Mirabel is an off-island suburb of Montreal, located in southern Quebec. Mirabel is the name of a territory equivalent to a regional county municipality and census division of Quebec, coextensive with the city of Mirabel, its geographical code is 74. Prior to 2002, Mirabel was not only a city but comprised the Mirabel Regional County Municipality; the city is home to Montréal-Mirabel International Airport. Mirabel was formed through the expropriation of private lands and the merger of 8 municipalities in 1971; the former municipalities were: Saint-Augustin. Called Ville de Sainte-Scholastique but renamed Mirabel in 1973, the city was planned to become a vast transportation and industrial hub for Eastern Canada with Montréal-Mirabel International Airport at its centre; the airport, which opened in 1975, never became a major aviation hub and the industrial parks never materialized, in 2004 the airport closed to all passenger traffic. In 2000, about 10 square kilometres of Mirabel's territory was annexed by Lachute.
When Nolisair was in existence, its headquarters were in the Nationair Building on the property of Montréal-Mirabel International Airport. Bombardier Aerospace produces CRJ700, CRJ900 & CRJ1000 regional jetliners and Airbus A220 at the Montreal-Mirabel International Airport. Bell Helicopters has its major manufacturing and final assembly plant at the airport; the Commission scolaire de la Seigneurie-des-Mille-Iles, which operates Francophone public schools, serves the following parts of Mirabel: Saint-Augustin, Saint-Benoît, Sainte-Scholastique and a portion of Domaine-Vert. École primaire de la Clé-des-Champs École primaire des Blés-Dorés École primaire Girouard École primaire Prés fleuris École primaire Sainte-ScholastiqueOther elementary schools serving sections of CCSMI Mirabel: Notre-Dame-de-l'Assomption in Blainville and Terre-Soleil in Sainte-Thérèse. Secondary schools serving sections of CSSMI Mirabel: d'Oka in Oka, des Patriotes in Saint-Eustache, Henri-Dunant in Blainville, Jean-Jacques-Rousseau in Boisbriand, Polyvalente Sainte-Thérèse in Sainte-Thérèse.
The Commission scolaire de la Rivière-du-Nord operates Francophone public schools in other parts of Mirabel. They include: Secondary schools:École secondaire de Mirabel Other secondary schools serving CSRDN sections include Polyvalente Lavigne in Lachute and Cap-Jeunesse, Émilien-Frenette, Polyvalente Saint-Jérôme, Saint-Stanlislas in Saint-Jérôme Primary schools:à l'Unisson aux Quatre-Vents de la Croisée-des-Champs Mer-et-Monde Saint-Anne Saint-Hermas Other primary schools serving CSRDN Mirabel include Dubois, de l'Horizon-Soleil, Prévost, Saint-Jean-Baptiste, Sainte-Thérèse-de-l'Enfant-Jésus in Saint-Jérôme and Jean-Moreau in Sainte-Sophie; the Sir Wilfrid Laurier School Board operates Anglophone public schools in the area around Mirabel. Secondary schools serving portions of Mirabel include: Lake of Two Mountains High School in Deux-Montagnes serves southern Mirabel Laurentian Regional High School in Lachute serves northern Mirabel Rosemere High School in Rosemère serves southeast MirabelPrimary schools serving portions of Mirabel include: Laurentia Elementary School in Saint-Jérôme serves northern Mirabel Mountainview Elementary School and Saint Jude Elementary School in Deux-Montagnes serve southern mirabel Pierre Elliot Trudeau Elementary School in Blainville serves southeast Mirabel Châlons-en-Champagne List of regional county municipalities and equivalent territories in Quebec Mirabel Aerospace Centre Saint Pierre River, a river Rivière aux Chiens, a river Ville de Mirabel Website
North Glengarry, Ontario
North Glengarry is a township in eastern Ontario, Canada, in the United Counties of Stormont and Glengarry. It is a predominantly rural area located between Ottawa-Gatineau and Cornwall; the township of North Glengarry was established on January 1, 1998, with the amalgamation of the former Townships of Kenyon and Lochiel, along with the Village of Maxville and the Town of Alexandria. The township of North Glengarry comprises a number of villages and hamlets, including the following communities: Kenyon Township: Apple Hill, Dunvegan, Maxville. Alexandria is served five or six times a day by the Montreal-Ottawa Via Rail trains which all stop there, in each direction. Commuter buses provide daily services from area to Ottawa-Gatineau. 60% francophones and 40% anglophones. The area was settled in 1792 as part of the historic Glengarry County in which many Scottish emigrants settled from all over the Scottish Highlands due to the Highland Clearances; this first wave of heavy migration lasted till 1816, emigration still continued afterwards into the early 20th century but in a slower pace.
