Abbotsford, British Columbia
Abbotsford is a city located in British Columbia, adjacent to the Canada–United States border, Greater Vancouver and the Fraser River. With an estimated population of 141,397 people it is the largest municipality in the province outside Metro Vancouver. Abbotsford-Mission has the third highest proportion of visible minorities among census metropolitan areas in Canada, after the Greater Toronto Area and the Greater Vancouver CMA, it is home to Tradex, the University of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford International Airport. As of the 2016 census, it is the largest municipality of the Fraser Valley Regional District and the fifth-largest municipality of British Columbia; the Abbotsford–Mission metropolitan area of around 180,518 inhabitants as of the 2016 census is the 23rd largest census metropolitan area in Canada. It has been named by Statistics Canada as Canada's most generous city in terms of charitable donations for nine straight years; the community of 375.55 square kilometres is the largest city by area in British Columbia.
The municipality's southern boundary is the Canada–United States border. In Canada, it is bordered by the Township of Langley to the west, the District of Mission to the north, the City of Chilliwack to the east. Much of Abbotsford has views of the Coast Mountains. Abbotsford's colonial development began when the Royal Engineers surveyed the area in response to the gold rush along the Fraser River in 1858; this led to the building of the first transportation route to link the Fraser Valley. The settlement grew and the production of butter and tobacco began by the late 1860s. In 1889, former Royal Engineer John Cunningham Maclure applied for a Crown grant to obtain the 160 acres that would become Abbotsford. There is some controversy over the origin of the Abbotsford name; the most cited origin is that Maclure named the land "Abbotsford" after family friend Henry Braithwaite Abbott, the western superintendent of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Until 1922 the name was spelled Abottsford. Maclure's sons stated that the property had been named for Sir Walter Scott's home and pronounced it with the accent on ford, while in his years Maclure himself claimed that the naming had been "a combination of two ideas".
The title passed hands to Robert Ward, who filed a townsite subdivision on July 9, 1891. In 1891, the CPR built a railway line through the area that connected Mission with the Seattle, Lake Shore and Eastern Railway at Sumas, Washington; this route was the only rail connection between Vancouver and Seattle until 1904. The Village of Abbotsford was incorporated in 1892. At that time Robert Ward sold many of the lots to private investors, but sold off a significant portion to the Great Northern Railway's subsidiary company the Vancouver and Eastern Railway; the British Columbia Electric Railway arrived in 1910. The Interurban, as the BCER tram linking Abbotsford with Vancouver and Chilliwack was called, was discontinued in 1950, but BCER's successor BC Hydro retains the right to re-introduce passenger rail service. Service to Vancouver runs from neighbouring Mission by way of the West Coast Express; the most notable natural disaster to hit Abbotsford was a major flood of the Fraser River in 1948.
In September 1984 Pope John Paul II held an open-air mass for over 200,000 people at the Abbotsford International Airport. The amalgamation of the Village of Abbotsford and the District of Sumas into the District of Abbotsford occurred in 1972; the District of Abbotsford amalgamated with the District of Matsqui in 1995 to become the City of Abbotsford, raising the population significantly. In June 2013, the City of Abbotsford spread chicken manure on a homeless camp located in the city. Abbotsford Mayor Bruce Banman publicly apologized for the incident. A lawsuit was launched on behalf of some of the homeless, stating that a bylaw which prevents overnight camping in Abbotsford parks is against their right to shelter; the city has formed a homelessness action plan, has approved a proposal for a supportive housing facility. The city of Abbotsford has a long and ongoing history of gang-related crime and efforts to reduce it. Abbotsford City Council comprises a council-manager form of local government.
The mayor and council were elected on November 15, 2014. The mayor is Henry Braun. Councillors elected in 2014 were: Patricia Ross, Les Barkman, Moe Gill, Ross Siemens, Brenda Falk, Dave Loewen, Kelley Chahal, Sandy Blue. School trustees elected are: Cindy Schafer, Stan Petersen, Shirley Wilson, Rhonda Pauls, Preet S. Rai, Freddy Latham, Phil Anderson; the Abbotsford flag and coat of arms are the same, featuring straight, diagonal crosses representing Abbotsford as at a "crossroads". At the centre is a strawberry blossom to symbolize the local berry industry; the flag of Abbotsford was blue in colour. The change to green was initiated in 1995 when the District of Abbotsford and the District of Matsqui amalgamated to create the City of Abbotsford. According to the 2011 Census, 65.74% of Abbotsford's population have English as mother tongue. The Abbotsford metropolitan area has Canada's highest proportion of ethnic South Asians. In 2016, the City of Abbotsford had 35,310 South Asians, while the Abbotsford CMA had 38,250.
