An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities for commercial air transport. Airports have facilities to store and maintain aircraft, a control tower. An airport consists of a landing area, which comprises an aerially accessible open space including at least one operationally active surface such as a runway for a plane to take off or a helipad, includes adjacent utility buildings such as control towers and terminals. Larger airports may have airport aprons, taxiway bridges, air traffic control centres, passenger facilities such as restaurants and lounges, emergency services. In some countries, the US in particular, they typically have one or more fixed-base operators, serving general aviation. An airport serving helicopters is called a heliport. An airport for use by seaplanes and amphibious aircraft is called a seaplane base; such a base includes a stretch of open water for takeoffs and landings, seaplane docks for tying-up. An international airport has additional facilities for customs and passport control as well as incorporating all of the aforementioned elements.
Such airports rank among the most complex and largest of all built typologies with 15 of the top 50 buildings by floor area being airport terminals. The terms aerodrome and airstrip may be used to refer to airports, the terms heliport, seaplane base, STOLport refer to airports dedicated to helicopters, seaplanes, or short take-off and landing aircraft. In colloquial use in certain environments, the terms airport and aerodrome are interchanged. However, in general, the term airport may imply or confer a certain stature upon the aviation facility that other aerodromes may not have achieved. In some jurisdictions, airport is a legal term of art reserved for those aerodromes certified or licensed as airports by the relevant national aviation authority after meeting specified certification criteria or regulatory requirements; that is to say, all airports are aerodromes, but not all aerodromes are airports. In jurisdictions where there is no legal distinction between aerodrome and airport, which term to use in the name of an aerodrome may be a commercial decision.
In United States technical/legal usage, landing area is used instead of aerodrome, airport means "a landing area used by aircraft for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo". Smaller or less-developed airfields, which represent the vast majority have a single runway shorter than 1,000 m. Larger airports for airline flights have paved runways of 2,000 m or longer. Skyline Airport in Inkom, Idaho has a runway, only 122 m long. In the United States, the minimum dimensions for dry, hard landing fields are defined by the FAR Landing And Takeoff Field Lengths; these include considerations for safety margins during takeoff. The longest public-use runway in the world is at Qamdo Bamda Airport in China, it has a length of 5,500 m. The world's widest paved runway is 105 m wide; as of 2009, the CIA stated that there were 44,000 "... airports or airfields recognizable from the air" around the world, including 15,095 in the US, the US having the most in the world. Most of the world's large airports are owned by local, regional, or national government bodies who lease the airport to private corporations who oversee the airport's operation.
For example, in the United Kingdom the state-owned British Airports Authority operated eight of the nation's major commercial airports – it was subsequently privatized in the late 1980s, following its takeover by the Spanish Ferrovial consortium in 2006, has been further divested and downsized to operating just Heathrow now. Germany's Frankfurt Airport is managed by the quasi-private firm Fraport. While in India GMR Group operates, through joint ventures, Indira Gandhi International Airport and Rajiv Gandhi International Airport. Bengaluru International Airport and Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport are controlled by GVK Group; the rest of India's airports are managed by the Airports Authority of India. In Pakistan nearly all civilian airports are owned and operated by the Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority except for Sialkot International Airport which has the distinction of being the first owned public airport in Pakistan and South Asia. In the United States, commercial airports are operated directly by government entities or government-created airport authorities, such as the Los Angeles World Airports authority that oversees several airports in the Greater Los Angeles area, including Los Angeles International Airport.