Many of these migrants came from the Inverness-shire area of Scotland specifically. Canadian Gaelic / Scottish Gaelic has been a spoken language in the area for over four centuries. Kenyon, part of Charlottenburgh Township until 1798, was named for British judge and politician Lloyd Kenyon, 1st Baron Kenyon, Lochiel, part of Lancaster Township until 1818, was named for the Lochiels of Clan Cameron. Alexandria and its nucleus Priest's Mill, built in 1819, were named for the catholic priest Alexander Macdonell, who resided at St. Raphael's and became the first bishop of Kingston. Development in the region was spurred by the development of a railway link between Ottawa and Montreal in the early 1880s. Maxville and Glen Robertson, in particular, became key railway hubs for farmers in the area. Maxville was first incorporated as a village separate from Kenyon Township in 1892, Alexandria was separated from Lochiel Township in the early 1900s. Maxville hosts the annual Glengarry Highland Games, one of North America's largest festivals of Scottish culture, on the first long weekend in August.
The Glengarry Highland Games include traditional Scottish events such as the caber toss, tug of war, the sheaf toss. Maxville hosts a country fair at the end of June that include a classic and new automobile show, homecraft prizes, Western performances, a holstein show including 4-H showmanship, a hunter horse and hunter pony show, a talent show, a midway, laser tag and a demolition derby; the Alexandria Glens of the Central Canada Hockey League Tier 2 play out of the Glengarry Sports Palace in Alexandria. The Glens Join the CCHL2 new league in 2015; the Glens played in the Eastern Ontario Junior B Hockey League until 2014-15 Season. The Glens won the 2007 EOJBHL Championship; this marks the first time a team outside of the Metro Division of EOJBHL has won the Carson Trophy as league champions in over half a decade. This marks the Glens first Junior "B" Championship; the Glens won the 2008 EOJBHL Championship, defeating the Ottawa West Golden Knights in 6 games in the final. This marks the first time a team the St-Lawrence Division has won the Carson Trophy back to back as league champions.
This marks the Glens Second Junior "B" Championship. The Maxville Mustangs of the Eastern Ontario Junior C Hockey League used to play in Maxville. Transit Eastern Ontario operated under the authority of The North Glengarry Prescott Russell Transport Board List of townships in Ontario List of francophone communities in Ontario Township of North Glengarry
Saint-Mathias-sur-Richelieu is a municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec. It is located within the Rouville Regional County Municipality in the Montérégie region on the Richelieu River; the population as of the Canada 2011 Census was 4,618. Michel Jean - Anchorman and journalist TVA Nouvelles and Le Canale Nouvelles a Quebec-based news network List of municipalities in Quebec Municipalité de Saint-Mathias-sur-Richelieu
Plattsburgh (city), New York
Plattsburgh is a city in and the seat of Clinton County, New York, United States. The population was 19,989 at the 2010 census; the population of the unincorporated areas within the Town of Plattsburgh was 11,870 as of the 2010 census, making the population for the immediate Plattsburgh region 31,859. The city of Plattsburgh is within the boundaries of the original town of Plattsburgh and is in the North Country region of the U. S. state of New York. The city of Plattsburgh is the population center and county seat at the heart of the Plattsburgh micropolitan statistical area - population 82,128 as of the 2010 Census. A statistical area representing the greater Plattsburgh region, the Plattsburgh MSA includes all communities in the immediate Clinton County area. Beginning with Samuel de Champlain's expedition into the Lake Champlain valley in 1609, the Plattsburgh region began to come under the French influence, passed under British, American control; the early French contact and its closeness to Quebec made this a French area.
Located in the extended fur trade network in the Montreal hinterland, the Plattsburgh area was the realm of the coureur des bois, who served the larger trading hub in Montreal. Although Plattsburgh is a new city, the surrounding area was settled during the mid-to-late 17th century. A permanent French settlement was hampered by the threat of conflict with the Iroquois, but French missionaries began living among the indigenous population as early as 1609. Moreover, the area near Plattsburgh is notable for being the site of an indigenous village; the local Catholic Churches used to be run by Bishops of Quebec until 1808, when they were transferred to American Pastoral Care. As of 2013, trends are forcing Catholic schools to consolidate. Plattsburgh and much of the lands comprising present day Clinton County were part of the French settlement of New France, they stayed a part of New France until the outcome of the French and Indian War, where the French lost their hold on this region to the British.