Bamfield is a community, surrounded by Crown Land, Indian Reserves, portions of the Pacific Rim National Park, located on Barkley Sound, Vancouver Island in British Columbia. The community, with a population of 179 as of 2016, is divided by Bamfield Inlet. Bamfield was populated by Huu-ay-aht of the local indigenous people. Europeans founded a small fishing community sometime in the late 1800s. Most of the indigenous people now live in the neighbouring village of Anacla about 5 kilometres from Bamfield. Bamfield was named after the first government agent of William Eddy Banfield; the name "Bamfield" with an "m" is said to be either due to how the local first nations people had trouble pronouncing the letter n in his name, or a mistake made by the postal organization. In 1902, the Bamfield cable station was constructed as the western terminus of a worldwide undersea telegraph cable called by some the All Red Line as it passed only through countries and territories controlled by the British Empire, which were coloured red on the map.
The cable went to Fanning Island, a tiny coral atoll in the mid-Pacific, from there continued to Fiji, New Zealand, Australia. A second building, made of concrete, was built on the site in 1926 to replace the old wood structure; this building, designated a historic site in 1930, is now used by the Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre. A Marine and Fisheries lifesaving station on the Pacific coast was established at Bamfield in 1907, it was the first lifesaving station on Canada's Pacific Coast. In 1953 the cable was extended up the Alberni Inlet to Port Alberni and the local station was closed on June 20, 1959. Following the closure, only the large concrete building, two cable storage tanks and an adjacent building survived, as all the rest were demolished. In 1968, the National Research Council asked five western Canadian universities to propose the best location for a marine biology station on the Pacific Coast. Although Victoria was the earlier winner, a feasibility study tendered in 1969 recommended Bamfield as the better location.
The former cable station property was purchased in 1969 and a formal structure for the management and development of the station was created in 1970 when the five universities ratified a Constitution and joined the Western Canadian Universities Marine Biological Society. In 1971, development began to convert the site into a research station. With most of the physical facilities completed, the Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre began operations by the end of 1972, it became the largest employer in the community since. Commercial fishing was based in Bamfield up to the mid-1980s. Bamfield is now home to several sport fishing lodges, which pursue salmon and halibut. Bamfield is the northern terminus of the West Coast Trail, a hiking trail built in 1907 along the west coast of Vancouver Island to help survivors of the area's many shipwrecks find their way back to civilization; the trail runs 77 kilometres along rugged terrain. Today Bamfield is a tourist destination, either for the West Coast Trail, ocean kayaking or sport fishing.
The research activities at the Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre attracts hundreds of researchers every year. The Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre offers credited university courses through its five associated universities. An out reach program, which provides multi-day immersion field trips for school and adult learners bring thousands of visitors to the community every year; the town is featured in the first episode of CBC Television's 2015 comedy/reality series Still Standing. Bamfield experiences an oceanic climate. Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre Bamfield Marine Station Bamfield Chamber of Commerce Community Portal "Bamfield". BC Geographical Names
Campbell River, British Columbia
Campbell River or Wiwek̓a̱m is a coastal city in British Columbia on the east coast of Vancouver Island at the south end of Discovery Passage, which lies along the important Inside Passage shipping route. Campbell River has a population of 35,138 and has long been touted as "the Salmon Capital of the World". Campbell River and Region is in close proximity to the neighboring communities of Quadra and the Discovery Islands, Oyster River, Gold River and Zeballos; the first settlers known in the area were members of the Island Comox and related Coast Salish peoples. During the 18th century a migration of Kwakwaka'wakw people of the Wakashan cultural and linguistic group migrated south from the area of Fort Rupert and established themselves in the Campbell River area, at first enslaving and absorbing the Comox, became infamous as raiders of the Coast Salish peoples farther south, known to history as the Euclataws, spelled Yucultas and is a variant on their name for themselves, the Laich-kwil-tach, Lekwiltok or Legwildok.
