Carmacks is a village in Yukon on the Yukon River along the Klondike Highway, at the west end of the Robert Campbell Highway from Watson Lake. The population is 493, it is the home of a Northern Tutchone-speaking people. The area around Carmacks has abundant mineral resources, including coal and gold. Various mining activities are taking place on mineral sites around Carmacks. There is a small zinc-copper mine in production near Carmacks operated by Western Silver and a gold property northwest of Carmacks in the exploration stage operated by Northern Freegold Resources based out of Whitehorse. Carmacks is situated at the confluence of the Nordenskiold and Yukon rivers 180 km north of Whitehorse and 360 km south of Dawson City on the North Klondike Highway, it is the site of one of the four bridges over the Yukon River. The Campbell Highway intersects the community and carries on to Faro, Ross River and Watson Lake, providing a gateway to the Canol Road and some of Yukon's most spectacular scenery.
The name of the settlement comes from George Washington Carmack. He created a trading post and began by engaging in commerce with local people, before opening a coal mine in the south bank of the Yukon River; the focus of his entrepreneurial energy switched a few years when he discovered gold near Dawson City. Carmacks is the only place in Yukon to enjoy the status of a Designated place; the community consists of the Village of Carmacks and the Little Salmon/Carmacks First Nation and was named after George Washington Carmack, who found coal near Tantalus Butte in 1893. Carmack built a trading post and traded with locals near the present site of Carmacks and started a coal mine on the south bank of the Yukon River. Carmack soon discovered gold in the Dawson region with Skookum Jim and Tagish Charlie a few years starting the Klondike Gold Rush. Carmacks became incorporated as a village on November 1, 1984. Carmacks is served by Klondike Highway by Carmacks Airport by air; the Carmacks Recreation Centre is at the east end of River Drive between the nursing station and visitor centre, is a community focal point for youth.
There is a youth drop in daily with a computer access, video games, table games and other activities funded by Yukon grant programs. The gymnasium is host to other sports; the Recreation Center holds a 3 lane curling rink loaded fitness gym and a full kitchen for all occasions. Carmacks has an indoor swimming pool, open to the community from June to September; every February, Carmacks hosts a checkpoint for both the long-distance Yukon Quest sled dog race and the Yukon Arctic Ultra foot/ski/bike race. Carmacks is the only community in Yukon which has the status of designated place in Canadian censuses. Carmacks has a 91.4% First Nations population the majority of which belong to the Little Salmon Carmacks First Nations. The local language of the LSCFN community is Northern Tuchone, carried on both by the elders and taught to all students at the local Tantalus Elementary/high School. List of municipalities in Yukon History of Carmacks Community Profile Little Salmon Carmacks First Nation Village of Carmacks Web Page
Mayo is a village in Yukon, along the Silver Trail and the Stewart River. The population at the 2016 census was a decrease of 11.5 % from the 2011 census. It is the home of the First Nation of Nacho Nyak Dun, whose primary language is Northern Tutchone. Nacho Nyak Dun translates into "big river people", it is serviced by Mayo Airport. It was known as Mayo Landing; the only school is J. V. Clark School, named after Dr. Clark, it had about 70 students in 2012. The current Principal is Ken MacGillivray; the village was named after former circus acrobat turned settler and explorer Alfred Mayo. Before Europeans came there were in the area two communities of the Nacho Nyak Dun people, who lived by hunting and trapping; the river now known as the Stewart River was known as the "Náhcho Nyäk". The people lived across the Stewart River from the main focus of today's Mayo, in a district today called "Old Mayo village"; the old settlement was reinstated on the initiative of a missionary, but in 1934 the river burst its banks and flattened much of the old village, destroying the church and many cultural treasures.
