Thunder Bay is a city in, the seat of, Thunder Bay District, Canada. It is the most populous municipality in Northwestern Ontario with a population of 107,909 as of the Canada 2016 Census, the second most populous in Northern Ontario after Greater Sudbury. Located on Lake Superior, the census metropolitan area of Thunder Bay has a population of 121,621, consists of the city of Thunder Bay, the municipalities of Oliver Paipoonge and Neebing, the townships of Shuniah, Conmee, O'Connor, Gillies, the Fort William First Nation. European settlement in the region began in the late 17th century with a French fur trading outpost on the banks of the Kaministiquia River, it grew into an important transportation hub with its port forming an important link in the shipping of grain and other products from western Canada, through the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the east coast. Forestry and manufacturing played important roles in the city's economy, they have declined in recent years, but have been replaced by a "knowledge economy" based on medical research and education.
Thunder Bay is the site of the Thunder Bay Regional Health Research Institute. The city takes its name from the immense Thunder Bay at the head of Lake Superior, known on 18th-century French maps as Baie du Tonnerre; the city is referred to as the "Lakehead", or "Canadian Lakehead", because of its location at the end of Great Lakes navigation on the Canadian side of the border. European settlement at Thunder Bay began with two French fur trading posts which were subsequently abandoned. In 1803, the Montreal-based North West Company established Fort William as its mid-continent entrepôt; the fort thrived until 1821 when the North West Company merged with the Hudson's Bay Company, Fort William was no longer needed. By the 1850s, the Province of Canada began to take an interest in its western extremity. Discovery of copper in the Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan had prompted a national demand for mining locations on the Canadian shores of Lake Superior. In 1849, French-speaking Jesuits established the Mission de l'Immaculée-Conception on the Kaministiquia to evangelize the Ojibwe.
The Province of Canada negotiated the Robinson Treaty in 1850 with the Ojibwa of Lake Superior. As a result, an Indian reserve was set aside for them south of the Kaministiquia River. In 1859–60, the Department of Crown Lands surveyed two townships and the Town Plot of Fort William for European-Canadian settlement. Another settlement developed a few miles to the north of Fort William after construction by the federal Department of Public Works of a road connecting Lake Superior with the Red River Colony; the work was directed by Simon James Dawson. This public works depot or construction headquarters acquired its first name in May 1870 when Colonel Garnet Wolseley named it Prince Arthur's Landing, it was renamed Port Arthur by the Canadian Pacific Railway in May 1883. The arrival of the CPR in 1875 sparked a long rivalry between the towns, which did not end until their amalgamation in 1970; until the 1880s, Port Arthur was a much larger and dynamic community. The CPR, in collaboration with the Hudson's Bay Company, preferred east Fort William, located on the lower Kaministiquia River where the fur trade posts were.
Provoked by a prolonged tax dispute with Port Arthur and its seizure of a locomotive in 1889, the CPR relocated all its employees and facilities to Fort William. The collapse of silver mining after 1890 undermined the economy of Port Arthur, it had an economic depression. In the era of Sir Wilfried Laurier, Thunder Bay began a period of extraordinary growth, based on improved access to markets via the transcontinental railway and development of the western wheat boom; the CPR double-tracked its Winnipeg–Thunder Bay line. The Canadian Northern Railway established facilities at Port Arthur; the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway began construction of its facilities at the Fort William Mission in 1905, the federal government began construction of the National Transcontinental Railway. Grain elevator construction boomed as the volume of grain shipped to Europe increased. Both cities incurred debt to grant bonuses to manufacturing industries. By 1914, the twin cities had modern infrastructures Both Fort William and Port Arthur were proponents of municipal ownership.