Of this group known as the Southern Kwakiutl, there are two subdivisions, the Wekayi or Weiwaikai of the Cape Mudge Indian Band on Quadra Island and the Weiwaikum of the Campbell River Band located in and around the city of Campbell River. Captain George Vancouver reached Campbell River in 1792 aboard the ships HMS Discovery and HMS Chatham; the channel between Quadra Island and Campbell River is named Discovery Passage after HMS Discovery. The captain and his botanist, Mr Archibald Menzies, discovered a small tribe of 350 natives who spoke the Salish language. A Lekwiltok war party armed with European rifles, paddled south from Johnstone Strait in the middle of the 19th century and were in control of the area when HMS Plumper came through on a cartography mission under Captain George Henry Richards around 1859. Dr Samuel Campbell was the ship surgeon, historians believe his name was given to the river by Richards; the community took the name of "Campbell River" when its post office was constructed in 1907.
The name of HMS Discovery's First Lieutenant Zachary Mudge is preserved in the nearby Cape Mudge. Sports fishermen travelled to the area as early as the 1880s after the tales from anglers such as Sir Richard Musgrave and Sir John Rogers; the formation of the Campbell River Tyee Club in 1924, over concern regarding over-fishing of the salmon stocks, served to popularize the area among fishermen. E. P. Painter, for instance, moved to Campbell River the following year and opened his Painter's Lodge in 1929. Painter's Lodge attracted clientele from Hollywood and regular patrons included Bob Hope and Bing Crosby. Commercial fishing was a large industry for many years; the town's magistrate Roderick Haig-Brown purchased a fishing cabin on Campbell River and wrote a number of books on fly fishing for both sport fishermen and conservationists. Industrial logging took off in the 1920s with Merrill Ring and Company, Bloedel and Welch and Comox Logging. A large forest fire started near Buttle Lake and burned much of the valley in 1938.
Rock Bay, Menzies Bay, Englewood all were big logging camps. After 1912, Campbell River became a supply point for northern Vancouver Island, Quadra Island and Cortes Island; the E and N Railway was surveyed to Campbell River, yet it only reached Courtenay, forty miles south. After the Second World War, Campbell River became a boom town and industrial centre with the building of the John Hart Dam, Elk Falls pulp mill, nearby mills in Tahsis and Gold River. Logging and mining in the area prospered. There is a lead zinc mine nearby, coal mines, while a large copper mine operated to the north. In recent years Campbell River, about half-way up Vancouver Island, has continued to mark the boundary between the more developed south and the wild and natural areas in the northern part of the island. Local fish hatcheries help to maintain salmon stocks for the fishing industry. Campbell River has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate Csb; the most precipitation is measured at 231 millimeters on average. January tends to see 152 millimeters on average.
In the winter months occasional Arctic bursts from the interior of British Columbia can make their way onto the coast bringing temperatures below freezing. If a Pacific low reaches the coast a large snowfall can occur. Snowfalls in excess of 45 centimetres have been recorded in a 24-hour period and the greatest snowfall was 53.3 centimetres in 1978. Campbell River has a variety of growing industries and small businesses suitable to an oceanside community; as of 2012 the focus of business is directed towards aquaculture, clean energy development, creative industries, fishing, health care, international education, mining and tourism. While logging continues to be a source of employment in the area, since Elk Falls Mill, one of the largest employers in the area, shut down in 2009. There have been many cases of former mill employees moving away to other places with higher demands for a similar labour force Fort McMurray, Alberta. Public schools are administered by School District 72 Campbell River.
North Island College has a campus in Campbell River. Campbell River has developed a new international program accepting students from Germany and various other countries across Europe, South America and Asia. Along with School District 72, there is a private K
Bella Coola Airport
Bella Coola Airport, is located 6 nautical miles northeast of Bella Coola, British Columbia, Canada. This airport is limited to Day/VFR operations. Weather reports are available most days until 3PM local time by contacting Kamloops Flight Service. Page about this airport on COPA's Places to Fly airport directory Accident history for QBC at Aviation Safety Network Past three hours METARs, SPECI and current TAFs for Bella Coola Airport from Nav Canada as available
Burns Lake is a rural village in the North-Central Interior of British Columbia, incorporated in 1923. The village has a population of 1,779 according to the 2016 Census; the Village is renowned for its rich First Nations heritage, for its extensive network of mountain biking trails, which have received international acclaim by becoming Canada's first IMBA Ride Centre. In winter, cross country skiing trails and snowmobile wilderness trails are created. Burns Lake is located in the midst of a large networks of lakes called the Lakes District, with fishing and hunting year round, water activities in the summer months. There are two First Nations reserves that are part of the town, another four nearby, making it one of the few communities in the province that have equal populations of persons of native or European descent. Local nations include Wet'suwet'en First Nation, Lake Babine Nation, Cheslatta Band, Ts'il Kaz Koh First Nation, Skin Tyee band and Nee Tahi Buhn band; the town serves as a hub for the local logging, saw-milling and tourist industries.
