International Civil Aviation Organization
The International Civil Aviation Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations. It codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth, its headquarters is located in the Quartier International of Montreal, Canada. The ICAO Council adopts standards and recommended practices concerning air navigation, its infrastructure, flight inspection, prevention of unlawful interference, facilitation of border-crossing procedures for international civil aviation. ICAO defines the protocols for air accident investigation followed by transport safety authorities in countries signatory to the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation; the Air Navigation Commission is the technical body within ICAO. The Commission is composed of 19 Commissioners, nominated by the ICAO's contracting states, appointed by the ICAO Council. Commissioners serve as independent experts, who although nominated by their states, do not serve as state or political representatives.
The development of international Standards And Recommended Practices is done under the direction of the ANC through the formal process of ICAO Panels. Once approved by the Commission, standards are sent to the Council, the political body of ICAO, for consultation and coordination with the Member States before final adoption. ICAO is distinct from other international air transport organizations, like the International Air Transport Association, a trade association representing airlines; the forerunner to ICAO was the International Commission for Air Navigation. It held its first convention in 1903 in Berlin, but no agreements were reached among the eight countries that attended. At the second convention in 1906 held in Berlin, 27 countries attended; the third convention, held in London in 1912 allocated the first radio callsigns for use by aircraft. ICAN continued to operate until 1945. Fifty-two countries signed the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation known as the Chicago Convention, in Chicago, Illinois, on 7 December 1944.
Under its terms, a Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization was to be established, to be replaced in turn by a permanent organization when 26 countries ratified the convention. Accordingly, PICAO began operating on 6 June 1945, replacing ICAN; the 26th country ratified the Convention on 5 March 1947 and PICAO was disestablished on 4 April 1947 and replaced by ICAO, which began operations the same day. In October 1947, ICAO became an agency of the United Nations linked to the United Nations Economic and Social Council. In April 2013 Qatar offered to serve as the new permanent seat of the Organization. Qatar promised to construct a massive new headquarters for ICAO and cover all moving expenses, stating that Montreal "was too far from Europe and Asia", "had cold winters," was hard to attend due to the refusal of the Canadian government to provide visas in a timely manner, that the taxes imposed on ICAO by Canada were too high. According to The Globe and Mail, Qatar's move was at least motivated by the pro-Israel foreign policy of Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper.
One month Qatar withdrew its bid after a separate proposal to the ICAO's governing council to move the ICAO triennial conference to Doha was defeated by a vote of 22–14. The 9th edition of the Convention on International Civil Aviation includes modifications from 1948 up to year 2006. ICAO refers to its current edition of the Convention as the Statute, designates it as ICAO Document 7300/9; the Convention has 19 Annexes that are listed by title in the article Convention on International Civil Aviation. As of January 2019, there are 192 ICAO members, consisting of 191 of the 193 UN members, plus the Cook Islands. Liechtenstein has delegated Switzerland to enter into the treaty on its behalf and the treaty applies in the territory of Liechtenstein; the Republic of China was a founding member of ICAO but was replaced by People's Republic of China as the legal representative of China in 1971 and as such, did not take part in the organization. In 2013, the Republic of China was for the first time invited to attend 38th session of ICAO Assembly as a guest under the name of Chinese Taipei.
The Council of ICAO is elected by the Assembly every 3 years and consists of 36 members elected in 3 groups. The present Council was elected on 4 October 2016 at the 39th Assembly of ICAO at Montreal; the structure of the present Council is as follows: ICAO standardizes certain functions for use in the airline industry, such as the Aeronautical Message Handling System. This makes it a standards organization; each country should have an accessible Aeronautical Information Publication, based on standards defined by ICAO, containing information essential to air navigation. Countries are required to update their AIP manuals every 28 days and so provide definitive regulations and information for each country about airspace and airports. ICAO's standards dictate that temporary hazards to aircraft are published using NOTAMs. ICAO defines an International Standard Atmosphere, a model of the standard variation of pressure, temperature and viscosity with altitude in the Earth's atmosphere; this is useful in designing aircraft.