As early as 1892, Port Arthur built Canada's first municipally-owned electric street railway. Both cities spurned Bell Telephone Company of Canada to establish their own municipally-owned telephone systems in 1902; the boom came to an end in 1913–1914, aggravated by the outbreak of the First World War. A war-time economy emerged with the making of munitions and shipbuilding. Men from the cities joined the 52nd, 94th, 141st Battalions of the Canadian Expeditionary Force. Railway employment was hurt when the federal government took over the National Transcontinental Railway and Lake Superior Division from the Grand Trunk in 1915, the Canadian Northern Railway in 1918; these were amalgamated with other government-owned railways in 1923 to form the Canadian National Railways. The CNR closed many of the Canadian Northern Railway facilities in Port Arthur, it opened the Neebing yards in Neebing Township in 1922. By 1929, the population of the two cities had recovered to pre-war levels; the forest products industry has played an important role in the Thunder Bay economy from the 1870s.
Logs and lumber were shipped to the United States. In 1917, the first pulp and paper mill was established in Port Arthur, it was followed by a mill at Fort William, in 1920. There were four mil
Thunder Bay Water Aerodrome
Thunder Bay Water Aerodrome is located on Shipyard Road adjacent to Thunder Bay, Canada. The airport is classified as an airport of entry by Nav Canada and is staffed by the Canada Border Services Agency. CBSA officers at this airport can handle general aviation aircraft only, with no more than 15 passengers; the aerodrome has two piers. A ramp allows aircraft to enter water. There are the larger hangar belonging to Wilderness North. Floatplanes can be parked for storage in an open area next to the smaller Lakehead Aviation hangar. Two smaller buildings next to the water houses customs office. Wilderness North - fly fishing adventures Lakehead Aviation Limited - seaplane base List of airports in the Thunder Bay area
Not to be confused with Canadian Transportation Agency. Transport Canada is the department within the Government of Canada responsible for developing regulations and services of transportation in Canada, it is part of the Transportation and Communities portfolio. The current Minister of Transport is Marc Garneau. Transport Canada is headquartered in Ontario; the Department of Transport was created in 1935 by the government of William Lyon Mackenzie King in recognition of the changing transportation environment in Canada at the time. It merged three departments: the former Department of Railways and Canals, the Department of Marine and Fisheries, the Civil Aviation Branch of the Department of National Defence under C. D. Howe, who would use the portfolio to rationalize the governance and provision of all forms of transportation, he created Trans-Canada Air Lines. The Department of Transport Act came into force November 2, 1936. Prior to a 1994 federal government reorganization, Transport Canada had a wide range of operational responsibilities including the Canadian Coast Guard, the Saint Lawrence Seaway and seaports, as well as Via Rail and CN Rail.
Significant cuts to Transport Canada at that time resulted in CN Rail being privatized, the coast guard being transferred to Fisheries and Oceans, the seaway and various ports and airports being transferred to local operating authorities. Transport Canada emerged from this process as a department focused on policy and regulation rather than transportation operations. In 2004, Transport Canada introduced non-passenger screening to enhance both airport and civil aviation security. Transport Canada's headquarters are located in Ottawa at Place de Ville, Tower C. Transport Canada has regional headquarters in: Vancouver – Government of Canada Building on Burrard Street and Robson Street Edmonton – Canada Place, 9700 Jasper Avenue NW Winnipeg – Macdonald Building, 344 Edmonton Street Toronto – Government of Canada Building, 4900 Yonge Street Dorval – Pierre Elliott Trudeau Airport, 700 Place Leigh-Capreol Moncton – Heritage Building, 95 Foundry Street Minister of Transport Marc GarneauDeputy Minister, Transport Canada Michael KeenanAssociate Deputy Minister, Thao Pham Assistant Deputy Minister and Security, Kevin Brousseau Associate Assistant Deputy Minister and Security, Aaron McCrombie Assistant Deputy Minister, Pierre-Marc Mongeau Associate Assistant Deputy Minister and Lead, Navigation Protection Act Review, Catherine Higgens Assistant Deputy Minister, Lawrence Hanson Assistant Deputy Minister, Corporate Services, André Lapointe Assistant Deputy Minister, Natasha Rascanin Director General, Corporate Secretariat, Tom Oommen Director General and Marketing, Dan Dugas Regional Director General, Atlantic Region, Ann Mowatt Regional Director General, Quebec Region, Albert Deschamps Regional Director General, Ontario Region, Tamara Rudge Regional Director General and Northern Region, Michele Taylor Regional Director General, Pacific Region, Robert Dick Departmental General Counsel, Henry K. Schultz Chief Audit and Evaluation Executive, Martin Rubenstein Transport Canada is responsible for enforcing several Canadian legislation, including the Aeronautics Act, Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act, Motor Vehicle Safety Act, Canada Transportation Act, Railway Safety Act, Canada Shipping Act, 2001, Marine Transportation Security Act amongst others.
