Cartwright, Newfoundland and Labrador
Cartwright is a community located on the eastern side of the entrance to Sandwich Bay, along the southern coast of Labrador in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. It was incorporated in 1956. Cartwright has been a settled community since 1775. In 1775, Captain George Cartwright, for whom the place is named, settled there, establishing a fish and fur trading business, he left Labrador in 1786, maintaining a business interest there until it was sold to Hunt and Henley in 1815. It was again sold in 1873 to the Hudson's Bay Company and has remained under company ownership since. Since 2002, Cartwright has been connected by road with Blanc Sablon, Quebec where there is a car ferry to Newfoundland. Since December 2009 the remaining link between Cartwright and Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador has been completed and open to the public. At the 2011 census the population was 516, down 6.5% from 552 in the 2006 census. Cartwright has a subarctic climate with snowy winters and short, mild summers.
Owing to its maritime location, the winters are however a little milder than on most of the Labrador Peninsula, but snow depth from the stormy Icelandic Low, which circulates cold and saturated air around the region, is extreme: it averages around 1.6 metres at its peak early in March and has reached as high as 3.51 metres on April 7, 2003. Snow is fully melted early in June and is established again in mid-October. Unlike most of Labrador, there is no permafrost because of the insulation from the deep snow cover, although the annual mean temperature is 0.0 °C. List of cities and towns in Newfoundland and Labrador John Steffler: "The Afterlife of George Cartwright". Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1992. New York: Henry Holt & Co. 1993. Buckle, Francis Labrador Diary, 1915-1925: the Gordon journals. Cartwright: Anglican Parish ISBN 0-9733448-0-6 Audio recording of a ghost story from Cartwright, Labrador Cartwright - Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador, vol. 1, p. 375-377
Churchill Falls is a waterfall named after former British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill. It is 245 ft high, located on the Churchill River in Labrador, Canada. 4 mi above the falls, the Churchill River narrows to 200 ft and negotiates a series of rapids before dropping into MacLean Canyon, from which sheer cliffs rise several hundred feet on either side. The river flows a total of 12 mi through the canyon over a series of rapids; the total drop from the rapids above the main falls to the end of MacLean Canyon is 1,038 ft. Since 1970, the waters of the Churchill River have been diverted into the nearby Churchill Falls hydroelectric power station, which has the third largest hydroelectric-generating capacity in North America. Today water flows down the falls less than once a decade, during spring thaw or periods of exceptional rains; the falls were a significant landmark for local indigenous peoples. In 1839, John McLean became the first non-Aboriginal to reach Churchill Falls. McLean was a trader of the Hudson's Bay Company and he named the river the Hamilton River after the Newfoundland governor, Sir Charles Hamilton.
The falls were largely forgotten until 1894 when A P Low of the Geological Survey of Canada reached the Grand Falls during his study of the large number of iron ore deposits in western Labrador and northeastern Quebec. The name of the river and falls was changed to the Churchill River and Churchill Falls in 1965 to honour the former British prime minister, Sir Winston Churchill. In 1915, Wilfred Thibaudeau surveyed the Labrador Plateau and engineered a channel scheme which could be used to divert the water from the river before it arrived at the falls; the scheme would use the natural capacity of the basin, thereby eliminating the need for the construction of massive dams. In 1947, Commander G. H. Desbarats, under the direction of the Newfoundland Government, completed a preliminary survey that confirmed Thibaudeau's findings; however development did not proceed due to several reasons: the inhospitable terrain severe climatic conditions geographic remoteness long distance transmission requirement the lack of markets for such a large block of power In August, 1949, Joey Smallwood, Premier of Newfoundland, saw Churchill Falls for the first time and he became obsessed with using them to generate electricity.
In 1953 British Newfoundland Development Corporation was formed to do extensive exploration of the untapped water and mineral resources. With the development of the iron ore mines in western Labrador and the construction of the Quebec North Shore and Labrador Railway, development of Churchill Falls as a power source became feasible. After years of planning, the project was started on July 17, 1967; the machine hall of the power facility at Churchill Falls was hollowed out of solid rock, close to 1,000 ft underground. Its final proportions are huge: in height it equals a 15-storey building, its length is three times that of a Canadian football field; when completed, it housed 11 generating units, with a combined capacity of 5,428 MW. Water is contained by a reservoir created not by a single large dam, but by a series of 88 dikes that total 64 km in length. At the time, the project was the largest civil engineering project undertaken in North America. Once all the dikes were in place, it provided a vast storage area which became known as Smallwood Reservoir.