Kelowna General Hospital
Kelowna General Hospital is a large medical facility located in Kelowna, British Columbia operated by Interior Health and offers medical care in the Central Okanagan. In British Columbia, Kelowna General is the only hospital outside the Lower Mainland or Vancouver Island that performs angioplasty or cardiac surgery, it is one of the largest hospitals in Western Canada with more than 700 beds. Kelowna General Hospital opened on August 2, 1908 with 19 beds on the land, donated by Kelowna Land & Orchard Company; this building remained until 1940. The 72-year-old Pandosy Building was demolished in Summer 2012 to make way for a cardiac clinic. In 1969, the five storey Strathcona building was constructed, followed by the five storey Royal Building in 1992. Construction of the new six storey Centennial Tower began in 2008, part of an $800 million capital investment in health care for the Central and North Okanagan since 2007, it was completed on May 27, 2012. Plans to expand Kelowna General Hospital were approved in 2007 to support growing population in the region.
Various facilities upgrade and modernization 34,000 square foot Clinical Academic Campus Building, affiliated with the University of British Columbia Medical School. Six-storey 187,000 square feet Centennial Patient Care Tower with new rooftop helipad and 30,000 square feet emergency department is now complete. Three-storey 84,470 square feet East Pandosy Clinical Support Building 139,590 square feet Interior Heart and Surgical Centre was opened in mid-2015. With 15 operating rooms, it is now allowing heart surgeries to take place in the interior of BC for the first time, it is the province’s fifth cardiac critical care center. The main floor of the Royal Building, including the main lobby, the old Emergency Department, the old Ambulatory Care Centre, the Patient Registration area, will be converted into a new Cardiac Cath Lab. Scheduled completion of this project, renovation of the Strathcona Building, is 2017
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Kelowna is a city on Okanagan Lake in the Okanagan Valley in the southern interior of British Columbia, Canada. It serves as the head office of the Regional District of the Central Okanagan; the name Kelowna derives from an Okanagan language term for "grizzly bear". The Kelowna metropolitan area has a population of 194,882. Additionally, the City of Kelowna is the seventh-largest city in the province, it ranks as the 22nd-largest in Canada and is the largest city in British Columbia, located inland. Kelowna's city proper contains 211.82 square kilometres, the census metropolitan area contains 2,904.86 square kilometres. In 2016, the population of Kelowna consisted of 127,380 individuals occupying 53,903 private dwellings. Nearby communities include the City of West Kelowna to the west across Okanagan Lake, Lake Country and Vernon to the north, Peachland to the southwest, further to the south and Penticton. Exact dates of first settlement are unknown, but a northern migration led to the peopling of this area some 9,000 years ago.
The Indigenous Syilx people were the first inhabitants of the region, they continue to live in the region. Father Pandosy, a French Roman Catholic Oblate missionary, became the first European to settle in Kelowna in 1859 at a place named "L'anse au sable" in reference to the sandy shoreline. Kelowna was incorporated on May 4, 1905. In May 2005, Kelowna celebrated its centennial. In the same year, construction began on a new five-lane William R. Bennett Bridge to replace the three-lane Okanagan Lake Bridge, it was part of a plan to alleviate traffic problems experienced during the summer tourist season. The new bridge was completed in 2008. Stubbs House is a historic house in Kelowna. On 3 July 1877, George Mercer Dawson was the first geologist to visit Kelowna. On 6 August 1969, a sonic boom from a nearby air show produced an expensive broken glass bill of a quarter million dollars while at least six people were injured; the incident was caused by a member of America's Blue Angels during a practice routine for the Kelowna Regatta festival: he accidentally went through the sound barrier while flying too low.
The last time the lake froze over was in the winter of 1969 and it may have frozen over in the winter of 1986. On 25 November 2005, the First National Aboriginal Leaders signed the Kelowna Accord. 2009, Kelowna built the tallest building between Vancouver and Calgary: Skye at Waterscapes, a 27-story residential tower. On 7 May 1992, a forest fire consumed 60 hectares of forest on Mount Boucherie in West Kelowna across Okanagan Lake from Kelowna proper. In August 2003, a nearby wildfire destroyed 239 homes and forced the temporary evacuation of about 30,000 residents. During the 2003 fire, many trestles of the historic Kettle Valley Railway were destroyed. All the trestles have been rebuilt to look like the originals. In late August 2005, a 30-ha fire caused multiple evacuations in the Rose Valley subdivision across the lake in West Kelowna. In July 2009, wildfires destroyed hundreds of hectares of forest and a number of buildings in West Kelowna. In July 2009, a 100-ha fire near Rose Valley resulted in the evacuation of 7,000 people.