In Canada, the federal authority, Transport Canada, divested itself of all but the remotest airports in 1999/2000. Now most airports in Canada are owned and operated by individual legal authorities or are municipally owned. Many U. S. airports still lease part or all of their facilities to outside firms, who operate functions such as retail management and parking. In the U. S. all commercial airport runways are certified by the FAA under the Code of Federal Regulations Title 14 Part 139, "Certification of Commercial Service Airports" but maintained by the local airport under the regulatory authority of the FAA. Despite the reluctance to privatize airports in the US, the government-owned, contractor-operated arrangement is the standard for the operation of commercial airports in the rest of the world. Airports are divided into airside areas; the landside area is open to the public, while access to the airside area is controlled. The airside area includes all parts of the airpo
Bouctouche is a Canadian town in Kent County, New Brunswick. In 2011, the population was 2,423. Bouctouche was named Tjipogtotjg, a Mi'kmaq word meaning "Great Little Harbour"; the region was next settled by brothers Francois LeBlanc and Charles LeBlanc, brothers Isidore Bastarache and Joseph Bastarache in 1785 as an Acadian community. "La Croix commémorative aux fondateurs de Bouctouche" was unveiled August 29, 1954, to pay tribute to the founders of the town, who first arrived in 1785. It says "We remember Hélène LeBlanc; the stones at the base of the cross indicate the origins of the settlers who came from France, Grand-Pré, Memramcook and Bouctouche. During the 19th century the area attracted immigrants from Ireland and Scotland among them the forefathers of one of Bouctouche's best-known sons, K. C. Irving. Bouctouche was struck by a tornado on August 6, 1879; the town is located at the mouth of the Bouctouche River on the coast of the Northumberland Strait 40 kilometres northeast of Moncton.
It is the first municipality in New Brunswick to adopt a Green Plan for the working of the municipality in 2006. La Dune de Bouctouche, known by its first inhabitants as the Great Little Harbour, has hiking and cycling trails that are part of the New Brunswick Trail system. There are 12 kilometres of whispering sands making up the dunes viewed from a boardwalk along a conservation area known as the Irving Eco Centre. La Dune de Bouctouche consists of a 9.7 km long ridge of sand formed over centuries by the wind and stormy seas. The dune has enclosed the bay area over its full length leaving an opening to the bay at its mouth, a 1.8 km wide opening and the dune is still expanding today. Le Pays de la Sagouine, based on Antonine Maillet's award-winning book La Sagouine, is a theme park filled with Acadian entertainment and history, their activities include dramatic reproductions of Antonine's plays. Irving Eco Centre Industrialist Kenneth Colin Irving was born in Bouctouche, many of his businesses, including Kent Homes, maintain operations there and the family is dedicated to protecting the area's natural resources with the Irving Eco Centre and helping to revitalize the town's economy by supporting a variety of local projects.
USA - St. Martinville, Louisiana France - Châtellerault List of lighthouses in New Brunswick Town of Bouctouche Le Pays de la Sagouine Irving Eco-Centre
Saint John, New Brunswick
Saint John is the coastal port city of the Bay of Fundy in the Canadian province of New Brunswick. The port is Canada’s third largest port by tonnage with a cargo base that includes dry and liquid bulk, break bulk and cruise. In 2016, after more than 40 years of population decline, the city became the second most populous city in the province for the first time, with a population of 67,575 over an area of 315.82 square kilometres. Greater Saint John covers a land area of 3,362.95 square kilometres across the Caledonia Highlands, with a population of 126,202. After the partitioning of the colony of Nova Scotia in 1784, the new colony of New Brunswick was thought to be named'New Ireland' with the capital to be in Saint John before being vetoed by Britain's King George III. Saint John is the oldest incorporated city in Canada. During the reign of George III, the municipality was created by royal charter in 1785. Saint John is the oldest of five chartered cities in Canada along with Montreal, Winnipeg and Lloydminster.