It serves as the main commercial centre for the surrounding area including Francois Lake, Grassy Plains, Rose Lake and Granisle. There are three pubs, many cafes and restaurants a selection of stores and services, numerous hotels and motels, a library and a hospital, it is the location of the head offices of the Regional District of Bulkley-Nechako. Burns Lake's first inhabitants were the Carrier First Nations communities that spanned much of the Lakes District and beyond. Burns Lake itself began as a small rest stop for travelers on their way to the Yukon Gold Rush. Many of these travelers spotted opportunity in the rich forestry and mining opportunities in Burns Lake and the surrounding area. Burns Lake acquired its name after Michael Byrnes, an explorer for the Collins Overland Telegraph scheme. Byrnes passed Burns lake in about 1866 while surveying a route from Fort Fraser to Hagwilget. Recent research indicates that Byrnes was a miner during the Cariboo Gold Rush and had staked a claim on William's Creek earlier, in 1861.
On the 1866 trail map of the area, the name'Byrnes' Lake appears. Bob Gerow, one of the main founders of Burns Lake, entered into partnership with Jack Seely and Howard Laidlaw to create Burns Lake Trading Company. Together, they built a store/hotel and a sawmill on Gerow Island, which would become the hub of trade for the surrounding area; the Village was incorporated on December 6, 1923. The first Mayor was G. M Gerow; the first newspaper in Burns Lake was called the Observer and edited by Sidney Godwin. In the late 1950s, another newspaper called the Observer, was operated by Ralph Vipond, it closed in 1961. The town continued to grow throughout the 20th century, its current industries have become forestry and tourism, though many workers commute to jobs in the mining industry. Burns Lake received nationwide attention on January 20, 2012, when an explosion destroyed Babine Forest Products, a wood mill, one of the town's primary employers. A number of historic buildings still stand including: First built in 1933 by the Women's Missionary Society of the United Church of Canada, the hospital was opened by Canada's former Governor General Lord Tweedsmuir.
Once the largest and finest public buildings between Prince George and Prince Rupert, it was famous for its fine gardens. It was occupied by a senior citizens apartment complex declared a heritage building in 1982 and redeveloped as an office building by its owner, the Burns Lake Native Development Corporation. Located adjacent to the Burns Lake Museum, this square-cut log building is a former fur trade post which became a gambling den. Due to the nature of gambling, fights broke out in the building, it now contains a display of historical artifacts from the life of Craig Wafflehouse, one of the founders of Burns Lake. Burns Lake has a humid continental climate with cold winters. Average winter snowfall is 190 cm. In June 1982 Burns Lake recorded 376.5 hours of sunshine. This is most sunshine recorded in British Columbia during the month of June. Burns Lake is located on Highway 16. Major commercial airlines fly into Smithers Airport, 150 km west of Burns Lake, as well as Prince George Airport, 230 km east of Burns Lake.
Via Rail's Jasper – Prince Rupert train calls at the Burns Lake railway station several times per week. Greyhound had a regular bus service through the area. A ferry is available to cross Francois Lake, directly below Burns Lake; the ferry is used to get to Grassy Plains. Lakes District Secondary School - Public High school Grades 8-12 Murial Mould Primary School -Public Primary School Grades K-3 William Konkin Elementary School - Public Elementary School Grades 4-7 Decker Lake Elementary School - Public Elementary School Grades K-7 Grassy Plains Elementary School - Public Elementary School Grades K-10 Francois Lake Elementary Secondary School - Public Elementary/Secondary School K-7 College of New Caledonia - Public Adult Learning facility Burns Lake is surrounded by a rich First Nations culture. There are six First Nations Groups in the area: Burns Lake Band Cheslatta Carrier Nation Lake Babine Nation Nee Tahi Buhn Skin Tyee Wet'suwet'en First Nation The Lakes District Arts Council holds several arts events every year, bringing in acts from all over the globe with a variety of different types of performances including, theatre, a variety of other performances.