The first gold discoveries in the area were made in the 1880s: silver was discovered some time later. Till the mid-twentieth century Mayo was connected with the outside world by the river and received any supplies by boat. In the 1950s the construction of the Klondike Highway and the Silver Trail provided Mayo with a road link to Stewart Crossing. Between 1973 and 1984 negotiation took place between the government and the northern Tutchone leaders over land rights and self-government. A breakthrough came only in 1993 with a treaty between the residents and the lawmakers concerning an area of 1,830 sq mi and a payment, over fifteen years, totalling C$14.5 million. Together with the Tr'ondek Hwech’in First Nation an agreement has been made with Yukon Energy to supply electricity to Dawson City using the Mayo-Dawson Power Line. May 2008 saw a preliminary agreement with Alexco Resource Corp. concerning silver extraction in the Keno Hill Silver area near the far end of Mayo lake where the corporation operates 40 silver mines.
Mayo has the warmest summers in the Yukon with a mean average summer temperature of 14.5 °C. List of municipalities in Yukon YukonWeb: The Village of Mayo
A heliport is an area of land, water, or structure used or intended to be used for the landing and takeoff of helicopters, includes its buildings and facilities. In other words, it is a small airport suitable for use by helicopters and some other vertical lift platforms. Designated heliports contain one or more touchdown and liftoff area and may have limited facilities such as fuel or hangars. In some larger towns and cities, customs facilities may be available. Early advocates of helicopters hoped that heliports would become widespread, but they have become contentious in urban areas due to the excessive noise caused by helicopter traffic. Other terms used to refer to a heliport are: Helistop - A term sometimes used to describe a minimally developed heliport for boarding and discharging passengers or cargo. Helipad - A term oftentimes confused with heliport or helistop; the only reference of this term in the U. S. by the FAA is found in the Aeronautical Information Manual Pilot/Controller Glossary of Terms, which says: A small, designated area with a prepared surface, on a heliport, landing/takeoff area, apron/ramp, or movement area used for takeoff, landing, or parking of helicopters.
In other words, the TLOF. Helideck - Used to describe the landing area on a vessel or offshore structure on which helicopters may land and take off; the airspace surrounding the heliport is called the Primary Surface. This area coincides in size with the designated take-off and landing area; this surface is a horizontal plane equal to the elevation of the established heliport elevation. The Primary Surface is further broken down into three distinct regions; these are, the Final Approach and Takeoff area and the Safety Area. The TLOF is a load-bearing paved area centered in the FATO, on which the helicopter lands and/or takes off; the FATO is a defined area over which the pilot completes the final phase of the approach to a hover or a landing and from which the pilot initiates takeoff. The FATO elevation is the lowest elevation of the edge of the TLOF; the Safety Area is a defined area on a heliport surrounding the FATO intended to reduce the risk of damage to helicopters accidentally diverging from the FATO.
In a large metropolitan and urban areas a heliport can serve passengers needing to move within the city or to outlying regions. Heliports can be situated closer to a town or city center than an airport for fixed-wing aircraft; the advantage in flying by helicopter to a destination or to the city's main airport is that travel can be much faster than driving. As an example, the Downtown Manhattan Heliport in New York City provides scheduled service to John F. Kennedy International Airport and is used to move wealthy persons and important goods to destinations as far away as Maryland; some skyscrapers feature rooftop heliports or helistops to serve the transport needs of executives or clients. Many of these rooftop sites serve as Emergency Helicopter Landing Facilities in case emergency evacuation is needed; the U. S. Bank Tower in Los Angeles is an example. Police departments use heliports as a base for police helicopters, larger departments may have a dedicated large heliport facility dedicated such as the LAPD Hooper Heliport.
Heliports are common features at hospitals where they serve to facilitate Helicopter Air Ambulance and MEDEVACs for transferring patients into and out of hospital facilities. Some large trauma centers have multiple heliports. Heliports allow hospitals to accept patients that may be flown in from remote accident sites where there are no local hospitals or facilities capable of providing the level of emergency care required; the National EMS Pilots Association has published multiple white papers and safety recommendations for the enhancement of hospital heliport operations to improve patient safety. While heliports can be oriented in any direction they will have definitive approach and departure paths. However, heliports are not numbered in the same way. Recommended standard practice by both the Federal Aviation Administration and the International Civil Aviation Organization is to orient an H in the center of the TLOF in line with the preferred approach/departure direction. An information box should be included in the TLOF area which provides the maximum gross weight the heliport is rated for as well as the maximum size helicopter the heliport has been designed to accommodated, based on the Rotor Diameter and Overall Length of the largest design helicopter that will service the heliport.