French colonist Samuel de Champlain landed at Saint John Harbour on June 24, 1604 and is where the Saint John River gets its name although Mi'kmaq and Maliseet peoples lived in the region for thousands of years prior calling the river Wolastoq. After over a century of ownership disputes over the land surrounding Saint John between the French and English, the English deported the French colonists in 1755 and constructed Fort Howe above the harbour in 1779. Saint John, as a major settlement, was established by refugees of the American Revolution when two fleets of vessels from Massachusetts, one in the spring and a second in the fall, arrived in the harbour; these Loyalist refugees wished to remain living under Great Britain and were forced to leave their U. S. homes during the American Revolution. In 1785, the City of Saint John was formed from the union of Carleton. Over the next century, waves of Irish immigration, namely during the Great Famine via Partridge Island, would fundamentally change the city's demographics and culture.
Predated by the Maritime Archaic Indian civilization, the northwestern coastal regions of the Bay of Fundy is believed to have been inhabited by the Passamaquoddy Nation several thousand years ago, while the Saint John River valley north of the bay became the domain of the Maliseet Nation. The Mi'kmaq ventured into the territory and named the area"Měnagwĕs", which means "where they collect the dead seals."Samuel de Champlain landed at Saint John Harbour in 1604, though he did not settle the area. The region was conquered by the British by the end of the Seven Years' War. After being incorporated as a city in 1785 with an influx of Loyalists from the northern of the former Thirteen Colonies and immigrants from Ireland, the city grew as a global hub for shipping and shipbuilding. In 1851 the city cemented itself as a global shipbuilding hub when the Marco Polo, built from a Saint John yard, became the fastest in the world. However, the city would struggle with its success. From 1840 to 1860 sectarian violence was rampant in Saint John resulting in some of the worst urban riots in Canadian history.
The city experienced a cholera outbreak in 1854 with the death over 1,500 people, as well as a great fire in 1877 that destroyed 40% of the city and left 20,000 people homeless. 1785: Saint John becomes the first incorporated city in what would become Canada. 1785: First quarantine station in North America, Partridge Island, established by the city's charter. In the early 19th century, it greeted sick and dying Irish immigrants arriving with inhospitable conditions. 1820: The first chartered bank in Canada, the Bank of New Brunswick. Canada's oldest publicly funded high school, Saint John High School 1838: The first penny newspaper in the Empire, the tri-weekly Saint John News, was established. 1842: Canada's first public museum known as the Gesner Museum, named after its Nova Scotian founder Abraham Gesner, the first modern commercial producer of kerosene. The museum is now known as the New Brunswick Museum. 1851: Marco Polo ship launched. She carried emigrants and passengers to Australia from England and was the first vessel to make the trip in under six months.
1849: Canada’s first labour union, the Laborer’s Benevolent Association was formed when Saint John’s longshoremen banded together to lobby for regular pay and a shorter workday. One of their first resolutions was to apply to the city council for permission to erect the bell, which would announce the beginning and end of the labourer’s 10-hour workday. 1854: The automated steam foghorn was invented by Robert Foulis. 1867: Saint John's Paris Crew rowing team became Canada's first international sporting champions when they defeated England at the International Regatta in Paris, France. 1870: Canada's first Y. W. C. A. was established. 1870: First Knights of Pythias in British Empire. 1872: Monitor top railroad cars in the world invented by James Ferguson. The original model is in the New Brunswick Museum in Saint John. 1880: First clockwork time bomb developed in 1880. 1906: The first public playground in Canada was inaugurated. 1907: The first orchestra to accompany a silent moving picture, on the North American continent, was in the old nickel theatre.
1918: One of the first police unions in Canada, the Saint John Police Protective Association, was formed in Saint John. 2010: Stonehammer UNESCO Geopark, the first Geopark in North America and centred around Saint John is formed. Situated in the south-central portion of the province, along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy at the mouth of the Saint John River, the city is split by the south-flowing river and
Miramichi Airport is located 1.6 nautical miles south of Miramichi, New Brunswick, Canada. The runway was 5,899 ft × 159 ft but in 2012 it was extended to 10,006 ft × 150 ft and is maintained year-round, it has new approach lights and a new taxiway. The airport is the home base of the Department of Natural Resources and Energy Air Tanker Operations, Forest Protection Limited, who own and operate the air tanker fleet. In addition, a General Electric J85 engine test facility is located at the airport; the airport is the former site of CFB Chatham, a military air base, which closed in 1996, after military units were moved to other bases. There is one abandoned runway within the airport, still used for local glider operations; the two southern runways were truncated by the southern boundary fence parallel to the main runway and one was used as a drag strip and the other is an industrial area but the current status is unknown. The top of 04/22 is now taxiway'B', where the ready hangars for the McDonnell CF-101 Voodoos were, leading to the threshold of runway 27.