This reservoir provides storage for more than 1 × 10 ^ 12 cu ft of water. The drainage area for the Churchill River includes much of central Labrador. Ossokmanuan Reservoir, developed as part of the Twin Falls Power System drains into this system. Churchill River's natural drainage area covers over 23,300 sq mi. Once Orma and Sail lakes' outlets were diked, it added another 4,400 sq mi of drainage for a total of 27,700 sq mi; this makes the drainage area larger than the Republic of Ireland. Studies showed this drainage area collected 410 mm of rainfall plus 391 cm of snowfall annually equalling 12.5 cu mi of water per year. Construction came to fruition on December 6, 1971, when Churchill Falls went into full-time production; the generating station is owned by the Churchill Falls Corporation Ltd. — whose shareholders are Nalcor and Hydro-Québec — and operated by the Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro company. Under the Köppen climate classification, Churchill Falls has a subarctic climate with long, cold winters and short, mild summers.
The community of Churchill Falls has been a popular destination for hobby and sport fisherman for many years. The construction of the hydroelectric infrastructure has created large, enclosed freshwater environments which are populated by several species of fish, including lake trout, brook trout and northern pike; the ideal growing environment leads to lake trout, some weighing in at 50 lb, speckled trout larger than 6 lb, northern pike of above average weights. Low, Albert Peter, "Report on explorations in the Labrador peninsula along the East Main, Hamilton and portions of other rivers in 1892-93-94-95", Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, retrieved 2010-09-13 Churchill Falls Generating Station Re Upper Churchill Water Rights Reversion Act Churchill Falls travel guide from Wikivoyage Churchill Falls Hyd
Not to be confused with Canadian Transportation Agency. Transport Canada is the department within the Government of Canada responsible for developing regulations and services of transportation in Canada, it is part of the Transportation and Communities portfolio. The current Minister of Transport is Marc Garneau. Transport Canada is headquartered in Ontario; the Department of Transport was created in 1935 by the government of William Lyon Mackenzie King in recognition of the changing transportation environment in Canada at the time. It merged three departments: the former Department of Railways and Canals, the Department of Marine and Fisheries, the Civil Aviation Branch of the Department of National Defence under C. D. Howe, who would use the portfolio to rationalize the governance and provision of all forms of transportation, he created Trans-Canada Air Lines. The Department of Transport Act came into force November 2, 1936. Prior to a 1994 federal government reorganization, Transport Canada had a wide range of operational responsibilities including the Canadian Coast Guard, the Saint Lawrence Seaway and seaports, as well as Via Rail and CN Rail.
Significant cuts to Transport Canada at that time resulted in CN Rail being privatized, the coast guard being transferred to Fisheries and Oceans, the seaway and various ports and airports being transferred to local operating authorities. Transport Canada emerged from this process as a department focused on policy and regulation rather than transportation operations. In 2004, Transport Canada introduced non-passenger screening to enhance both airport and civil aviation security. Transport Canada's headquarters are located in Ottawa at Place de Ville, Tower C. Transport Canada has regional headquarters in: Vancouver – Government of Canada Building on Burrard Street and Robson Street Edmonton – Canada Place, 9700 Jasper Avenue NW Winnipeg – Macdonald Building, 344 Edmonton Street Toronto – Government of Canada Building, 4900 Yonge Street Dorval – Pierre Elliott Trudeau Airport, 700 Place Leigh-Capreol Moncton – Heritage Building, 95 Foundry Street Minister of Transport Marc GarneauDeputy Minister, Transport Canada Michael KeenanAssociate Deputy Minister, Thao Pham Assistant Deputy Minister and Security, Kevin Brousseau Associate Assistant Deputy Minister and Security, Aaron McCrombie Assistant Deputy Minister, Pierre-Marc Mongeau Associate Assistant Deputy Minister and Lead, Navigation Protection Act Review, Catherine Higgens Assistant Deputy Minister, Lawrence Hanson Assistant Deputy Minister, Corporate Services, André Lapointe Assistant Deputy Minister, Natasha Rascanin Director General, Corporate Secretariat, Tom Oommen Director General and Marketing, Dan Dugas Regional Director General, Atlantic Region, Ann Mowatt Regional Director General, Quebec Region, Albert Deschamps Regional Director General, Ontario Region, Tamara Rudge Regional Director General and Northern Region, Michele Taylor Regional Director General, Pacific Region, Robert Dick Departmental General Counsel, Henry K. Schultz Chief Audit and Evaluation Executive, Martin Rubenstein Transport Canada is responsible for enforcing several Canadian legislation, including the Aeronautics Act, Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act, Motor Vehicle Safety Act, Canada Transportation Act, Railway Safety Act, Canada Shipping Act, 2001, Marine Transportation Security Act amongst others.