Under normal conditions it is standard practice to paint the maximum gross weight a heliport is designed to support in thousands of pounds. Along with the maximum helicopter dimensions in feet. Arrows are oftentimes painted on the heliport to indicate to pilots the preferred approach/departure paths. Other common markings can include radio frequencies, company logos and magnetic north. To conduct nighttime operations at a heliport it must have lighting installed that meets specific aeronautical standards. Heliport perimeter lights are installed around the TLOF area an may be flush mounted on the TLOF itself or mounted just off the TLOF perimeter on short metal or concrete extensions. One alternative to lighting the TLOF if certain criteria is met is to light the area of the FATO instead; some locations, due to environmental conditions, illuminate the TLOF and FATO. Lighting should never constitute an obstruction that a helicopter may impact and for this reason in the U. S. heliport lighting is not allowed to extend above the TLOF
Braeburn Lodge is a roadhouse on the Klondike Highway in the Yukon Territory of Canada. It is located east of Braeburn Lake and north of Braeburn Mountain, on the path of the former Dawson Overland Trail, built in 1902 between Whitehorse and Dawson City; the lodge itself is famous for its large cinnamon buns. Nearby Cinnamon Bun Airport is named for the lodge's cinnamon buns; every February, Braeburn Lodge hosts a checkpoint of the long-distance Yukon Quest sled dog race
Watson Lake Airport
Watson Lake Airport is located 5 nautical miles west of Watson Lake, Canada, is operated by the Yukon government. The paved asphalt runway is 5,500 ft long and is at an elevation of 2,255 ft. Commencing in the early 1940s, scheduled passenger service was operated in the past by Canadian Pacific Air Lines and its successors CP Air and Canadian Airlines International to Vancouver, British Columbia. CP Air served the airport with Boeing 737-200 jetliners during the 1970s with direct, no change of plane flights to all of the above destinations. Other Canadian Pacific flights into the airport over the years were operated with such twin engine prop aircraft as the Lockheed Lodestar, the Douglas DC-3 and the Convair 240 as well as with the larger, four engine Douglas DC-6B propliner and the Bristol Britannia turboprop. Passenger service was provided in the mid 1990s by several regional and commuter airlines such as Central Mountain Air flying Beechcraft twin turboprop aircraft and Alkan Air operating Piper Navajo aircraft.
As of September 12, 2016, Alkan Air resumed thrice-weekly scheduled service between Watson Lake and Whitehorse. There are no scheduled commercial flights from Watson Lake Airport. Watson Lake Water Aerodrome This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/. Yukon Government Airports/Aerodromes Past three hours METARs, SPECI and current TAFs for Watson Lake Airport from Nav Canada as available
Not to be confused with Canadian Transportation Agency. Transport Canada is the department within the Government of Canada responsible for developing regulations and services of transportation in Canada, it is part of the Transportation and Communities portfolio. The current Minister of Transport is Marc Garneau. Transport Canada is headquartered in Ontario; the Department of Transport was created in 1935 by the government of William Lyon Mackenzie King in recognition of the changing transportation environment in Canada at the time. It merged three departments: the former Department of Railways and Canals, the Department of Marine and Fisheries, the Civil Aviation Branch of the Department of National Defence under C. D. Howe, who would use the portfolio to rationalize the governance and provision of all forms of transportation, he created Trans-Canada Air Lines. The Department of Transport Act came into force November 2, 1936. Prior to a 1994 federal government reorganization, Transport Canada had a wide range of operational responsibilities including the Canadian Coast Guard, the Saint Lawrence Seaway and seaports, as well as Via Rail and CN Rail.
