The area was named Banff in 1884 by George Stephen, president of the Canadian Pacific Railway, recalling his birthplace in Banff, Scotland; the Canadian Pacific built a series of grand hotels along the rail line and advertised the Banff Springs Hotel as an international tourist resort. The Banff townsite was developed near the railway station as a service centre for tourists visiting the park, it was administered by the Government of Canada's national parks system until 1990 when the Town of Banff became the only incorporated municipality within a Canadian national park. An Internment camp was set up at Banff and Castle Mountain in Dominion Park from July 1915 to July 1917.
The prisoners of the internment camp were used as free labour to build the infrastructure of the national park. In 1985, the United Nations declared Banff National Park, as one of the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks, a World Heritage Site. Banff remains one of the most popular tourist destinations in Canada. One of the most notable figures of Banff was Norman Luxton, known as "Mr. Banff", he published the Crag and Canyon newspaper, built the King Edward Hotel and the Lux Theatre, founded the Sign of the Goat Curio Shop, which led to the development of the Luxton Museum of Plains Indians, now the Buffalo Nations Museum. He and his family helped organize the Banff Winter Carnival. In 1976, the International Astronomical Union's Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature adopted the name Banff for a crater on Mars, after the town in Alberta; the crater is at latitude 17.7 ° longitude 30.8 ° west. Its diameter is 5 km, it is surrounded by mountains, notably Mount Rundle, Sulphur Mountain, Mount Norquay, Cascade Mountain.
The town is above Bow Falls near the confluence of the Bow Spray River. Soils are calcareous and imperfectly to poorly drained in their natural state with textures from fine sandy loam to silty clay loam. Banff experiences a subarctic climate. Winter temperatures range from an average low of −13.3 °C to an average high of −0.2 °C. Summer temperatures in the warmest month are pleasant with an average high of 21.6 °C and an average low of 7.3 °C. Snow has been recorded in all months of the year; the annual snowfall averages 191.0 cm. The highest temperature recorded was 34.8 °C on August 10, 2018 during a great heat wave. The population of the Town of Banff according to its 2017 municipal census is 8,875, a change of 5.4% from its 2014 municipal census population of 8,421. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Town of Banff recorded a population of 7,851 living in 2,543 of its 2,729 total private dwellings, a 3.5% change from its 2011 population of 7,584. With a land area of 4.77 km2, Banff had a population density of 1,645.9/km2 in 2016.
In the 2011 Census, the Town of Banff had a population of 7,584 living in 2,565 of its 2,850 total dwellings, a 13.2% change from its 2006 population of 6,700. With a land area of 4.88 km2, it had a population density of 1,554.1/km2 in 2011. Parks Canada enforces requirements that individuals must meet in order to reside in the town, in order "to ensure that a broad supply of housing types are available for those who work and raise families in the community". There are a number of popular mountains located adjacent to the townsite which include Mount Rundle. Mount Norquay has a ski slope as well as mountain biking trails on the Stoney Squaw portion. A popular tourist attraction, the Banff Gondola, is available to ascend Sulphur Mountain where a boardwalk beginning from the upper terminal takes visitors to Sanson Peak. Sulphur Mountain is the location of one of Banff's most popular attractions, the Banff Upper Hot Springs. Lake Minnewanka located six minutes north of the townsite is a popular day use area with a variety of activities.
Mountain biking and fishing are all activities allowed in this part of the park. A popular Lake Cruise, motor boat rentals and a small food concession are available at the m
Alberta is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,067,175 as of 2016 census, it is Canada's fourth most populous province and the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces, its area is about 660,000 square kilometres. Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1, 1905; the premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015. Alberta is bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, the U. S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to border only a single U. S. state and one of only two landlocked provinces. It has a predominantly humid continental climate, with stark contrasts over a year. Alberta's capital, Edmonton, is near the geographic centre of the province and is the primary supply and service hub for Canada's crude oil, the Athabasca oil sands and other northern resource industries.