Each inspector with delegated power from the Minister of Transport receives official credentials to exercise their power, as shown on the right. These inspectors are public officers identified within the Criminal Code of Canada; the Motor Vehicle Safety Act was established in 1971 in order to create safety standards for cars in Canada. The department acts as the federal government's funding partner with provincial transport ministries on jointly-funded provincial transportation infrastructure projects for new highways. TC manage a database of traffic collisions in Canada. Transport Canada's role in railways include: railway safety surface and intermodal security strategies for rail travel accessibility safety of federally regulated railway bridges safety and security of international bridges and tunnels Inspecting and testing traffic control signals, grade crossing warning systems rail operating rules regulations and services for safe transport of dangerous goods Canadian Transport Emergency Centre to assist emergency response and handling dangerous goods emergenciesFollowing allegations by shippers of service level deterioration, on April 7, 2008, the federal government of Canada launched a review of railway freight service within the country.
Transport Canada, managing the review, plans to investigate the relationships between Canadian shippers and the rail industry with regards to the two largest railroad companies in the country, Canadian Pacific Railway and Canadian National Railway. On June 26, 2013, the Fair Rail Freight Service Act became law, a response to the Rail Freight Service Review’s Final Report. Transport Canada is responsible for the waterways inside and surrounding Canada; these responsibilities include: responding and investigating marine accidents within Canadian waters enforcing marine acts and regulations establishing and enforcing marine personnel standards and pilotage Marine Safety Marine Security regulating the operation of marine vessels in Canadian watersAs of 2003 the Office of Boating Safety and the Navigable Waters Protection Program were transferred back to Transport Canada. As was certain regulatory aspects of Emergen
St. John's International Airport
St. John's International Airport is in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, it is an international airport located at the northern limits of St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador that serves the St. John's metropolitan area and the Avalon Peninsula; the airport is part of the National Airports System, is operated by St. John's International Airport Authority Inc; the airport is classified as an airport of entry by Nav Canada and is staffed by the Canada Border Services Agency. CBSA officers at this airport can handle aircraft with no more than 165 passengers. However, they can handle up to 450. Concern was expressed in the Canadian Parliament as early as September 1939 for the security of Dominion of Newfoundland in the event of a German raid or attack, it was felt that a permanent airfield defense facility was needed and as a result discussions were carried out among Canada and the United Kingdom during 1940. In late 1940 the Canadian Government agreed to construct an air base near St. John's. Early in 1941, Canadian Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King informed Newfoundland Governor Sir Humphrey T. Walwyn of the intended location in Torbay.
Newfoundland agreed, but stipulated that Canada was to assume all expenses and that the aerodrome not be used for civil purposes without first receiving Newfoundland's permission. The Canadian Government agreed, in April 1941 McNamara Construction Company began construction on the runway. At a cost of $1.5 million, a pair of runways, aprons and other facilities were built and in operation by the end of 1941. The Royal Canadian Air Force opened Torbay Airport on December 15, 1941, it was jointly used by the RCAF, Royal Air Force, the United States Army Air Corps until December 1946. On October 18, 1941, three American B-17 Flying Fortress and one RCAF Digby made the first unofficial landings on the only serviceable runway available; that month a British Overseas Airways Corporation B-24 Liberator en route from Prestwick, Scotland, to Gander, made the first sanctioned landing during a weather emergency. The first commercial air service at the facility went into operation on May 1, 1942 with the arrival at Torbay of a Trans-Canada Air Lines Lockheed Lodestar aircraft with five passengers and three crew.
The first terminal building at the site was constructed in 1943. The small wooden structure was replaced by a larger brick building in 1958. In 1942 the aerodrome was listed as RCAF Aerodrome - Torbay, Newfoundland at 47°37′N 52°44′W with a variation of 29 degrees west and elevation of 460 ft; the field was listed as "All hard surfaced" and had three runways listed as follows: Although the airfield was not used as much as Argentia, Gander and Goose Bay airports in the movement of large numbers of aircraft to England, it was still quite busy. The Royal Air Force had its own squadron of fighters and weather aircraft stationed there; the RCAF personnel strength on the station during the peak war years was well over 2000. Through an agreement between the US, Canadian and Newfoundland governments early in 1947, the United States Air Force took over the use of the airport facilities and used about ten of the airport buildings; the US Military Air Transport Service needed Torbay Airport in order to complete its assigned mission at that time.