Burns Lake hosts annual Performing Arts and Alternative Arts Festivals, drawing talent and audiences from across the region. Burns Lake
Cordero Channel is a strait in British Columbia, located between the mainland and Vancouver Island, among the Discovery Islands north of the Strait of Georgia. Cordero Channel runs north of Sonora Island, East Thurlow Island, part of West Thurlow Island, its eastern end connects at Stuart Island. Its west end is marked by the mouth of Loughborough Inlet, beyond which the channel is called Chancellor Channel, which continues west to Johnstone Strait. There are four tidal rapids along Cordero Channel; the first is either Yuculta Rapids or Arran Rapids, depending on whether the channel is entered on the north or west side of Stuart Island. The following rapids from east to west are Gillard Passage Rapids, Dent Rapids, Greene Point Rapids. Cordero Channel was named Canal de Cardero in 1792 during the Spanish expedition of Dionisio Alcalá Galiano and Cayetano Valdés y Flores, in honor of José Cardero, the expedition's artist and draftsman. Cardero sailed on the Mexicana, he had sailed with Alessandro Malaspina from Spain on board the corvette Descubierta as a servant.
After one of the official artists left Malaspina's expedition in Peru, Cardero began producing drawings and was confirmed as an artist of the expedition in Mexico, in 1791. Like Galiano and Valdés, part of the Malaspina expedition, Cardero was detached from Malaspina's main mission in order to explore the Strait of Georgia. After they returned to Mexico, Cardero assisted Galiano in preparing reports and engravings; the name Canal de Cardero changed over time to the present form, Cordero Channel, expanded in geographic scope to include a larger area. The form "Cardero" survives in the name of Cardero Street in Vancouver's West End. There is a small fishing lodge named Camp Cordero located at the North end of the Channel; the 1792 Spanish expedition of Galiano and Valdés used the term Canal de Cardero for only one part of today's Cordero Channel, that being the portion west of Phillips Arm. Their names for other parts of today's Cordero Channel include Canal de Remolinos, Angostura de los Commandantes, Canal de Carbajal, Canal del Engaño, Canal de Olavide.
Near Arran Rapids, which today marks the eastern end of Cordero Channel, the Spanish found a large village whose inhabitants were friendly. They warned the Spanish not to proceed through Arran Rapids because of strong currents and whirlpools; when the tide slackened the Spanish ships as well as a number of indigenous canoes passed through, entering Cordero Channel. By use of signs the natives indicated. After making this discovery the Spanish returned to their base of operations where they met with the British expedition of George Vancouver for the last time before rejoining at Nootka Sound; the Spanish told Vancouver of their discovery of a passage to the sea and their intention to follow it. Soon after, a British scouting boat returned; the two expeditions parted ways shortly afterwards, on July 13, 1792, with the British sailing through Discovery Passage and Johnstone Strait, while the Spanish went via Cordero Channel, Chancellor Channel, Wellbore Channel. According to Galiano's report, Vancouver considered Cordero Channel too dangerous for his ships.
From their anchorage between West Redonda Island and Cortes Island, the Spanish set sail for Cordero Channel on July 13, 1792. They sailed up Calm Channel and around the east side of Stuart Island before reaching Arran Rapids, the entrance of Cordero Channel, on July 18, they were set back several times. On July 19 they met another group of indigenous people who were catching large quantities of fish in the strait. With some guidance from the natives the Spanish came to better understand the nature of the currents and made a plan for passing through; when the tidal current slackened in the afternoon the Spanish ships entered, yet the current was still swift enough to render the ships incapable of steering. At one point Galiano's ship, the Sutil, managed to escape. In the late evening, somewhere near Dent Island, they anchored in a cove, which they gave the name Anclage del Refugio, they named the first part of Cordero Channel Angostura de Carvajal and Canal de Carvajal, in honor of Ciriaco Gonzales Carvajal, an auditor of the Spanish Navy in Mexico.