Significant cuts to Transport Canada at that time resulted in CN Rail being privatized, the coast guard being transferred to Fisheries and Oceans, the seaway and various ports and airports being transferred to local operating authorities. Transport Canada emerged from this process as a department focused on policy and regulation rather than transportation operations. In 2004, Transport Canada introduced non-passenger screening to enhance both airport and civil aviation security. Transport Canada's headquarters are located in Ottawa at Place de Ville, Tower C. Transport Canada has regional headquarters in: Vancouver – Government of Canada Building on Burrard Street and Robson Street Edmonton – Canada Place, 9700 Jasper Avenue NW Winnipeg – Macdonald Building, 344 Edmonton Street Toronto – Government of Canada Building, 4900 Yonge Street Dorval – Pierre Elliott Trudeau Airport, 700 Place Leigh-Capreol Moncton – Heritage Building, 95 Foundry Street Minister of Transport Marc GarneauDeputy Minister, Transport Canada Michael KeenanAssociate Deputy Minister, Thao Pham Assistant Deputy Minister and Security, Kevin Brousseau Associate Assistant Deputy Minister and Security, Aaron McCrombie Assistant Deputy Minister, Pierre-Marc Mongeau Associate Assistant Deputy Minister and Lead, Navigation Protection Act Review, Catherine Higgens Assistant Deputy Minister, Lawrence Hanson Assistant Deputy Minister, Corporate Services, André Lapointe Assistant Deputy Minister, Natasha Rascanin Director General, Corporate Secretariat, Tom Oommen Director General and Marketing, Dan Dugas Regional Director General, Atlantic Region, Ann Mowatt Regional Director General, Quebec Region, Albert Deschamps Regional Director General, Ontario Region, Tamara Rudge Regional Director General and Northern Region, Michele Taylor Regional Director General, Pacific Region, Robert Dick Departmental General Counsel, Henry K. Schultz Chief Audit and Evaluation Executive, Martin Rubenstein Transport Canada is responsible for enforcing several Canadian legislation, including the Aeronautics Act, Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act, Motor Vehicle Safety Act, Canada Transportation Act, Railway Safety Act, Canada Shipping Act, 2001, Marine Transportation Security Act amongst others.
Each inspector with delegated power from the Minister of Transport receives official credentials to exercise their power, as shown on the right. These inspectors are public officers identified within the Criminal Code of Canada; the Motor Vehicle Safety Act was established in 1971 in order to create safety standards for cars in Canada. The department acts as the federal government's funding partner with provincial transport ministries on jointly-funded provincial transportation infrastructure projects for new highways. TC manage a database of traffic collisions in Canada. Transport Canada's role in railways include: railway safety surface and intermodal security strategies for rail travel accessibility safety of federally regulated railway bridges safety and security of international bridges and tunnels Inspecting and testing traffic control signals, grade crossing warning systems rail operating rules regulations and services for safe transport of dangerous goods Canadian Transport Emergency Centre to assist emergency response and handling dangerous goods emergenciesFollowing allegations by shippers of service level deterioration, on April 7, 2008, the federal government of Canada launched a review of railway freight service within the country.
Transport Canada, managing the review, plans to investigate the relationships between Canadian shippers and the rail industry with regards to the two largest railroad companies in the country, Canadian Pacific Railway and Canadian National Railway. On June 26, 2013, the Fair Rail Freight Service Act became law, a response to the Rail Freight Service Review’s Final Report. Transport Canada is responsible for the waterways inside and surrounding Canada; these responsibilities include: responding and investigating marine accidents within Canadian waters enforcing marine acts and regulations establishing and enforcing marine personnel standards and pilotage Marine Safety Marine Security regulating the operation of marine vessels in Canadian watersAs of 2003 the Office of Boating Safety and the Navigable Waters Protection Program were transferred back to Transport Canada. As was certain regulatory aspects of Emergen
Whitehorse is the capital and only city of Yukon, the largest city in northern Canada. It was incorporated in 1950 and is located at kilometre 1426 on the Alaska Highway in southern Yukon. Whitehorse's downtown and Riverdale areas occupy both shores of the Yukon River, which originates in British Columbia and meets the Bering Sea in Alaska; the city was named after the White Horse Rapids for their resemblance to the mane of a white horse, near Miles Canyon, before the river was dammed. Because of the city's location in the Whitehorse valley, the climate is milder than comparable northern communities such as Yellowknife. At this latitude winter days are short and summer days have up to about 19 hours of daylight. Whitehorse, as reported by Guinness World Records, is the city with the least air pollution in the world; as of the 2016 census, the population was 25,085. Archeological research south of the downtown area, at a location known as Canyon City, has revealed evidence of use by First Nations for several thousand years.