This conflict predated the American Revolution. As a condition of the 1763 Treaty of Paris, a vast region including present-day Plattsburgh was ceded from France to Britain, it was incorporated into British rule as part of the Indian Reserve. The Reserve was established by Britain as an attempt to protect British colonial positions in New England and the Middle Colonies using the newly acquired lands to buffer against armed conflict with Spain; the founding of present-day Plattsburgh, was not an act of the British, rather it coincided with the American territorial acquisition after the American Revolutionary War. Plattsburgh was founded by Zephaniah Platt in 1785. In granting land to Zephaniah Platt of Poughkeepsie, New York - who went on to establish the new city of Plattsburgh to buffer emerging American interests in the Saint Lawrence River valley and Lake Champlain valley after the American victory in the American Revolutionary War - the centralized American authority proclaimed the area including and surrounding the old French trading areas and Iroquois settlement to be refounded as the settlement of Plattsburgh in 1785.
Regardless, local residents exercised their unique French culture and history over the years in ways still visible today. In Plattsburgh, for example, there is no "Main Street" - a common vestige of English colonies, whereas in a unique tradition major streets and thoroughfares were named after the daughters of prominent businessman and politicians. In a similar fashion, local residents named local streets after renowned Frenchmen including Samuel de Champlain, the region's founder, General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm - the French general who gained fame defeating incredible numerical odds in battles throughout the Oswego and Hudson River Valley areas before going on to organize the last French defense of Québec at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham; the oldest monument within the city limits is dedicated to Samuel de Champlain. On March 3rd, 1815, an act was passed by the Legislature incorporating the Village of Plattsburgh out of an area, the eastern part of the town; the first village elections were held on May 2nd of that year.
The village incorporated as a city in 1903. With its significant location on a major water thoroughfare and close to the Canada–U. S. Border, Plattsburgh has been the site of a number of historic events including the Revolutionary War's Battle of Valcour Island and the War of 1812's Battle of Plattsburgh; the Battle of Plattsburgh is significant as it was the final battle between the British/Canadian forces and the American – for references see Battle of Plattsburgh. Plattsburgh Normal School was founded in 1889, it burned in 1929, relocated to City Hall for three years. In 1932 the college moved into the current Hawkins Hall. In 1948 it became State University of New York at Plattsburgh. In 1915, the Preparedness Movement established the first and best-known of its training camps for prospective military volunteers at Plattsburgh; the "Plattsburgh camps" trained about 40,000 potential Army officers in the summers of 1915 and 1916. During the Cold War, military functions to
The Richelieu River rises at Lake Champlain, from which it flows to the north in the province of Quebec and empties into the St. Lawrence river, it was known as the Iroquois River and the Chambly River. This river was a key route of water transport for cross-border trade between Canada and the United States, until the arrival of the railway in the mid-19th century; because of its strategic position between New France and New England, several military fortifications were erected on the course of the river. It served as a key pathway for several military tours and was the scene of several battles between the end of the 17th and early 19th centuries, first between the French and the Iroquois between the French and the English, during the regime of the New France and between the English and the Americans after 1760; the Richelieu River has a drainage basin of 23,720 square kilometres – including those of Lake Champlain 19,925 km2 and Missisquoi Bay. Of this, 19,600 km2 are in the United States, originating in the western slopes of the Green Mountains and the eastern slopes of the Adirondack Mountains of New York State.
The Champlain Valley makes up most of the drainage basin. With a length of 124 km, the Richelieu River takes its source at the north end of Lake Champlain on the border between Canada and the United States; the river flows through many towns: Lacolle, Île aux Noix, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Beloeil, Saint-Charles-sur-Richelieu, Saint-Denis-sur-Richelieu, Saint-Ours and Sorel-Tracy where the river empties into the Saint Lawrence River, around 40 km northeast of Montreal and southwest of Quebec City. The Richelieu River is the largest tributary of the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River and drains a large area of southern Quebec; the Quebec portion of the watershed includes 18 lakes and ponds, as well as forty rivers and tributary streams of the Richelieu. The main Richelieu tributaries are rivers: South Huron and Lacolle; the river's mean discharge is 330 cubic metres per second. Nearly 340,000 people across eight Regional county municipalities and 65 municipalities, live in the Quebec portion of the watershed of the river.