Since the closure of the airbase, the airport only has one runway operational for aircraft and one closed runway for glider use only. 09/27 - 10,006 ft × 150 ft - Asphalt lighted - operational The three former runways were paved and marked to indicate their closure or non-use. 04/22 – 5,200 ft - truncated at airport fence - closed 10/28 – 7,500 ft - glider only 15/33 – 5,513 ft - truncated at airport fence - converted to drag strip Airport diagrams Navcanada page 628
Miramichi, New Brunswick
Miramichi is the largest city in northern New Brunswick, Canada. It is situated at the mouth of the Miramichi River; the Miramichi Valley is the second longest valley in New Brunswick, after the Saint John River Valley. The city of Miramichi was formed in 1995 through the forced amalgamation of two towns and Chatham, several smaller communities, including Douglastown and Nelson; the local service districts of Nordin, Chatham Head, Douglasfield. The amalgamation included portions of the former local service district of Ferry Road-Russellville and portions of Chatham Parish, Glenelg Parish and Nelson Parish. Long prior to European settlement, the Miramichi region was home to members of the Mi'kmaq first nation. For the Mi'kmaq, Beaubears Island, at the junction of the Northwest and Main Southwest branches of the Miramichi River was a natural meeting point. Following the European discovery of the Americas, the Miramichi became part of the French colony of Acadia. About 1648, Nicolas Denys, Sieur de Fronsac, established a fort and trading post, Fort Fronsac, on the Miramichi.
This establishment was constructed "on the North side of the Miramichi, at the forks of the river". According to W. F. Ganong, a Recollet Mission was established in 1686 on the Miramichi "in Nelson", "probably near Beaubear's Island". Nicolas Denys' son, Richard Denys, was placed in charge of the fort and trading post, in 1688 Richard states, "Miramichi is the principal place of my residence", describes his establishment as including about a dozen French and more than 500 indigenous inhabitants. In 1691 Richard died at sea; the following account from the Dictionary of Miramichi Biography describes in greater detail the extent of the Denys' Miramichi base:"The domain of Nicholas Denys, governor of Acadia, extended along the southerly side of the Gulf of St Lawrence, from Miscou Island to Cape Breton. It may have included a trading post at Miramichi in the 1640s, but the first extensive French establishment on the river was that of Denys's son Richard Denys, he began to cultivate land along the Miramichi in 1684.
In 1688 he had a fort with gun emplacements, a house built of freestone, a storehouse. There were three French families at the fort, he had men employed catching fish. Nearby there were eighty Micmac wigwams."The site of Denys's establishment, considered to have been on the north side of the Miramichi opposite the Point - that is, near the pulp mill site in Newcastle - was abandoned by 1691. In August of that year, when he was thirty-seven years old, Denys set sail for Quebec in the ship Saint-François-Xavier, never heard of again, his estate passed to his widow in 1694 and was still owned by members of the family in Quebec in the 1750s."By about 1740 French villages were well established on Miramichi Bay at Bay du Vin and Neguac. In the current city of Miramichi, a larger village existed at Canadian Point, a town comprising 200 houses, a chapel, provision stores occupied "Beaubear's Point"; the French maintained batteries of guns at French Fort Cove. The French and Indian War erupted in 1754.