The Spanish had difficulty passing Dent Rapids managing to do so on July 23. They were again visited by indigenous canoes of the same natives they had met at Arran Rapids; the natives again provided guidance regarding the currents and suggested a route the Spanish ships should take. In addition the natives made maps for the Spanish, showing which channels were closed inlets and which were straits that led to the sea; the maps were made by placing books on pencils on a piece of paper. Having reached the northern end of Nodales Channel between Sonora Island and East Thurlow Island, the Spanish decided to continue west along today's Cordero Channel, they called this section of the channel Canal del Engaño. They entered it on July 26 and made quick progress to another section of Cordero Channel they called Canal de Olavide, they were carried by the current into the section they called Canal de Cardero, unable to steer or make way with oars. At the end of the day they were able to anchor at the mouth of Loughborough Inlet (Canal
Bella Coola, British Columbia
Bella Coola is a community in the Bella Coola Valley, in British Columbia, Canada. Bella Coola refers to the entire valley, encompassing the settlements of Bella Coola proper, Lower Bella Coola, Salloompt, Nusatsum and Stuie, it is the location of the head offices of the Central Coast Regional District. The entire Bella Coola Valley had a population of 2,010 as of the 2016 census; this was an increase of 5% from the 2011 census, when the population was 1,919. The primary geographical structure of the community, both in terms of physical structures and population distribution, is the long, narrow Bella Coola River valley. Highway 20 stretches from the Government wharf through the extent of the populated portion of the valley before climbing to the Chilcotin Plateau, the entire population of the community lives either on this road or near to it. In recent years, the mountainous terrain around the Bella Coola Valley has become a publicized destination for heliskiing, with a number of skiing movies filmed in the area and one local company advertising access to 1,500,000 acres of terrain.
"Bella Coola" is a corruption of the Heiltsuk bḷ́xʷlá, meaning "somebody from Bella Coola". Bella Coola's climate is a moderate oceanic climate due to its proximity to the Pacific Ocean, but its summers are warmer than coastal places much further south due to its semi-inland position; the maritime air is made warmer by the passage of the outer islands, but is stronger in terms of winter moderation. This results in a climate. There is a strong drying tendency in summer, but remains above the dry-summer climates that are referred to as cs climates; the highest temperature recorded in Bella Coola was 41.2 °C on 30 July 2009. The coldest temperature recorded was −28.9 °C on 15 January 1950. There is a 454 km paved road connection by Highway 20 to Williams Lake; the road was built in 1953 by local residents, features a 15 km ascent from the Valley floor to the Chilcotin plateau, gaining 1600m in elevation to the summit at Heckman Pass, via a number of steep grades & switchbacks. The construction of this road was described in the books "Bella Coola" and "A Road Runs West".
Bella Coola is served by the Bella Coola Airport, 14 km distant from the townsite which has a 1,280 metre asphalt runway. Pacific Coastal Airlines offers scheduled traffic to Anahim Lake. Charter services by both plane and helicopter are available. BC Ferries provides a vehicle/passenger service in the summer to Port Hardy on the northern tip of Vancouver Island; the voyage includes two connecting ferries: the Nimpkish from Bella Coola to Bella Bella the Northern Expedition to Port Hardy. Reservations are essential as the Nimpkish operates about twice a week. Travellers should be aware that Nimpkish has no amenities and the trip takes 9.5 hours, plus 7 hours on the Northern Expedition. In 2014, the large ferry Queen of Chilliwack which had provided direct service between Bella Coola and Port Hardy since 1995 was cancelled due to provincial government cutbacks. In 2017, BC Ferries announced the purchase of a 150 passenger, 35-vehicle vessel to again provide direct service between Port Hardy & Bella Coola starting 19 June 2018.
During the rest of the year, ferry service is provided twice a month and connects Bella Coola to the outlying coastal communities of Bella Bella and Ocean Falls, with passengers able to transfer at McLoughlin Bay to a ferry serving either Prince Rupert and Klemtu, or Port Hardy. The sailing schedule varies throughout the season; the Nuxalk people were present in the Bella Coola valley prior to any formal written history of the area. This is confirmed both by oral history that continues unbroken to present day, by written history of some of the first European explorers of the area. In 1793, Alexander MacKenzie arrived from the east, completing the first recorded crossing of the continent north of Mexico. Immigration to the region was sporadic and temporary for the next century. A Hudson's Bay fur trading post was set up at the mouth of the river, a handful of farmers were granted land farther up the valley; the trading trails of the Nuxalk and neighbouring nations became a popular route from the Pacific Ocean to central British Columbia during the Cariboo Gold Rush of the 1860s.
In the 1870s, the valley was surveyed as a potential Pacific terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway. In 1894, after their previously-existing community in Minnesota suffered an internal conflict, a group of Norwegian Lutheran settlers were given land grants in the valley, conditional upon land clearing and the construction of residences; the land they were granted, as well as other land granted to individuals was, in many cases, land, occupied by Nuxalk communities only a few decades earlier. However, a smallpox epidemic had decimated the Nuxalk population, the survivors had, for the most part, gathered on land close to the mouth of the river; the Norwegian settlement was named Hagensborg and remains one of the main communities of the Bella Coola Valley. Although much of the Norwegian colony's population did migrate away, others stayed to work in forestry and in t