A Heliport is by definition an area of land, water, or structure used or intended to be used for the landing and takeoff of helicopters, and includes its buildings and facilities. In other words, it is an airport suitable for use by helicopters. Designated heliports typically contain one or more touchdown and liftoff area, in some larger towns and cities, customs facilities may be available. Early advocates of helicopters hoped that heliports would become widespread, other terms used to refer to a heliport are, Helistop - A term sometimes used to describe a minimally developed heliport for boarding and discharging passengers or cargo. Helipad - A term oftentimes confused with heliport or helistop, the only reference of this term in the U. S. Helideck - Used to describe the area on a vessel or offshore structure on which helicopters may land. The airspace immediately surrounding the heliport is called the Primary Surface and this area coincides in shape and size with the designated take-off and landing area.
This surface is a horizontal plane equal to the elevation of the established heliport elevation, the Primary Surface is further broken down into three distinct regions. These are, the Touchdown and Liftoff area, the Final Approach and Takeoff area, the TLOF is a load-bearing, generally paved area, normally centered in the FATO, on which the helicopter lands and/or takes off. The FATO is an area over which the pilot completes the final phase of the approach to a hover or a landing. The FATO elevation is the lowest elevation of the edge of the TLOF, the Safety Area is a defined area on a heliport surrounding the FATO intended to reduce the risk of damage to helicopters accidentally diverging from the FATO. In a large metropolitan and urban areas a heliport can serve passengers needing to move within the city or to outlying regions. Generally heliports can be situated closer to a town or city center than an airport for fixed-wing aircraft, the advantage in flying by helicopter to a destination or even to the citys main airport is that travel can be much faster than driving.
Some skyscrapers feature rooftop heliports or helistops to serve the needs of executives or clients. Many of these sites serve as Emergency Helicopter Landing Facilities in case emergency evacuation is needed. Bank Tower in Los Angeles is an example, police departments use heliports as a base for police helicopters, and larger departments may have a dedicated large heliport facility dedicated such as the LAPD Hooper Heliport. Heliports are common features at hospitals where they serve to facilitate Helicopter Air Ambulance and MEDEVACs for transferring patients into, some large trauma centers have multiple heliports while most small hospitals have just one. The National EMS Pilots Association has published multiple white papers, while heliports can be oriented in a any direction they will have generally have very definitive approach and departure paths
The Village of Nakusp /nəˈkʌsp/ is a village located on the shores of Upper Arrow Lake, a portion of the Columbia River, in the West Kootenay region of British Columbia. It has a population of around 1,574, and it is primarily for its nearby hot springs. The area around Nakusp was occupied by peoples from the Secwepemc, Sinixt. In 1811, the first reported European explorer on the Arrow Lakes was Finan McDonald, European settlers arrived in 1890, and the settlement took shape in 1892 with opening of the first post office, the first store and the first sawmill. The nearest train link was the CPR at Revelstoke, so all goods were shipped to the port of Nakusp. In 1954, the last of the sternwheelers, the Minto, was retired, the construction of the Keenleyside Dam north of Castlegar in 1968 and the resulting rise of the lake level caused the rearrangement of the village and its waterfront. Mining was historically the most important industry in the area, Nakusp has a recreational centre that consists of an ice rink, squash court, curling rink and an auditorium as well as outdoor tennis courts and a soccer field around a five-hectare park.
Arrow Lakes Hospital serves the village and surrounding communities, there is an elementary school, a high school, and a campus of Selkirk College. The schools are part of School District 10 Arrow Lakes which has its office in Nakusp. The area provides opportunities for recreation, including the Summit Lake Ski Hill. Nakusp is home to a community station, CJHQ-FM. In 2004 the village held its first Nakusp Music Fest, which proved to be a popular attraction and it was known as the Interiors largest classic rock festival, although classic rock isnt the only genre being played. The Nakusp Music Festival is no running, coming to an end in 2011. Brad Larsen is a ice hockey left winger who played several seasons in the National Hockey League. Steamboats of the Arrow Lakes Village of Nakusp Nakusp Hot Springs Halcyon Hot Springs Nakusp & District Chamber of Commerce and Visitor Centre
International Civil Aviation Organization
The International Civil Aviation Organization, is a specialized agency of the United Nations. It codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of air transport to ensure safe. Its headquarters are located in the Quartier International of Montreal, Quebec, ICAO defines the protocols for air accident investigation followed by transport safety authorities in countries signatory to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. The Air Navigation Commission is the body within ICAO. The Commission is composed of 19 Commissioners, nominated by the ICAOs contracting states, Commissioners serve as independent experts, who although nominated by their states, do not serve as state or political representatives. The development of Aviation Standards and Recommended Practices is done under the direction of the ANC through the process of ICAO Panels. Once approved by the Commission, standards are sent to the Council, the forerunner to ICAO was the International Commission for Air Navigation.
It held its first convention in 1903 in Berlin, Germany, at the second convention in 1906, held in Berlin,27 countries attended. The third convention, held in London in 1912 allocated the first radio callsigns for use by aircraft, ICAN continued to operate until 1945. Fifty-two countries signed the Convention on International Civil Aviation, known as the Chicago Convention, in Chicago, Illinois, on 7 December 1944. Under its terms, a Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization was to be established, accordingly, PICAO began operating on 6 June 1945, replacing ICAN. The 26th country ratified the Convention on 5 March 1947 and, consequently PICAO was disestablished on 4 April 1947 and replaced by ICAO, in October 1947, ICAO became an agency of the United Nations linked to the United Nations Economic and Social Council. In April 2013 Qatar offered to serve as the new permanent seat of the Organization, according to the Globe and Mail, Qatars move was at least partly motivated by the pro-Israel foreign policy of Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper.
Approximately one month later, Qatar withdrew its bid after a proposal to the ICAOs governing council to move the ICAO triennial conference to Doha was defeated by a vote of 22–14. The 9th edition of the Convention on International Civil Aviation includes modifications from 1948 up to year 2006, ICAO refers to its current edition of the Convention as the Statute, and designates it as ICAO Document 7300/9. The Convention has 19 Annexes that are listed by title in the article Convention on International Civil Aviation, as of March 2016, there are 191 ICAO members, consisting of 190 of the 193 UN members, plus the Cook Islands. Liechtenstein has delegated Switzerland to implement the treaty to make it applicable in the territory of Liechtenstein, Taiwan attended the 38th Session of the ICAO Assembly in 2013, but in 2016 was denied such an invitation, despite expressions of support from the United States for Taiwan to participate. However, the Republic of China under the name of Chinese Taipei is a member of International Air Transport Association, the Council of ICAO is elected by the Assembly every 3 years and consists of 36 members elected in 3 categories
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, with a population of more than four million people located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. British Columbia is a component of the Pacific Northwest and the Cascadia bioregion, along with the U. S. states of Idaho, Oregon and Alaska. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Port Moody is named after him, in 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, and Victoria became the united colonys capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the province of Canada. Its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu, the capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for the Queen who created the original European colonies. The largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, in October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371.
British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871, First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties and the question of Aboriginal Title, the Tsilhqotin Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the recent Supreme Court of Canada decision. BCs economy is diverse, with service producing industries accounting for the largest portion of the provinces GDP and it is the endpoint of transcontinental railways, and the site of major Pacific ports that enable international trade. Though less than 5% of its vast 944,735 km2 land is arable and its climate encourages outdoor recreation and tourism, though its economic mainstay has long been resource extraction, principally logging and mining. Vancouver, the provinces largest city and metropolitan area, serves as the headquarters of many western-based natural resource companies and it benefits from a strong housing market and a per capita income well above the national average.
The Northern Interior region has a climate with very cold winters. The climate of Vancouver is by far the mildest winter climate of the major Canadian cities, the provinces name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i. e. the Mainland, became a British colony in 1858. The current southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, British Columbias land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbias rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres and it is the only province in Canada that borders the Pacific Ocean. British Columbias capital is Victoria, located at the tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of the Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is significantly populated, much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by thick and sometimes impenetrable temperate rainforest
Ontario, one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada, is located in east-central Canada. It is Canadas most populous province by a margin, accounting for nearly 40 percent of all Canadians. Ontario is fourth-largest in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and it is home to the nations capital city and the nations most populous city, Toronto. There is only about 1 km of land made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes divided into two regions, Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario. The great majority of Ontarios population and arable land is located in the south, in contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and is heavily forested. The province is named after Lake Ontario, a thought to be derived from Ontarí, io, a Huron word meaning great lake, or possibly skanadario. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes, the province consists of three main geographical regions, The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario.
Although this area mostly does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes, Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions, Northwestern Ontario and Northeastern Ontario. The virtually unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the north and northeast, mainly swampy. Southern Ontario which is further sub-divided into four regions, Central Ontario, Eastern Ontario, Golden Horseshoe, the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level located in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands, the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. A well-known geographic feature is Niagara Falls, part of the Niagara Escarpment, the Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario.
Northern Ontario occupies roughly 87 percent of the area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario that is the southernmost extent of Canadas mainland, Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend slightly farther. All are south of 42°N – slightly farther south than the border of California. The climate of Ontario varies by season and location, the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend mainly on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontarios climate is classified as humid continental, Ontario has three main climatic regions
Canada Flight Supplement
The Canada Flight Supplement is a joint civil/military publication and is a supplement of the Aeronautical Information Publication. It is the official airport directory. It contains information on all registered Canadian and certain Atlantic aerodromes, the CFS is published, separately in English and French, as a paper book by Nav Canada and is issued once every 56 days on the ICAO AIRAC schedule. The CFS was published by Natural Resources Canada on behalf of Transport Canada, the CFS presents runway data and departure procedures, air traffic control and other radio frequencies and services such as fuel, hangarage that are available at each listed aerodrome. As well, the CFS contains useful reference pages, including instructions for civil aircraft, chart updating data and search. Most pilots flying in Canada carry a copy of the CFS in case a weather or mechanical diversion to another airport becomes necessary, the Canada Flight Supplement is made up of seven sections, Special Notices — list of new or amended procedures.
General Section — glossary, airport code listing, list of abandoned aerodromes, Aerodrome/Facility Directory — list all aerodromes alphabetically by the community in which they are located. A sketch of the airport is included showing runway layout, locations of buildings, included in the sketch is an obstacle clearance circle. Radio Navigation and Communications — listing of radio navigation aids and communication outlets, together all known commercial AM broadcasters and their locations. Military Flight Data and Procedures — military flight and reporting procedures for Canada, emergency — emergency procedures and guidelines for hijacks, fuel dumping and rescue, etc. This Canadian Aviation Regulation does not specifically require carriage of a copy of the CFS, because information in the CFS may be out of date, particularly with regard to such issues as runway closures and fuel availability, pilots should check NOTAMs before each flight. NOTAM information in Canada can be obtained from the Nav Canada Aviation Weather Website or by contacting the appropriate regional Nav Canada Flight Information Centre, Nav Canada publishes the Water Aerodrome Supplement, as a single volume in English and French.
This contains information on all Canadian water aerodromes as shown on visual flight rules charts, the WAS is published on an annual basis. Airport/Facility Directory – U. S. publications roughly equivalent to the Aerodrome/Facility and Planning chapters of the CFS, but divided into several volumes covering different regions
Alberta is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,196,457 as of July 1,2015, it is Canadas fourth-most populous province and its area is about 660,000 square kilometres. Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1,1905, the premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015. Alberta is bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, and the U. S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to only a single U. S. state and one of only two landlocked provinces. About 290 km south of the capital is Calgary, the largest city in Alberta and Edmonton centre Albertas two census metropolitan areas, both of which have populations exceeding one million, while the province has 16 census agglomerations. Tourist destinations in the province include Banff, Drumheller, Alberta is named after Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Victoria, Queen of Canada, and Albert, Prince Consort.
Princess Louise was the wife of John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne, Lake Louise and Mount Alberta were named in her honour. Alberta, with an area of 661,848 km2, is the fourth largest province after Quebec and British Columbia. To the south, the borders on the 49th parallel north, separating it from the US state of Montana. The province extends 1,223 km north to south and 660 km east to west at its maximum width, with the exception of the semi-arid steppe of the south-eastern section, the province has adequate water resources. There are numerous rivers and lakes used for swimming, there are three large lakes, Lake Claire in Wood Buffalo National Park, Lesser Slave Lake, and Lake Athabasca which lies in both Alberta and Saskatchewan. The longest river in the province is the Athabasca River which travels 1,538 km from the Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains to Lake Athabasca, the largest river is the Peace River with an average flow of 2161 m3/s. The Peace River originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows through northern Alberta and into the Slave River, Albertas capital city, Edmonton, is located approximately in the geographic centre of the province.
It is the most northerly city in Canada, and serves as a gateway. The region, with its proximity to Canadas largest oil fields, has most of western Canadas oil refinery capacity, Calgary is located approximately 280 km south of Edmonton and 240 km north of Montana, surrounded by extensive ranching country. Almost 75% of the population lives in the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The land grant policy to the served as a means to populate the province in its early years
Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province of Canada. Situated in the countrys Atlantic region, it comprises the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador to the northwest, in 2013, the provinces population was estimated at 526,702. About 92% of the population lives on the island of Newfoundland. The province is Canadas most linguistically homogeneous, with 97. 6% of residents reporting English as their mother tongue in the 2006 census, Newfoundland was home to unique varieties of French and Irish, as well as the extinct Beothuk language. In Labrador, local dialects of Innu-aimun and Inuktitut are spoken and Labradors capital and largest city, St. Johns, is Canadas 20th-largest census metropolitan area and is home to almost 40 percent of the provinces population. St. Johns is the seat of government, home to the House of Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador and to the highest court in the jurisdiction and it became the tenth province to enter the Canadian Confederation on March 31,1949, as Newfoundland.
On December 6,2001, an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada to change the official name to Newfoundland. The name Newfoundland is a translation of the Portuguese Terra Nova, the influence of early Portuguese exploration is reflected in the name of Labrador, which derives from the surname of the Portuguese navigator João Fernandes Lavrador. Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province in Canada, and is located at the corner of North America. The Strait of Belle Isle separates the province into two divisions, which is a large area of mainland Canada, and Newfoundland. The province includes over 7,000 tiny islands, each side is about 400 km long, and its area is 108,860 km2. Newfoundland and its small islands have a total area of 111,390 km2. Newfoundland extends between latitudes 46°36′N and 51°38′N, Labrador is an irregular shape, the western part of its border with Quebec is the drainage divide of the Labrador Peninsula. Lands drained by rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean are part of Labrador, most of Labradors southern boundary with Quebec follows the 52nd parallel of latitude.
Labradors extreme northern tip, at 60°22′N, shares a border with Nunavut. Together and Labrador make up 4. 06% of Canadas area, Labrador is the easternmost part of the Canadian Shield, a vast area of ancient metamorphic rock comprising much of northeastern North America. Colliding tectonic plates have shaped much of the geology of Newfoundland, gros Morne National Park has a reputation as an outstanding example of tectonics at work, and as such has been designated a World Heritage Site. The Long Range Mountains on Newfoundlands west coast are the northeasternmost extension of the Appalachian Mountains, the north-south extent of the province, prevalent westerly winds, cold ocean currents and local factors such as mountains and coastline combine to create the various climates of the province
Nanaimo /nəˈnaɪmoʊ/ is a city on Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada. It is known as The Harbour City, Nanaimo is the headquarters of the Regional District of Nanaimo. The Native people of the area that is now known as Nanaimo are the Snuneymuxw, a westernized spelling and pronunciation of that word gave the city its current name. The first Europeans to find Nanaimo Bay were those of the 1791 Spanish voyage of Juan Carrasco and they gave it the name Bocas de Winthuysen. Nanaimo began as a trading post in the early 19th century, in 1849 the Snuneymuxw chief Ki-et-sa-kun informed the Hudsons Bay Company of coal in the area. Exploration proved there was plenty of it in the area and Nanaimo became chiefly known for the export of coal, in 1853 the company built a Nanaimo Bastion, which has been preserved and is a popular tourist destination in the downtown area. Hudsons Bay Company employee Robert Dunsmuir helped establish coal mines in the Nanaimo harbour area, with the success of Dunsmuir and Diggle and the Wellington Colliery, Dunsmuir expanded his operations to include steam railways.
Dunsmuir sold Wellington Coal through its Departure Bay docks, while competing Nanaimo coal was sold by the London-based Vancouver Coal Company through the Nanaimo docks, the gassy qualities of the coal which made it valuable made it dangerous. The 1887 Nanaimo Mine Explosion killed 150 miners and was described as the largest man-made explosion until the Halifax Explosion, another 100 men died in another explosion the next year. An Internment camp for Ukrainian detainees, many of local, was set up at a Provincial jail in Nanaimo from September 1914 to September 1915. In the 1940s, lumber supplanted coal as the business although Minetown Days are still celebrated in the neighbouring community of Lantzville. Nanaimo has had a succession of four distinct Chinatowns, the first, founded during the gold rush years of the 1860s, was the third largest in British Columbia. In 1884, because of mounting racial tensions related to the Dunsmuir coal companys hiring of Chinese strikebreakers and that third Chinatown, by mostly derelict, burned down on 30 September 1960.
A fourth Chinatown, called Lower Chinatown or new town, Buttertubs Marsh is a bird sanctuary located in the middle of the city. The marsh covers approximately 100 acres, within this is the 46 acre Buttertubs Marsh Conservation Area, owned by the Nature Trust of British Columbia. Like much of coastal British Columbia, Nanaimo experiences a climate with mild, rainy winters and cool. Due to its dry summers, the Köppen climate classification places it at the northernmost limits of the Csb or cool-summer Mediterranean zone. Other climate classification systems, such as Trewartha, place it firmly in the Oceanic zone, heavy snowfall does occasionally occur during winter, with a record daily total of 0.74 metres on 12 February 1975, but the mean maximum cover is only 0.2 metres