During the war many Acadian homes were destroyed by the British, their residents were deported. In 1757 the French general, Charles Deschamps de Boishébert et de Raffetot attempted to evade British troops in the Saint John River Valley and the Bay of Fundy, by leading 900 French refugees up the northeast coast of New Brunswick to Miramichi, establishing a camp, "Camp de l’Espérance", on Beaubears Island. After the Siege of Louisbourg, Boishebert led a group of Acadians from St. Peter's, Nova Scotia to Miramichi. Over 200 of the refugees died at the camp. On 13 August 1758 French officer Boishebert left Miramichi with 400 soldiers, including Acadians from Port Toulouse, for Fort St George, his detachment was caught in an ambush and had to withdraw. They went on to raid Friendship, where British settlers were killed and others taken prisoner; this was Boishébert’s last Acadian expedition. From there and the Acadians went to Quebec and fought in the Battle of Quebec. In September 1758 Colonel James Murray reported spending two days in Miramichi Bay during the Gulf of St. Lawrence Campaign looking unsuccessfully for Acadians, but destroying anything he found.
This included burning the first stone church built in New Brunswick. Murray did not sail as far west as Beaubear's Island. Most of the surviving Beaubear's Island refugees soon left the Miramichi; some Acadians, however and escaped British attempts at deportation. They established a host of small Acadian communities along the northern and eastern coasts of present-day New Brunswick; the French were defeated at Quebec and Montreal, the remaining Miramichi settlement was subsequently burned to the ground by British Commodore John Byron in 1760. The French North American colonies were ceded to the British in the 1763 Treaty of Paris; the Miramichi thus became a part of the British colony of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick. Benjamin Marston, a surveyor and the first sheriff, reported in 1785 that "a considerable French Village" had existed on Wilson's Point. Although they were preceded by the Mi'kmaq and Acadian peoples, credit for the first permanent white settlement at Miramichi is gr
Fredericton International Airport
Fredericton International Airport is an airport in Lincoln, New Brunswick, Canada, 7 nautical miles southeast of Fredericton. The airport is classified as an airport of entry by Nav Canada and is staffed by the Canada Border Services Agency. CBSA officers at this airport can handle aircraft with no more than 55 passengers or 140 if offloaded in stages. Part of the National Airports System, the airport is owned by Transport Canada and operated by the Greater Fredericton Airport Authority; the airport has two runways and is the second-busiest airport in New Brunswick in terms of passenger levels, after the Greater Moncton International Airport. In 2016 the airport handled 377,977 passengers and in 2008 the airport went from 34,078 aircraft movements to 73,330, an increase of 115%, prompting Nav Canada to provide a control tower in 2009/2010. In 2009 the airport saw the number of movements rise by 44.8% to 106,178 making it the 19th-busiest in Canada and the only one in the top twenty without air traffic control during the year.
Fredericton was designated an international airport in 2007 by Transport Canada. The airport spent $30 million to expand the terminal size by 50% to improve energy efficiency, add more ticket counters and seating; the expansion lasts for 30 months. The airport has its own fire suppression to handle aircraft-related emergency calls. Fredericton Airport Past three hours METARs, SPECI and current TAFs for Greater Fredericton Airport from Nav Canada as available. Air traffic controllers return to Fredericton
Edmundston Airport is located 9 nautical miles northwest of Edmundston, New Brunswick, Canada along the east bank of the Madawaska River. The airport is unique among Canadian airports in that its runway straddles the interprovincial border between New Brunswick and Quebec and is located in Patrieville, New Brunswick in Madawaska County and Dégelis, Quebec in the Témiscouata Regional County Municipality; the airport is classified as an airport of entry by Nav Canada and is staffed by the Canada Border Services Agency. CBSA officers at this airport can handle general aviation aircraft only, with no more than 15 passengers; the airport featured a World War II-era Lancaster KB882 on display outside the terminal building since 1964. The aircraft was relocated in 2017, to the National Air Force Museum of Canada