No structures were lost. In July 2009, a 9,200-ha fire behind Fintry resulted in the evacuation of 2,500 people. No structures were lost. On 12 July 2010, a 30-ha fire in West Kelowna caused multiple evacuations. September 2011, a 40-ha fire in West Kelowna's Bear Creek Park caused the evacuation of over 500 people. In July 2012, a 30-ha fire caused the evacuation of the small community of Wilson's Landing just north of West Kelowna. In September 2012, a late-season, 200-ha fire destroyed seven buildings and resulted in the evacuation of 1,500 people in the community of Peachland. In July 2014, a 340-ha fire behind the West Kelowna subdivision of Smith Creek caused the evacuation of 3,000 people. In August 2014, a 40-ha fire above Peachland resulted in the evacuation of one home. In July 2015, a 55-ha fire in the Joe Rich area caused the evacuation of over 100 properties. In July 2015, a 560-ha fire near Shelter Cove caused the evacuation of 70 properties. In August 2015, a 130-ha fire burned near Little White Mountain just south of Kelowna.
In August 2017, a 400-ha fire in the Joe Rich area caused the evacuation of over 474 properties. Kelowna's official flower is Balsamorhiza sagittata known as arrowleaf balsamroot. Kelowna is classified as a humid continental climate per the Köppen climate classification system due to its coldest month having an average temperature above −3.0 °C, with dry and sunny summers, cloudy winters, four seasons. The official climate station for Kelowna is at the Kelowna International Airport, at a higher altitude than the city core, with higher precipitation and cooler nighttime temperatures; the moderating effects of Okanagan Lake combined with mountains separating most of BC from the prairies moderates the winter climate, but Arctic air masses do penetrate the valley during winter for short periods. The coldest recorded temperature in the city was −36.1 °C recorded on 30 December 1968. Weather conditions during December and January are the cloudiest in Canada outside of Newfoundland due to persistent valley cloud.
As Okanagan Lake hardly freezes, warmer air rising from the lake climbs above colder atmospheric air, creating a temperature inversion which can cause the valley to be socked in by cloud. This valley cloud has a low ceil
West Kelowna is a city in British Columbia's Okanagan Valley. The city encompasses several distinct communities, including historic Westbank, Smith Creek, Shannon Lake, Rose Valley, West Kelowna Estates, Casa Loma, Lakeview Heights. West Kelowna had a population of 32,655 as of the 2016 census. West Kelowna was incorporated on December 6, 2007, as Westside District Municipality, so named because it was the name of the regional district rural electoral area at the time. On January 30, 2009, the district was renamed West Kelowna; the municipality was reclassified as the City of West Kelowna on June 26, 2015. The general area is sometimes referred to as Westbank. Westside District Municipality was established on December 6, 2007, following a referendum in June 16, 2007, in which Westside residents voted to incorporate by a margin of 5,924 votes to 5,582; the other choice was amalgamation with the City of Kelowna, with a previous ballot question offering the option of remaining unincorporated within the regional district's Westside electoral area.
The vote was split along geographical lines, with voters from Westbank and other areas farther from the City of Kelowna voting to incorporate in larger numbers and voters living closer to Kelowna choosing amalgamation. On November 15, 2008, Doug Findlater was elected the new mayor of West Kelowna. During the November 2008 civic election, Westside residents were asked in a "Community Opinion Vote" to select a permanent name for the fledgling municipality; the new name "West Kelowna", with 3,841 votes, was selected by a narrow margin over the closest contender, "Westbank", with 3,675 votes. The West Kelowna name was subsequently confirmed by the district council on December 9, 2008; the controversial new name became official on January 30, 2009, after the Government of British Columbia approved the change. The City of West Kelowna is located on the central western shores of Okanagan Lake and is the primary gateway to the Central Okanagan from the west via Highway 97C, the Okanagan Connector. Neighbourhoods within the city's jurisdiction include Westbank, Glenrosa, Shannon Lake, Smith Creek in the south, which comprise half of the total population, along with several other communities in the north, including Casa Loma, West Kelowna Estates, Rose Valley, Lakeview Heights and South Boucherie.