Each inspector with delegated power from the Minister of Transport receives official credentials to exercise their power, as shown on the right. These inspectors are public officers identified within the Criminal Code of Canada; the Motor Vehicle Safety Act was established in 1971 in order to create safety standards for cars in Canada. The department acts as the federal government's funding partner with provincial transport ministries on jointly-funded provincial transportation infrastructure projects for new highways. TC manage a database of traffic collisions in Canada. Transport Canada's role in railways include: railway safety surface and intermodal security strategies for rail travel accessibility safety of federally regulated railway bridges safety and security of international bridges and tunnels Inspecting and testing traffic control signals, grade crossing warning systems rail operating rules regulations and services for safe transport of dangerous goods Canadian Transport Emergency Centre to assist emergency response and handling dangerous goods emergenciesFollowing allegations by shippers of service level deterioration, on April 7, 2008, the federal government of Canada launched a review of railway freight service within the country.
Transport Canada, managing the review, plans to investigate the relationships between Canadian shippers and the rail industry with regards to the two largest railroad companies in the country, Canadian Pacific Railway and Canadian National Railway. On June 26, 2013, the Fair Rail Freight Service Act became law, a response to the Rail Freight Service Review’s Final Report. Transport Canada is responsible for the waterways inside and surrounding Canada; these responsibilities include: responding and investigating marine accidents within Canadian waters enforcing marine acts and regulations establishing and enforcing marine personnel standards and pilotage Marine Safety Marine Security regulating the operation of marine vessels in Canadian watersAs of 2003 the Office of Boating Safety and the Navigable Waters Protection Program were transferred back to Transport Canada. As was certain regulatory aspects of Emergen
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
Thunder Bay International Airport
Thunder Bay International Airport, is an airport in the city of Thunder Bay, Canada. With 108,130 aircraft movements in 2012, it was the fourth busiest airport in Ontario and the 16th busiest airport in Canada. During the same year, more than 761,000 passengers went through the airport; the airport is classified as an airport of entry by Nav Canada and is staffed by the Canada Border Services Agency. CBSA officers at this airport can handle aircraft with up to 40 passengers, it was built as the Fort William Municipal Airport in 1938 as a means of relieving unemployment. During World War II, the Thunder Bay airport was home to No. 2 Elementary Flying Training School, part of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. The airport was used as a base for test flights of fighter aircraft being built at the nearby Canadian Car and Foundry factory. Before the two cities of Fort William and Port Arthur merged, it was called the Canadian Lakehead Airport; the airport went under major renovations in 1994 with the construction of a new airport terminal building, including two jetways, a large food court, a gift shop and an arcade.
The airport was handed over from the government in 1997 to the Thunder Bay International Airports Authority, a non-profit organization. The airport handled over 600,000 passengers in 2006 for the first time since 2001. In 1942 the aerodrome was listed as RCAF & D of T Aerodrome - Fort William, Ontario at 48°22′N 89°19′W with a variation of 01 degrees east and elevation of 645 ft. Three runways were listed as follows: A number of airlines served the airport with scheduled passenger jet service in the past from the late 1960s to the early 2000s; these air carriers along with the respective jetliner types they operated from the airfield are as follows: Air Canada: Airbus A319, Boeing 727-200, McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30 Air Ontario: Fokker F28 Canadian Airlines International: Boeing 737-200 Canadian Regional Airlines: Fokker F28 CanJet: Boeing 737-200 Jetsgo: Fokker 100, McDonnell Douglas MD-80 Nordair: Boeing 737-200 North Central Airlines: McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30 Pacific Western Airlines: Boeing 737-200 Republic Airlines: McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30 Transair: Boeing 737-200, Fokker F28 Vistajet: Boeing 737-200According to various Official Airline Guide editions as well as airline timetables, the majority of jet service operated by Canadian-based air carriers was nonstop or direct to Toronto and Winnipeg.