The population density is high compared to that of most other regions of the province of Quebec. Just over 70% of this area is used for agricultural purposes. With the opening of the Chambly Canal in 1843, navigation became possible on the Richelieu between the Saint Lawrence River and Lake Champlain. At the southern end of the lake, the Champlain Canal allows for navigation to the Hudson River and, the city of New York, where the river flows into the Atlantic Ocean. Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Beloeil, Mont-Saint-Hilaire, Sorel-Tracy are important communities on its route; the average slope of the Richelieu River is 0.19 metres per kilometre, but 24 metres in elevation between Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu and Chambly for an average flow of 330 cubic metres per second. By convention, the Richelieu is divided into three main sections: The Haut-Richelieu, it is characterized by a low drop. With a width of about 1.5 km at its southern end, it becomes narrow. It passes through the city of Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, which now includes Saint-Luc.
The Chambly Canal. Due to its significant drop in this area – 25 m over 12 km – the river has many rapids; the channel consists of nine locks and a length of nearly 19 km, allowing boats to navigate past the rapids. In Chambly, the river forms the Chambly Basin, a popular area for nautical activities; the Bas-Richelieu. In this section, the river passes the cities of Otterburn Park, Mont-Saint-Hilaire and municipalities McMasterville, Saint-Charles-sur-Richelieu and Saint-Denis-sur-Richelieu. In Saint-Ours, the river is again characterized by a sudden drop before emptying into the Saint Lawrence River]] at Sorel-Tracy, southwest of Lake Saint-Pierre. Several river islands are along the route of the Richelieu River. Arguably the most famous, Île aux Noix is in the Haut-Richelieu and houses Fort Lennox, considered a national historic site of Canada. Downstream, the Sainte-Thérèse Island near Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, is the largest island on the Richelieu. Agricultural, it is now residential, it previously housed the Fort Sainte Thérèse, built in 1665, but abandoned at the end of the 18th century and now disappeared.
The Richelieu is one of three rivers flowing from Quebec south to north, the other two being the Châteauguay and Chaudière. Ice jams can form in the spring with the melting of ice in the south while the north is still frozen, causing floods. L'Acadie River, 82 km Mouth: Carignan. South River, 39.1 km. Mouth: Henryville. Amyot River, 11.7 km. Mouth: Saint-Charles-sur-Richelieu. Lacolle River, 24 km. Mouth: Lacolle. Huron River, 33 km. Mouth: Saint-Mathias-sur-Richelieu. Iroquois River, 10.1 km. Mouth: Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu. Bernier River, 12.9 km
Salaberry-de-Valleyfield is a city in southwestern Quebec, Canada, in the Regional County Municipality of Beauharnois-Salaberry. The population as of the Canada 2011 Census was 40,077. Situated on Grande-Île, an island in the Saint Lawrence River, it is bordered at its western end by Lake Saint Francis, with the Saint Lawrence to the north and the Beauharnois Canal to its south; the Port of Valleyfield is on the canal. Salaberry was named after Colonel Charles de Salaberry who served with the British army during the War of 1812. "Valleyfield" came from a paper mill south of Edinburgh in Scotland. It is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Valleyfield. Salaberry-de-Valleyfield is the seat of the judicial district of Beauharnois. In 2002, the city of 26,170 amalgamated with the following communities: Saint-Timothée Grande-Île The city council is composed of the mayor and eight city councillors; the municipal elections are at each 4 years, each councillor stands for his/her district. The Écomusée des Deux-Rives, which covers the economic and cultural history of the region, is found in the city.
The city has been the site of the Valleyfield Regatas since 1938. The event takes place every year at the beginning of July over a three-day period in the heart of the city on Bay Saint-Francois, it is an international hydroplane. Attracting over 130,000 visitors per year and includes other cultural activities. 9 daycare facilities 3 pre-kindergarten centres 12 elementary schools, of which one is English-language. 1 high school 1 adult education centre 2 vocational training centres 1 CEGEP: Collège de Valleyfield 1 French-language university centre The Gault Institute was created by Andrew Frederick Gault. He created this school during the time. To heat the school at one time he used underground pipes connecting from the school to the Cotton Mills since at the time there was no electricity. Armand Frappier: physician and microbiologist J. Albert Leduc: hockey player and businessman. Jean Ouimet: former leader of the Green Party of Quebec Lise Bacon: Quebec politician Serge Marcil: politician and Minister of Employment in 1994 Line Beauchamp: Quebec politician Pierre Cossette: television and Broadway producer.