Maintenance of the airport and facilities was done by the Canadian Department of Transport. On April 1, 1946, the airport became a civilian operation under the jurisdiction of the Canadian Department of Transport. Confusion was caused by the presence of American military personnel at a civilian airport operated by the Canadian government in a foreign country. On 1 April 1953 control was returned to the Department of National Defence. On April 15, 1953 the RCAF Station at Torbay was reactivated and RCAF personnel started to move in and to provide the necessary administration and operation of the facility to support the mission of its co-tenant, the USAF. In early 1954 a rental agreement was signed between the USAF and the RCAF, the USAF acquired use of additional buildings; the control tower constructed during the war burned down in an extensive fire on March 17, 1946, which caused $1.5 million worth of damage. Construction was not begun on a new tower until 1951. A new Tower/Communications Building replaced that structure in March 1976.
The tower was equipped with radio navigation and landing aids including precision approach radar, non-directional beacon and VHF omni-directional range. The Transport Department maintained control over the terminal building; the facility remained RCAF Station Torbay until April 1, 1964, when it was returned to the jurisdiction of the Transport Department under the name St. John's Airport. St. John's Airport is still referred to as "Torbay" within the aviation community. For example, in aeronautical radio communications, air traffic controllers, flight dispatchers and pilots refer to the weather in "Torbay" and in flight clearances controllers clear aircraft to or over St. John's with the phrase "Cleared direct Torbay". In the latter case this is a clearance to the VOR serving the region, which continues to be named Torbay on all official aeronautical charts. In addition to tradition, this usage avoids confusion with Saint John, New Brunswick in Atlantic Canada. Additionally the "T" in airport codes CYYT and YYT continues to reflect the Torbay origin.
In 1981 the terminal building housed the offices of the airport staff. There were ticket offices for Eastern Provincial Airways, Air Canada, Gander Aviation and Labrador Airways, a large waiting ar
Clarenville is a town on the east coast of Newfoundland in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Clarenville was incorporated in 1951 and is located in the Shoal Harbour valley fronting an arm of the Atlantic Ocean called Random Sound; the town grew in importance after it became a junction on the Newfoundland Railway where a branch line to the Bonavista Peninsula left the main line. The construction of the Trans-Canada Highway through the community in the 1960s resulted in it becoming a local service centre for central-eastern Newfoundland, serving 96,000 people living in 90 communities within a 100 km radius. Clarenville is centrally located and within two hours' driving time of 70% of the province's population; the town is a natural gateway to the Discovery Trail, extending down the Bonavista Peninsula to Trinity and Bonavista, reputed site of the first landing of European explorer John Cabot. The trail is a panorama of historic sites, coastal towns and villages. Clarenville is near the centre of three peninsulas: Avalon and Bonavista.
Route 1 and Route 230 pass through the town linking Clarenville to the Bonavista Bay area and to the rest of the provincial road network. The Clarenville area has many of the physical features characteristic of the East Coast of Newfoundland and has a marine climate, it lies along the coastal slopes which rise from the Atlantic Ocean towards the interior central plateau of the island. The dominating physical feature is a ridge of broken peaks which rise to heights up to 152 meters above sea level parallel to the coast line. Bare Mountain, with an elevation of 156 meters above sea level, dominates the skyline in the northern part of the town; this ridge falls towards the sea so that its coastal edge is characterized by moderate to severe slopes. Towards the southern part of Clarenville, the ridge is broken by a series of valleys which have cut their way through from the coast; the most notable of these is the valley formed by the Lower Shoal Harbour River and Dark Hole Brook and their seaward extension of Lower Shoal Harbour, a shallow and narrow indentation of the sea marked by small rock islands and tidal mud flats.
The flats surrounding the river are marshy and subjected to flooding during spring runoff. The river serves as the main drainage course for the area behind the coastal ridge. Clarenville has developed in a narrow strip between the sea; the average width of the corridor is between 600 meters. Located at the most westerly end of an in-drift called Random Sound, extending 25 km inland behind Random Island; as the deepest, best sheltered, ice-free port on Newfoundland's east coast, Clarenville is suited for commercial shipping and recreational boating. There is no definite date for the first settlement of. William Cowan owned a sawmill at Lower Shoal Harbour around 1848 and this was bought by Joseph Tilley and James Summers of Hants Harbour, they settled here. Settlers arrived at Dark Hole; the families that made up this community were the Balsoms, Pearces and Seawards. Settlers arrived at Brook Cove, Broad Cove, Red Beach; these five communities became part of a new community known as Clarenceville in 1892 when the railway came through.