About 290 km south of the capital is the largest city in Alberta. Calgary and Edmonton centre Alberta's two census metropolitan areas, both of which have populations exceeding one million, while the province has 16 census agglomerations. Tourist destinations in the province include Banff, Drumheller, Sylvan Lake and Lake Louise. Alberta is named after the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. Princess Louise was the wife of Marquess of Lorne, Governor General of Canada. Lake Louise and Mount Alberta were named in her honour. Alberta, with an area of 661,848 km2, is the fourth-largest province after Quebec and British Columbia. To the south, the province borders on the 49th parallel north, separating it from the U. S. state of Montana, while to the north the 60th parallel north divides it from the Northwest Territories. To the east, the 110th meridian west separates it from the province of Saskatchewan, while on the west its boundary with British Columbia follows the 120th meridian west south from the Northwest Territories at 60°N until it reaches the Continental Divide at the Rocky Mountains, from that point follows the line of peaks marking the Continental Divide in a southeasterly direction until it reaches the Montana border at 49°N.
The province extends 660 km east to west at its maximum width. Its highest point is 3,747 m at the summit of Mount Columbia in the Rocky Mountains along the southwest border while its lowest point is 152 m on the Slave River in Wood Buffalo National Park in the northeast. With the exception of the semi-arid steppe of the south-eastern section, the province has adequate water resources. There are numerous lakes used for swimming, fishing and a range of water sports. There are three large lakes, Lake Claire in Wood Buffalo National Park, Lesser Slave Lake, Lake Athabasca which lies in both Alberta and Saskatchewan; the longest river in the province is the Athabasca River which travels 1,538 km from the Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains to Lake Athabasca. The largest river is the Peace River with an average flow of 2161 m3/s; the Peace River originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows through northern Alberta and into the Slave River, a tributary of the Mackenzie River.
Alberta's capital city, Edmonton, is located at about the geographic centre of the province. It is the most northerly major city in Canada, serves as a gateway and hub for resource development in northern Canada; the region, with its proximity to Canada's largest oil fields, has most of western Canada's oil refinery capacity. Calgary is about 280 km south of Edmonton and 240 km north of Montana, surrounded by extensive ranching country. 75% of the province's population lives in the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The land grant policy to the railroads served as a means to populate the province in its early years. Most of the northern half of the province is boreal forest, while the Rocky Mountains along the southwestern boundary are forested; the southern quarter of the province is prairie, ranging from shortgrass prairie in the southeastern corner to mixed grass prairie in an arc to the west and north of it. The central aspen parkland region extending in a broad arc between the prairies and the forests, from Calgary, north to Edmonton, east to Lloydminster, contains the most fertile soil in the province and most of the population.
Much of the unforested part of Alberta is given over either to grain or to dairy farming, with mixed farming more common in the north and centre, while ranching and irrigated agriculture predominate in the south. The Alberta badlands are located in southeastern Alberta, where the Red Deer River crosses the flat prairie and farmland, features deep canyons and striking landforms. Dinosaur Provincial Park, near Brooks, showcases the badlands terrain, desert flora, remnants from Alberta's past when dinosaurs roamed the lush landscape. Alberta has a humid continental climate with cold winters; the province is open to cold arctic weather systems from the north, which produce cold conditions in winter. As the fronts between the air masses shift north and south across Alberta, the temperature can change rapidly. Arctic
Bassano Health Centre
Bassano Health Centre is a medical facility located in Bassano, Alberta. Alberta Health Services is responsible for the operations of the hospital, it services the County of Newell along with Brooks Health Centre. The hospital contains 4 acute care beds, 1 palliative care bed, 8 continuing care beds and 1 respite care bed, it is staffed by two on two nurses. Charitable funding is provided by the District Health Foundation. Emergency Diagnostic imaging Inpatient medical care Long-Term Care Laboratory Physical therapy Respiratory therapy