U. S.-based North Central Airlines operated nonstop flights to Duluth with continuing no change of plane jet service to Chicago O'Hare Airport while successor Republic Airlines flew nonstop to Duluth with continuing no change of plane jet service to Minneapolis/St. Paul and on to Denver. During the mid 1980s, three airlines were competing with nonstop service operated with mainline jet aircraft between Thunder Bay and Toronto: Air Canada with Boeing 727-200 and McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30 aircraft, Nordair with Boeing 737-200 aircraft and Pacific Western Airlines with Boeing 737-200 aircraft. CHC Helicopter for Ornge Thunder Airlines for Ornge Confederation College School of Aviation – Aviation Centre of Excellence Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry Aviation, Forest Fire and Emergency Services - seasonal firefighting aircraft base Vehicles can reach the airport via Ontario Highway 61 and connections with Harbour Expressway and Ontario Highway 11 into Thunder Bay's core; the parking lot contains 100 short-term spaces, 300 long-term spaces, curbside taxi service and courtesy cars.
Thunder Bay Transit bus route 14 Arthur serves the airport terminal and the nearby Aviation Centre of Excellence. The Thunder Bay International Airport has a 2-storey terminal building. Thunder Bay's runways are used by small or larger turboprop aircraft such as the Bombardier Q400 propjet; as noted above, the airport handled Boeing 727-200, Boeing 737-200 and McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30 mainline jet aircraft as well as the smaller Fokker F28 Fellowship twin jet in the past. Other larger jet aircraft types have landed at the airport in the past with examples including a Boeing 720 operated by American Airlines in 1962, Boeing 757-200 and wide body Airbus A310 aircraft operated by Royal Aviation subsidiary Royal Airlines in 1999 and 2000, a wide body Boeing 747SP operated as the "Global Peace Ambassadors" aircraft for Christian preacher K. A. Paul in 2005; the airport has two fixed-base operators: Innotech Aviation Services for Shell Aviation, Thunder Bay Flight Refuelling for Esso Avitat. List of airports in the Thunder Bay area Media related to Thunder Bay International Airport at Wikimedia Commons Thunder Bay Flight Information Past three hours METARs, SPECI and current TAFs for Thunder Bay International Airport from Nav Canada as available
Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre
Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre is an acute care facility serving Thunder Bay and much of Northwestern Ontario, Canada. The hospital has 395 acute care beds. All of its patient rooms are handicapped accessible and the facility is air-conditioned with "negative pressure" rooms to accommodate those who may be suffering from communicable diseases; the TBRHSC is a leader in providing cancer care. The hospital is supported by the Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Foundation. Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre's emergency department is one of the busiest in Canada, receiving over 106,000 annual visits. Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre was created in 2004 as an amalgamation of the Port Arthur and McKellar branches of the Thunder Bay Regional Hospital system. Patients from both hospitals were relocated on February 22 and 23, 2004, at which time the name was changed to Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre. Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre operates two Linear accelerators, offers training to new doctors on how to operate them.
The centre's critical care unit, operating rooms and emergency department trauma rooms feature articulating arms, which allows physicians and caregivers to operate with greater ease. The centre has both hard-wired and wireless technology, allowing its diagnostic imaging to use a picture archival system to record images from magnetic resonance imaging, CT Scanners and other diagnostic imaging equipment which permits easier access to files among specialists so they may view and assess images as as possible, in any location necessary. Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre is located at Thunder Bay, Ontario; the building was constructed between 1998 and February 2004. Its construction features a three story atrium and one of the primary structural elements is wood, for which it won an award in 2004; when completed the building was over budget and several years late. This hospital is the only one in Thunder Bay; the hospital is equipped with a ground level helipad located along Ron Saddington Way and short distance from the hospital building thus not requiring ambulance transfers.
Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre