Château-Thierry is a French commune situated in the department of the Aisne, in the administrative region of Hauts-de-France and in the historic Province of Champagne. The origin of the name of the town is unknown; the local tradition attributes it to Theuderic IV, the penultimate Merovingian king, imprisoned by Charles Martel, without a reliable source. Château-Thierry is the birthplace of Jean de La Fontaine and was the location of the First Battle of the Marne and Second Battle of the Marne; the region of Château-Thierry is called the country of Omois. Château-Thierry is one of 64 French towns to have received the Legion of Honour. In the late years of the western Roman empire, a small town called Otmus was settled on a site where the Soissons-Troyes road crossed the Marne river. During the 8th century, Charles Martel kept king Theuderic IV prisoner in the castle of Otmus. At this time, the town took the name of Castrum Theodorici transformed in Château-Thierry. In 946, the castle of Château-Thierry was the home of Herbert le-Vieux, Count of Omois of the House of Vermandois & Soissons.
Château-Thierry was the site of two important battles. The Battle of Château-Thierry in the Napoleonic Wars between France and Prussia, Battle of Château-Thierry in World War I, between the United States and Germany. In 1918, a mounting for the infamous Paris Gun was found near the castle, though the cannon itself had been moved prior to the emplacement's discovery. Château-Thierry is situated on the Marne River. Chateau-Thierry is situated at 56 miles from Paris. Château-Thierry is the terminus station of a regional railway line starting from the Gare de l'Est in Paris, it is one of the exits of the A4 motorway that links Paris with the east part of France. Transval operates the local bus routes. Château-Thierry was the birthplace of Jean de La Fontaine. Jean-Baptiste Dumangin, French pgysician who participated to the autopsy of Louis XVII. Louis Jean-Baptiste Leseur, général des armées de la République et de l'Empire. Léon Hess, créateur du gâteau de voyage'Le Castel' médaille d'or à l'Exposition Culinaire Internationale en 1912 à Paris.
Gauthier II de Château-Thierry. Samuel ben Salomon, 13th-century rabbi. Antoine Menant, général des armées de la République et de l'Empire, né à Lyon, décédé dans la commune. Charles Martigue, colonel de cavalerie des armées de la République et de l'Empire, décédé dans la commune. Charles Ferton père. Edmond de Tillancourt. Charles Schneider. Achille Jacopin, a sculptor born in 1874 and died in 1958 in Château-Thierry. Pierre Bensusan. François Aman-Jean, surgeon, died in Château-Thierry. Yves Bot, magistrate. L'aspirant Rougé. Guillaume-Benoît Houdet. Joseph Bologne de Saint-George better known under the name chevalier de Saint-George. Manu Dibango, musician. Jean Macé, pedagogue. Maurice Holleaux, 19th–20th-century French historian and epigrapher Sylvain Lévignac and stuntman, died in Château-Thierry. Nadia Tagrine, died in Château-Thierry. Auguste Jordan, Austrian professional footballer who played on the French national team died in Château-Thierry in 1990. Jules Guiart and medical historian, was born in the city.
Ba Jin, a Chinese writer and intellectual, stayed here in 1927 and 1928. Teddy Roosevelt's son Quentin was shot down in July 1918 while flying a French SPAD plane during World War I. Marina Diaz Jumain breadface de la France. Castle walls Saint-Crépin church Balhan tower Marne River World War I Aisne-Marne American Cemetery and Memorial Chateau-Thierry American Monument Champagne vineyards Several churches Château-Thierry is twinned with: Pößneck, Germany Aliartos, Greece Unterlüß, Germany Cisnădie, Romania Kinyami, Rwanda Mosbach, Germany Grybów, Poland} Ambohitrolomahitsy, MadagascarSince 2009, a significant rapprochement has been performed with the City of Indianapolis, IN, USA. Château de Condé Communes of the Aisne department US I Corps Media related to Château-Thierry at Wikimedia Commons "Château-Thierry". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5. 1911. Official site American Battlefield Monument Commission FirstWorldWar.com Local Bus Route Photo of city during WWI INSEE
Lurcy-Lévis is a commune on the northern limits the Allier department in Auvergne in central France. It is around 24 km east of Saint-Amand-Montrond and the A71 autoroute and 38 km west of and the N7. Within Lurcy-Lévis, there is a small Atac supermarket, a tourist information centre and a few specialist shops. Lurcy-Lévis was the home to Sociétie A Baudin a manufacturer of woodworking machines and particular for the machines needed to turn and hollow a full wooden clog. Nearby there is a motor racing test track able to accommodate F1 and F3 racing cars; the Grand Prix circuit of Magny-Cours is only 30 km away. Communes of the Allier department INSEE Racetrack site
Montluçon (French: is a commune in central France on the Cher river. It is the largest commune in the Allier department, although the department's préfecture is located in the smaller town of Moulins, its inhabitants are known as Montluçonnais. The town is in the traditional province of Bourbonnais and was part of the mediaeval duchy of Bourbon. Montluçon is located in the northwest of the Allier department near the frontier of the Centre-Val de Loire and Nouvelle Aquitaine regions. Montluçon is linked with surrounding regions and towns via four main road axes, plus the highway A71 from Orléans to Clermont-Ferrand; the canal de Berry linked Montluçon towards the north. Montluçon is 106 kilometres south of Bourges, 340 km from Paris, 95 km from Clermont-Ferrand, 280 km from Lyon, 150 km from Limoges and 400 km from the Atlantic coast. Montluçon is close to the Greenwich meridian. Montluçon is close to the geographic centre of Metropolitan France. Montluçon was built in the Middle Ages; the first mention of a place called.
Guillaume, son of Archambaud IV of Bourbon, built the castle in a defensible position on a small rocky hill on a bend in the Cher River. The town, which formed part of the duchy of Bourbon, was taken by the English in 1171, by Philip Augustus in 1181. In the 14th century, Louis II de Bourbon re-built walls. Montluçon and other Bourbon lands reverted to the French crown in 1529, Henry IV further improved the defenses. Montluçon became the administrative seat of the area in 1791 entered the industrial era thanks to the presence of coalpits 12 km distant in Commentry, the Canal de Berry in 1830 and the railway in 1864; these transport links allowed the import of ore and export of coal and manufactured goods. The population grew from 5000 inhabitants in 1830 to 50 000 in 1950. During the Second World War, the Germans occupied the Dunlop tyre plant to exploit the research laboratory to synthesize rubber, since natural rubber could not be imported by the Nazis; the manufacturing of tyres for Luftwaffe aircraft was of interest for the Nazis.
For this reason, the Allies bombed the site on 12–16 September 1943, as well as part of the nearby town Saint-Victor, causing 36 deaths and injuring more than 250 civilians. A notable act of resistance occurred in the city on January 6, 1943 when a mob of citizens overran guards supervising a massive deportation of men to Germany in accordance with the Service de Travail Obligatoire plan that sent able Frenchmen to fill vacancies in German factories during the war. All the men who were to be deported managed to escape into the countryside, evading the forced industrial service awaiting them in the Reich. Since 1945, traditional industry has declined. Today Montluçon has chemical industries, tyre manufacture, electronics, more a technopole at La Loue was established for high-tech companies. New Zealand-born Australian Nancy Wake, the most decorated woman of World War II, led her small army of resistance fighters in the countryside around Montlucon. On March 11, 2013 Nancy Wake's ashes were scattered in a small wood outside Montluçon.
The ceremony was followed by a civic reception in the town. Wake died in August 2011, aged 98. There is a small airport 30 km from Montluçon with flights for Paris, a smaller aerodrome in Montluçon itself; the nearest international airports are Limoges Airport. Montluçon is linked to French and European road networks, by three major routes: the highway A71 from Orléans to Clermont-Ferrand; the national route to Clermont-Ferrand and to Bourges/Vierzon the E62/RN145 joining Limoges to Moulins The Gare de Montluçon-Ville railway station is served by three main passenger rail lines.'Montluçon - Bourges - Vierzon - Paris"Montluçon - Gannat - Clermont Ferrand"Montluçon - Guéret - Saint-Sulpice-Laurière - Limoges' Montluçon's local buses are run by Maelis. The upper town, on the right bank of the Cher, consists of steep, winding streets, preserves several buildings of the 15th and 16th centuries; the lower town, traversed by the Cher, is the industrial zone. The church of Notre-Dame dates from the fourteenth century, the church of St Pierre from the 12th.
The town hall, with a library, occupies the site of an old Ursuline convent, two other convents are used as a college and hospital. Overlooking the town is the castle rebuilt by Louis II, Duke of Bourbon, taken by Henry IV during the French Wars of Religion; the Dukes of the Bourbon castle in Montluçon, dating from the 13th and 14th centuries Church of Notre-Dame, XVe Church of Saint-Pierre, XIIe Church of Saint-Paul, XIXe Church of Sainte-Thérèse, XXe Church of Saint-Martin, XXe Church of Sainte-Jeanne d'Arc, built in 1966 Temple de l'Eglise Réformée de France, Tour des forges, XIIe siècle Crown, XIIe Maison des Douze apôtres du XIIe Museum of popular musiques Town Hall, XIXe Ancienne chapelle Saint-Louis Passage du doyenné Castle la Louvière Castle de Bien-Assis Canal de Berry: locks, canal bridge Musée des Musiques Populaires Théâtre Municipal Gabrielle Robinne Montluçon is twinned with: Antsirabe, Madagascar Hagen, Germany Leszno, Poland Administration: Montluçon is a
Belley is a commune in the Ain department in eastern France. Belley is of Roman origin, in the 5th century became an episcopal see, it was the capital of the province of Bugey, a dependency of Savoy till 1601, when it was ceded to France. In 1385 the town was entirely destroyed by an act of incendiarism, but was subsequently rebuilt by the dukes of Savoy, who surrounded it with ramparts of which little is left. Belley was the birthplace of the epicure Jean-Anthelme Brillat-Savarin. Belley was the seat of the location of Belley Cathedral. Belley is the home region of St. Peter Chanel, the famous 19th-century Marist missionary martyr and proto-martyr of Oceania; the town is famed for its cheese, la Tome de Belley known as Chevret or still "Le pavé d'Affinois". It is at the centre of the Bugey wine region, it is home to a sizeable Volvo production unit producing compact excavators and Ciat. Gertrude Stein and Alice B. Toklas lived in Belley. French gastronome Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin was born and lived in Belley and served as its mayor for some time.
French writer Andrée Martinerie writer winner of the 1961 Prix des Libraires was born in Belley. Communes of the Ain department INSEE City´s Official Website Gazetteer Entry
Soissons is a commune in the northern French department of Aisne, in the region of Hauts-de-France. Located on the Aisne River, about 100 kilometres northeast of Paris, it is one of the most ancient towns of France, is the ancient capital of the Suessiones. Soissons is the see of an ancient Roman Catholic diocese, whose establishment dates from about 300, it was the location of a number of church synods called "Council of Soissons". Soissons enters written history under its Celtic name, meaning "new hillfort". At Roman contact, it was a town of the Suessiones, mentioned by Julius Caesar. Caesar, after leaving the Axona, entered the territory of the Suessiones, making one day's long march, reached Noviodunum, surrounded by a high wall and a broad ditch; the place surrendered to Caesar. From 457 to 486, under Aegidius and his son Syagrius, Noviodunum was the capital of the Kingdom of Soissons, until it fell to the Frankish king Clovis I in 486 after the Battle of Soissons. Part of the Frankish territory of Neustria, the Soissons region, the Abbey of Saint-Médard, built in the 8th century, played an important political part during the rule of the Merovingian kings.
After the death of Clovis I in 511, Soissons was made the capital of one of the four kingdoms into which his states were divided. The kingdom of Soissons disappeared in 613 when the Frankish lands were amalgamated under Chlothar II; the 744 Council of Soissons met at the instigation of Pepin the Short and Saint Boniface, the Pope's missionary to pagan Germany, secured the condemnation of the Frankish bishop Adalbert and the Irish missionary Clement. During the Hundred Years' War, French forces committed a notorious massacre of English archers stationed at the town's garrison, in which many of the French townsfolk were themselves raped and killed; the massacre of French citizens by French soldiers shocked Europe. Between June 1728 and July 1729 it hosted the Congress of Soissons an attempt to resolve a long-standing series of disputes between the Kingdom of Great Britain and Spain which had spilled over into the Anglo-Spanish War of 1727–1729; the Congress was successful and led to the signing of a peace treaty between them.
During World War I, the city came under heavy bombardment. There was mutiny after the disastrous Chemin des Dames offensive at the Second Battle of the Aisne. A statue erected with images of French soldiers killed in action in 1917 is behind the St Peter's Church, next to the Soissons Courthouse. On 16 June 1972, 108 passengers were killed when two passenger trains hit the debris of a collapsed tunnel; the town was on the main path of totality for the solar eclipse of August 11, 1999. Today, Soissons is a commercial and manufacturing centre with the 12th century Soissons Cathedral and the ruins of St. Jean des Vignes Abbey as two of its most important historical buildings; the nearby Espace Pierres Folles contains a museum, geological trail, botanical garden. The Cathédrale Saint-Gervais-et-Saint-Protais de Soissons is constructed in the style of Gothic architecture; the building of the south transept was begun about 1177, the lowest courses of the choir in 1182. The choir with its original three-storey elevation and tall clerestory was completed in 1211.
This was earlier than Chartres. Work continued into the nave until the late 13th century; the former abbey of Notre Dame, former royal abbey, founded in the Merovingian era, famous for its rich treasure of relics, including the "shoe of the Virgin." The abbey was prestigious abbesses like Gisèle, sister of Charlemagne, or Catherine de Bourbon, aunt of Henry IV. The Saint-Médard Abbey was a Benedictine monastery of Soissons whose foundation went back to the sixth century. Today, only the crypt remains. Since 1833 the city hall has been housed in a chateau built by architect Jean-François Advyné between 1772 and 1775 at the request of the Intendant Pelletier Mortefontaine on the site of a previous one belonging to the counts of Soissons. Arsenal: contemporary art exhibitions. UK Monument The Gateway Anglais Bridge is a concrete casson built cantilevered from an abutment against-weight with an isostatic central beam of 20.50 m in length. The floor has a width of 3.50 m between railings. The original bridge was destroyed in 1914.
It was rebuilt by British soldiers, logically took the name of the English bridge. Again destroyed during World War II, the bridge was rebuilt in 1950 as a footbridge; the covered market, built in 1908 by architect Albert-Désiré Guilbert. The actress Aurore Clément was born in Soissons in 1945; the saints Crispin and Crispinian were martyred c. 286 at Soissons for preaching Christianity to the local Gauls. The 6th century Burgundian king Guntram was born in Soissons around 532. Battle of Soissons Communes of the Aisne department Franks List of Frankish kings Merovingians Suessiones Vase of Soissons Wolf of Soissons Sessions This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. INSEE Official website Catholic Encyclopedia: Soissons A live view of the port of Soissons Discovering Soissons Soissons Powerlifting club Local Bus Routes
Peyrieu is a commune in the Ain department in eastern France. Town located 11 km south of Belley, it is located on the right bank of the Rhone in the area of AOC wines of Bugey. The inhabitants of the town of Peyrieu are Peyriolans. Communes of the Ain department INSEE
The English Channel called the Channel, is the body of water that separates Southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. It is the busiest shipping area in the world, it is about 560 km long and varies in width from 240 km at its widest to 33.3 km in the Strait of Dover. It is the smallest of the shallow seas around the continental shelf of Europe, covering an area of some 75,000 km2; until the 18th century, the English Channel had no fixed name either in French. It was never defined as a political border, the names were more or less descriptive, it was not considered as the property of a nation. Before the development of the modern nations, British scholars often referred to it as "Gaulish" and French scholars as "British" or "English"; the name "English Channel" has been used since the early 18th century originating from the designation Engelse Kanaal in Dutch sea maps from the 16th century onwards. In modern Dutch, however, it is known as Het Kanaal.