There are two versions of the origin of Clarenville's name. It has been attributed to a memorial to the Duke of Clarence, eldest son of the Prince of Wales who died in 1892; the other version is. However, Sir William had no son by that name. By 1901 Clarenville was the way everyone spelled the name and it has remained that way. John Tilley and his family were the first settlers of Lower Shoal Harbour, they traveled from Hants Harbour in 1848 because of the abundance of timber here. "Scholar John" many people referred to him as, because he taught himself how to write. As a young man he married Elizabeth Bursey of Old Perlican and they had four sons and six daughters. Being one of the earliest Justices of the Peace licensed to perform marriages in Newfoundland, John Tilley performed the marriage of his own daughter. If we were to look in church records today, we would find that Scholar John's name would appear several times in the late 1830s and 1840s when there was no minister or missionary available.
When the Tilleys first arrived the first thing they had to do was to build a log cottage which would be a temporary structure. They built a saw mill so they could build a standard size home. Along with the saw mill, the Tilleys became involved with fox farming, coopering, blacksmithing and fish canning. John Tilley and Sons were the tinning operation to tin salmon in Newfoundland. Shortly after Scholar John tinned his first salmon he learned of a fishery exhibition, he sent a sample to the exhibition and received a prize in the form of a bronze medal with the inscription: " Warranted to keep free from taint and to retain its purity and nutritious quality, in any climate for many years." Scholar John and Moses Tilley with help from John's son-in-law David Palmer, built the first church in Shoal Harbour. In 1993, Clarenville and Shoal Harbour were amalgamated; the town held the 1994 Newfoundland Winter Games, the 1997 National Under 17 Men's Softball Tournament, in November 2010 hosted two games of the Four Nations Cup.
Clarenville has recreational facilities including a health club with an indoor pool, three softball diamonds, a soccer pitch with a running track, a recreation complex with three regulation size volleyball courts. The newly constructed Clarenville Eve
Deer Lake, Newfoundland and Labrador
Deer Lake is a town in the western part of the island of Newfoundland in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The town derives its name from Deer Lake and is situated at the outlet of the upper Humber River at the northeastern end of the lake; the first settlers in the area arrived from Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia in 1864. Loggers and trappers, the settlers took up farming. In 1922, a work camp was set up to support the International Paper company; the camp would become the town of Deer Lake. A formal townsite was constructed in 1925 and included a railroad terminal, churches and a small hospital; the town was incorporated in 1950. The airport is one of the town's major employers. In 2004, Deer Lake Regional Airport began plans to redesign the airport terminal, completed in June 2007; the primary population that the airport serves is 55,000. The effect was from Rocky Harbour around Deer Lake; the town is located in Division No. 5 and is the gateway to the Great Northern Peninsula, owing to an important highway interchange on the Trans-Canada Highway.
It is the closest major community to Gros Morne National Park and is home to the Deer Lake Regional Airport. A hydroelectric plant was established on the Humber River in 1925 to provide electricity to a pulp and paper paper mill in Corner Brook. Deer Lake offers accommodation for tourists as well as restaurants, convenience stores and gas stations. There is swimming pool and a bowling alley in the Hodder Memorial Recreational Complex. St. Paul's United Church, a wooden church dating from 1955 and the modern Salvation Army building are worth a visit; the Main Street offers a scenic view of the lake. Population 2016: 5,249 Population 2011: 4,995Population, 2006: 4,827Population, 2001: 4,769 2006 to 2016 population change: 11.43 percent Number of dwellings: 2,106 Land: 73.23 Deer Lake has a humid continental climate with moderately warm summers that are on the short side, with quite long and cold winters that are moderated by its proximity to a large body of water. With precipitation high year-round, Deer Lake receives plenty of snowfall in winters.
The community is served by Deer Lake Regional Airport, the nearest airport to Corner Brook and the most busy in the western part of the island. Dwight Ball, 13th Premier of Newfoundland and Labrador Darren Langdon, National Hockey League player List of cities and towns in Newfoundland and Labrador Official web site Deer Lake - Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Ladrador, vol. 1, p. 608-609
Black Tickle Airport
Black Tickle Airport, is 1 nautical mile northwest of Black Tickle and Labrador, Canada. Black Tickle Airport on COPA's Places to Fly airport directory Accident history for YBI: Black Tickle Airport at Aviation Safety Network