Many of these neighbourhoods, including Glenrosa, Gellatly and Lakeview Heights have rich histories, some dating to the early to mid-19th century. Bordering the City of West Kelowna are the District of Peachland, Central Okanagan West Electoral Area, two self-governing reserves of the Westbank First Nation, Tsinstikeptum 9 and Tsinstikeptum 10. 9,000 non-band members and 800 First Nation Westbank band members live on the reserves. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the City of West Kelowna recorded a population of 32,655 living in 12,437 of its 13,190 total private dwellings, a change of 5.7% from its revised 2011 population of 30,902. With a land area of 123.53 km2, it had a population density of 264.3/km2 in 2016. Traditional shopping areas in West Kelowna are Westbank Centre, Lakeview Heights Shopping Centre, Boucherie Centre, the West Kelowna Business Park, which offer a variety of retail outlets and restaurants, tourist accommodations and attractions; the City of West Kelowna boasts a scenic wine trail.
The City of West Kelowna boasts a farm loop, featuring varied local agricultural products, the Gellalty Bay multi-use corridor, which includes the CNR Wharf Aquatic Park. More than 1,600 business operate in West Kelowna, including major employers such as Gorman Bros. Lumber and Mission Hill Family Estate Winery. West Kelowna's business areas are complemented by those in the Westbank First Nation, which include various retail shops, cafes and tourist accommodations and attractions. West Kelowna is located within School District 23 Central Okanagan. Mount Boucherie Senior Secondary School serves grades 10 through 12, is the only high school in the municipality. West Kelowna has two middle schools, serving grades 7 through 9: Constable Neil Bruce Middle School and Glenrosa Middle School. There are nine elementary schools in the municipality: Hudson Road Elementary School, Rose Valley Elementary School, Chief Tomat Elementary School, Shannon Lake Elementary School, George Pringle Elementary School, Glenrosa Elementary School, Helen Gorman Elementary School, Sensisyusten House of Learning.
Post-secondary educational opportunities are available in the nearby City of Kelowna, including two major public institutions: UBC Okanagan and Okanagan College. The Mount Boucherie Community Centre includes the Royal LePage Place arena, home to the BCHL team the West Kelowna Warriors, Jim Lind Arena for ice sport clubs such as hockey, figure skating, ringette; the city has a lakefront walking trail alongside Gellatly Road and several swimming areas along Okanagan Lake, including Willow Beach. Johnson Bentley Memorial Aquatic Centre, in downtown Westbank, offers public swimming and recreational programs. Several community and regional parks are scattered throughout the municipality, offering soccer pitches, ball fields, children's play areas, hiking trails; the award-winning Constable Neil Bruce Soccer Fields are a popular recreational destination. The municipality funds youth and seniors' centres in downtown Westbank. A community garden and two off-leash dog parks are located in the Westbank Town Centre Park, off Hebert Road.
Crystal Ski Resort is located west of the municipality and is about a 15-minute drive from the downtown core. Telemark Cr
Oliver, British Columbia
Oliver is a town near the south end of the Okanagan Valley in the Southern Interior of British Columbia, with a population of over 4,000 people. It is located along the Okanagan River by Tuc-el-nuit Lake between Osoyoos and Okanagan Falls, is labeled as the Wine Capital of Canada by Tourism British Columbia; the community of Oliver is made up of land governed by three different bodies: the Town of Oliver, the Regional District of Okanagan-Similkameen and the Osoyoos Indian Band. Local industries include grape and fruit production, agri-tourism, wine production, ranching and recreation, retail and service trades; some of the largest employers include Osoyoos Indian Band, School District #53, Interior Health and Okanagan Tree Fruit Cooperative. Named after John Oliver, Premier of British Columbia. "Honest John" and his government brought irrigation water and settlement lots to the area with the South Okanagan Lands Project. The First Nations of the South Okanagan settled near the river and valley lakes.