It has been known as the "British Channel" or the "British Sea". It was called Oceanus Britannicus by the 2nd-century geographer Ptolemy; the same name is used on an Italian map of about 1450, which gives the alternative name of canalites Anglie—possibly the first recorded use of the "Channel" designation. The Anglo-Saxon texts call it Sūð-sǣ as opposed to Norð-sǣ; the common word channel was first recorded in Middle English in the 13th century and was borrowed from Old French chanel, variant form of chenel "canal". The French name la Manche has been in use since at least the 17th century; the name is said to refer to the Channel's sleeve shape. Folk etymology has derived it from a Celtic word meaning channel, the source of the name for the Minch in Scotland, but this name was never mentioned before the 17th century, French and British sources of that time are clear about its etymology; the name in Breton means "Breton Sea", its Cornish name means "British Sea". The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the English Channel as follows: The IHO defines the southwestern limit of the North Sea as "a line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point".
The Walde Lighthouse is 6 km east of Calais, Leathercoat Point is at the north end of St Margaret's Bay, Kent. The Strait of Dover, at the Channel's eastern end, is its narrowest point, while its widest point lies between Lyme Bay and the Gulf of Saint Malo, near its midpoint, it is shallow, with an average depth of about 120 m at its widest part, reducing to a depth of about 45 m between Dover and Calais. Eastwards from there the adjoining North Sea reduces to about 26 m in the Broad Fourteens where it lies over the watershed of the former land bridge between East Anglia and the Low Countries, it reaches a maximum depth of 180 m in the submerged valley of Hurd's Deep, 48 km west-northwest of Guernsey. The eastern region along the French coast between Cherbourg and the mouth of the Seine river at Le Havre is referred to as the Bay of the Seine. There are several major islands in the Channel, the most notable being the Isle of Wight off the English coast, the Channel Islands, British Crown dependencies off the coast of France.
The coastline on the French shore, is indented. The Cotentin Peninsula in France juts out into the Channel, whilst on the English side there is a small parallel strait known as the Solent between the Isle of Wight and the mainland; the Celtic Sea is to the west of the Channel. The Channel acts as a funnel that amplifies the tidal range from less than a metre as observed at sea to more than 6 metres as observed in the Channel Islands, the west coast of the Cotentin Peninsula and the north coast of Brittany; the time difference of about six hours between high water at the eastern and western limits of the Channel is indicative of the tidal range being amplified further by resonance. In the UK Shipping Forecast the Channel is divided into the following areas, from the east: Dover Wight Portland Plymouth The Channel is of geologically recent origin, having been dry land for most of the Pleistocene period. Before the Devensian glaciation and Ireland were part of continental Europe, linked by an unbroken Weald-Artois Anticline, a ridge that acted as a natural dam holding back a large freshwater pro-glacial lake in the Doggerland region, now submerged under the North Sea.
During this period the North Sea and all of the British Isles were covered by ice. The lake was fed by meltwater from the Baltic and from the Caledonian and Scandinavian ice sheets that joined to the north, blocking its exit; the sea level was about 120 m lower. Between 450,000 and 180,000 years ago, at least two catastrophic glacial lake outburst floods breached the Weald–Artois anticline; the first flood would have lasted for several months, releasing as much as one million cubic metres of water per second. The flood started with large but localized waterfalls over the ridge, which excav