The surrounding area had seasonal fish camps and Frederick Schwatka, in 1883, observed the presence of a portage trail used to bypass Miles Canyon. Before the Gold Rush, several different tribes passed through the area seasonally and their territories overlapped; the discovery of gold in the Klondike in August, 1896, by Skookum Jim, Tagish Charlie and George Washington Carmack set off a major change in the historical patterns of the region. Early prospectors used the Chilkoot Pass, but by July 1897, crowds of neophyte stampeders had arrived via steamship and were camping at "White Horse". By June 1898, there was a bottleneck of stampeders at Canyon City, many boats had been lost to the rapids as well as five people. Samuel Steele of the North-West Mounted Police said: "why more casualties have not occurred is a mystery to me." On their way to find gold, stampeders found copper in the "copper belt" in the hills west of Whitehorse. The first copper claims were staked by Jack McIntyre on July 6, 1898, Sam McGee on July 16, 1899.
Two tram lines were built, one 8 km stretch on the east bank of the Yukon River from Canyon City to the rapids, just across from the present day downtown, the other was built on the west bank of the river. A small settlement was developing at Canyon City but the completion of the White Pass railway to Whitehorse in 1900 put a halt to it; the White Pass and Yukon Route narrow-gauge railway linking Skagway to Whitehorse had begun construction in May 1898, by May 1899 construction had arrived at the south end of Bennett lake. Construction began again at the north end of Bennett lake to Whitehorse, it was only in June–July 1900 that construction finished the difficult Bennett lake section itself, completing the entire route. By 1901, the Whitehorse Star was reporting on daily freight volumes; that summer there were four trains per day. Though traders and prospectors were all calling the city Whitehorse, there was an attempt by the railway people to change the name to Closeleigh, this was refused by William Ogilvie, the territory's Commissioner.
Whitehorse was booming. On May 23, 1905, a small fire in the barber shop of the Windsor Hotel got out of control when the fire engine ran out of water, spreading throughout the city and causing $300,000 in damage, though no lives were lost. Robert Service participated in suppressing the flame; the White Horse Restaurant and Inn was among the buildings destroyed, after its co-founder Frederick Trump, the grandfather of Donald Trump, had sold his shares and left the city. In 1920 the first planes landed in Whitehorse and the first air mail was sent in November 1927; until 1942, rail and air were the only way to get to Whitehorse, but in 1942 the US military decided an interior road would be safer to transfer troops and provisions between Alaska and the US mainland and began construction of the Alaska Highway. The entire 2,500 km project was accomplished between March and November 1942; the Canadian portion of the highway was only returned to Canadian sovereignty after the war. The Canol pipeline was constructed to supply oil to the north with a refinery in Whitehorse.
In 1950 the city was incorporated and by 1951, the population had doubled from its 1941 numbers. On April 1, 1953, the city was designated the capital of the Yukon Territory when the seat was moved from Dawson City after the construction of the Klondike Highway. On March 21, 1957, the name was changed from White Horse to Whitehorse. Whitehorse is located at kilometre 1,425 of the Alaska Highway and is framed by three nearby mountains: Grey Mountain to the east, Haeckel Hill to the northwest and Golden Horn Mountain to the south; the rapids which were the namesake of the city have disappeared under Miles Canyon and Schwatka Lake, formed by the construction of a hydroelectricity dam in 1958. Whitehorse is the 64th largest city in Canada by area; the city limits present a near rectangular shape orientated in a NW-SE direction. Like most of Yukon, Whitehorse has a dry subarctic climate. However, because of the city's location in the Whitehorse valley, the climate is milder than other comparable northern communities such as Yellowknife.
With an average annual temperature of −0.1 °C Whitehorse is the warmest place in the Yukon. The temperature measurements for the city are taken at the airport; the Whitehorse Riverdale weather station situated at a lower elevation than the airport is warmer at 0.2 °C. At this latitude winter days are short and summer days have just over 19 hours of daylight. Whitehorse has an average daily high of 20.6 °C in