Jean-Luc Brassard: Olympic gold medalist in skiing. Mélodie Daoust: Olympics gold medalist in ice hockey. Anne Minh-Thu Quach: MP for Beauharnois—Salaberry. Vladimir Katriuk alleged Nazi war criminal List of cities in Quebec Salaberry-de-Valleyfield official website Port of Valleyfield Photograph of the Salaberry-de-Valleyfield Basilica
General Aviation represents the'private transport' and recreational flying component of aviation. General aviation is the name or term given to all civil aviation aircraft operations with the exception of commercial air transport or aerial work, they are flight activities not involving commercial air transportation of passengers, cargo or mail for remuneration or hire, or an aerial work operation such as agriculture, photography, surveying and patrol, search and rescue, aerial advertisement, etc. It covers certain commercial and private flights that can be carried out under both visual flight and instrument flight rules, such as light aircraft and private jets or helicopters. General aviation thus represents the'private transport' component of aviation; the International Civil Aviation Organization defines civil aviation aircraft operations in three categories: General Aviation, Aerial Work and Commercial Air Transport. The International Council of Aircraft Owner and Pilot Associations includes the following definitions for General Aviation aircraft activities: Corporate Aviation: Company own-use flight operations Fractional Ownership Operations: aircraft operated by a specialized company on behalf of two or more co-owners Business Aviation: self-flown for business purposes Personal/Private Travel: travel for personal reasons/personal transport Air Tourism: self-flown incoming/outgoing tourism Recreational Flying: powered/powerless leisure flying activities Air Sports: Aerobatics, Air Races, Rallies etc.
In 2003 the European Aviation Safety Agency was established as the central EU regulator, taking over responsibility for legislating airworthiness and environmental regulation from the national authorities. Of the 21,000 civil aircraft registered in the UK, 96 percent are engaged in GA operations, annually the GA fleet accounts for between 1.25 and 1.35 million hours flown. There are 28,000 Private Pilot Licence holders, 10,000 certified glider pilots; some of the 19,000 pilots who hold professional licences are engaged in GA activities. GA operates from more than 1,800 airports and landing sites or aerodromes, ranging in size from large regional airports to farm strips. GA is regulated by the Civil Aviation Authority, although regulatory powers are being transferred to the European Aviation Safety Agency; the main focus is on standards of airworthiness and pilot licensing, the objective is to promote high standards of safety. General aviation is popular in North America, with over 6,300 airports available for public use by pilots of general aviation aircraft.
In comparison, scheduled flights operate from around 560 airports in the U. S. According to the U. S. Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association, general aviation provides more than one percent of the United States' GDP, accounting for 1.3 million jobs in professional services and manufacturing. Most countries have authorities that oversee all civil aviation, including general aviation, adhering to the standardized codes of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Examples include the Federal Aviation Administration in the United States, the Civil Aviation Authority in the United Kingdom, Civil Aviation Authority of Zimbabwe in Zimbabwe, the Luftfahrt-Bundesamt in Germany, the Bundesamt für Zivilluftfahrt in Switzerland, Transport Canada in Canada, the Civil Aviation Safety Authority in Australia, the Directorate General of Civil Aviation in India and Iran Civil Aviation Organization in Iran. Aviation accident rate statistics are estimates. According to the U. S. National Transportation Safety Board, in 2005 general aviation in the United States suffered 1.31 fatal accidents for every 100,000 hours of flying in that country, compared to 0.016 for scheduled airline flights.
In Canada, recreational flying accounted for 0.7 fatal accidents for every 1000 aircraft, while air taxi accounted for 1.1 fatal accidents for every 100,000 hours. More experienced GA pilots appear safer, although the relations between flight hours, accident frequency, accident rates are complex and difficult to assess. Environmental impact of aviation List of current production certified light aircraftAssociationsAircraft Owners and Pilots Association Canadian Owners and Pilots Association Experimental Aircraft Association General Aviation Manufacturers Association National Business Aviation Association International Aircraft Owners and Pilots Associations European General Aviation Safety Team "No Plane No Gain" website about business aviation Save-GA.org website concerned with General Aviation in the United States "GA price index". Flight International. 13 Oct 1979