The first encroachment from the outside world came circa 1811, when fur traders came to the area with the establishment of Fort Okanagan and first explored the area for trade. In the 1880s, free gold-bearing quartz was found at Camp McKinney which became a busy gold mine, attracting miners, con men, outlaws. Fairview miners found gold and fueled the growth of a boomtown but it lasted just a few years and no remnants of the town survive today, other than a heritage marker. Established in 1918, Oliver was a settlement for unemployed veterans of the First World War. A gravity-fed canal was constructed to provide irrigation to the semi-arid area. On January 30, 1919, the South Okanagan Lands Project began work on the Intake Dam at the base of McIntyre Bluff. Over the next eight years the 23 concrete-lined miles of the main canal were dug southward to the boundary. Eighteen and a half feet across the top, five feet deep and delivering 230 cubic feet per second, SOLP designed it to enable farmers to put nearly a foot of water per month on every acre of bottom land in the southern Valley.
To get the canal from the east side of the Valley to the benches on the west, the “big siphon”—now concrete, but a 1,940-foot -long wood-stave pipe of six and a half-foot-diameter—was constructed. It runs directly beneath the centre of Oliver; the offices of the land project and the building that housed the BC Police built circa 1924 stand today in Oliver as preserved heritage sites. A post office was established in 1921 and the BC government administered the area until 1945 when a village was incorporated and a council elected. In 1991, the community's municipal incorporation was upgraded to its current status. In 1922 electrical power was brought to Oliver by the West Kootenay Light Co.. In 1923 the Kettle Valley Railway constructed Oliver station and rails to transport fruit north to Penticton. SOLP South Okanagan Lands Project – established by the Province of BC 1921 and run by provincial government employees for over forty years. In the spring of 1964 the Oliver/Osoyoos Fruit Growers' Association was informed that the province was getting out of the irrigation business.
SOLID South Okanagan Lands and Irrigation District – On June 25, 1964 the Fruit Growers' Association volunteered itself to be the cornerstone of the locally constituted South Okanagan Lands Irrigation District which operated the system until 1989. Oliver Water Town of Oliver – The water district was divided into two parts to be run by municipal governments; the Towns of Oliver and Osoyoos now deliver nineteen billion imperial gallons—nearly one hundred billion litres—to the Valley’s parched soils annually. 1990 saw the election of Water Councillors in both communities—a first in BC. CAU3 Paved Hard Surface 3200 ft by 50 ft Elevation: 1015 ft VFR - Lighted strip Owned by Town of OliverCoordinates: Lat 49-10.24 N Lon 119-33.04 W Home to Oliver Flying Club, Okanagan Kootenay Air Cadet Gliding Program, VMR Aviation, Transwest Helicopters, Oliver Fire Department, Oliver-Osoyoos Search and Rescue and Big Horn Squadron Royal Canadian Air Cadets According to the 2011 Census, 79.57% of Oliver's population have English as mother tongue.
Town of Oliver: 4928 Regional District Area'C': 3473 Osoyoos Indian Band: 900 John Anderson, Admiral Former Chief of Defense Staff, graduate of SOHS Laslo Babits, Competed in javelin at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, finishing in 8th place. Graduate of SOSS Bill Barisoff, former Speaker of the British Columbia Legislative Assembly, graduate of SOSS George Bowering, First Canadian Poet Laureate, graduate of SOHS Patricia Smith Churchland and neuroscientist, born in Oliver Ross Fitzpatrick, Canadian Senator, graduate of SOHS Corban Knight, ice hockey player for the Philadelphia Flyers Clarence Louie, Chief of Osoyoos Indian Band, Order of BC Julie Skinner, 2002 Bronze Medal at Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah Alison Smith, CBC TV anchor, graduate of SOSS Travis Turner, lead role in the 2011 film Marley & Me: The Puppy Years Oliver has a semi-arid climate with hot, dry summers and cool winters. Oliver travel guide from Wikivoyage Town of Oliver Osoyoos Indian Band