Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada. It is considered one of the three prairie provinces and is Canada's fifth-most populous province with its estimated 1.3 million people. Manitoba covers 649,950 square kilometres with a varied landscape, stretching from the northern oceanic coastline to the southern border with the United States; the province is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, Northwest Territories to the northwest, the U. S. states of North Minnesota to the south. Aboriginal peoples have inhabited. In the late 17th century, fur traders arrived on two major river systems, what is now called the Nelson in northern Manitoba and in the southeast along the Winnipeg River system. A Royal Charter in 1670 granted all the lands draining into Hudson's Bay to the British company and they administered trade in what was called Rupert's Land. During the next 200 years, communities continued to grow and evolve, with a significant settlement of Michif in what is now Winnipeg.
The assertion of Métis identity and self-rule culminated in negotiations for the creation of the province of Manitoba. There are many factors that led to an armed uprising of the Métis people against the Government of Canada, a conflict known as the Red River Rebellion aka Resistance; the resolution of the assertion of the right to representation led to the Parliament of Canada passing the Manitoba Act in 1870 that created the province. Manitoba's capital and largest city, Winnipeg, is the eighth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada. Other census agglomerations in the province are Brandon, Portage la Prairie, Thompson; the name Manitoba is believed to be derived from the Ojibwe or Assiniboine languages. The name derives from Cree manitou-wapow or Ojibwa manidoobaa, both meaning "straits of Manitou, the Great Spirit", a place referring to what are now called The Narrows in the centre of Lake Manitoba, it may be from the Assiniboine for "Lake of the Prairie". The lake was known to French explorers as Lac des Prairies.
Thomas Spence chose the name to refer to a new republic he proposed for the area south of the lake. Métis leader Louis Riel chose the name, it was accepted in Ottawa under the Manitoba Act of 1870. Manitoba is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, the US states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south; the province meets the Northwest Territories at the four corners quadripoint to the extreme northwest, though surveys have not been completed and laws are unclear about the exact location of the Nunavut–NWT boundary. Manitoba adjoins Hudson Bay to the northeast, is the only prairie province to have a saltwater coastline; the Port of Churchill is Canada's only Arctic deep-water port. Lake Winnipeg is the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world. Hudson Bay is the world's second-largest bay by area. Manitoba is at the heart of the giant Hudson Bay watershed, once known as Rupert's Land, it was a vital area of the Hudson's Bay Company, with many rivers and lakes that provided excellent opportunities for the lucrative fur trade.
The province has a saltwater coastline bordering Hudson Bay and more than 110,000 lakes, covering 15.6 percent or 101,593 square kilometres of its surface area. Manitoba's major lakes are Lake Manitoba, Lake Winnipegosis, Lake Winnipeg, the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world; some traditional Native lands and boreal forest on Lake Winnipeg's east side are a proposed UNESCO World Heritage Site. Manitoba is at the centre of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, with a high volume of the water draining into Lake Winnipeg and north down the Nelson River into Hudson Bay; this basin's rivers reach far west to the mountains, far south into the United States, east into Ontario. Major watercourses include the Red, Nelson, Hayes and Churchill rivers. Most of Manitoba's inhabited south has developed in the prehistoric bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz; this region the Red River Valley, is flat and fertile. Baldy Mountain is the province's highest point at 832 metres above sea level, the Hudson Bay coast is the lowest at sea level.
Riding Mountain, the Pembina Hills, Sandilands Provincial Forest, the Canadian Shield are upland regions. Much of the province's sparsely inhabited north and east lie on the irregular granite Canadian Shield, including Whiteshell and Nopiming Provincial Parks. Extensive agriculture is found only in the province's southern areas, although there is grain farming in the Carrot Valley Region; the most common agricultural activity is cattle husbandry, followed by assorted grains and oilseed. Around 12 percent of Canada's farmland is in Manitoba. Manitoba has an extreme continental climate. Temperatures and precipitation decrease from south to north and increase from east to west. Manitoba is far from the moderating large bodies of water; because of the flat landscape, it is exposed to cold Arctic high-pressure air masses from the northwest during January and February. In the summer, air masses sometimes come out of the Southern United States, as warm humid air is drawn northward from the Gulf of Mexico.
Temperatures exceed 30 °C numerous times each summer, the combination of heat and humidity can bring the humidex value to the mid-40s. Carman, Manitoba recorded the second-highest humidex in Canada in 2007, with
Winnipeg/Lyncrest Airport, is a general aviation airfield located 13 kilometres south-east from the center of Winnipeg. The airstrip was built in the 1950s for private use the land was sold to the City of Winnipeg and leased by a flying club, which purchased the 180 acre site from the city in 1996; the airfield is used by Shock Trauma Air Rescue Society helicopters delivering patients to the nearby St. Boniface and Concordia hospitals. List of airports in the Winnipeg area Jill Oakes, History of Lyncrest Airport, ISBN 978-0-9812367-0-4
Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport
Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport is an international airport located in Winnipeg, Canada. It is the seventh busiest airport in Canada by passenger traffic, serving 4,305,744 passengers in 2017, the 11th busiest airport by aircraft movements, it is a hub for passenger airlines Calm Air, Perimeter Airlines, Flair Airlines, cargo airline Cargojet. It is a focus city for WestJet; the airport is co-located with Canadian Forces Base Winnipeg. An important transportation hub for the province of Manitoba, Winnipeg International Airport is the only commercial international airport within the province as the other airports of entry serve domestic flights and general aviation only; the airport is operated by the Winnipeg Airport Authority as part of Transport Canada's National Airports System and is one of eight Canadian airports that has US Border Pre-clearance facilities. Winnipeg's isolated geographical location in relation to other major population centres makes Winnipeg International Airport the primary airport for a large area.
As such, it is used as a gateway not only to all of Manitoba, but large parts of neighbouring provinces and territories. Daily non-stop flights are operated from Winnipeg International Airport to destinations across Canada as well as to the United States and the Caribbean, along with summer seasonal flights to the United Kingdom. In addition scheduled flights to numerous small remote communities in the northern regions of Canada Northern Manitoba, Northwestern Ontario, Nunavut, are served from the airport; the airport opened in 1928 as Stevenson Aerodrome in honour of the noted Manitoba aviator and pioneer bush pilot, Captain Fred J. Stevenson. Stevenson Aerodrome known as Stevenson Field, was Canada's first international airport with Northwest Airways inaugurating a passenger and mail service between Winnipeg and Pembina, North Dakota on February 2, 1931. By 1935, Northwest Airlines was operating daily service from the airport with Hamilton H-47 prop aircraft on a routing of Winnipeg - Pembina, ND - Grand Forks, ND - Fargo, ND - Minneapolis/St.
Paul, MN - Milwaukee, WI - Chicago, IL. The City of Winnipeg and the Rural Municipality of St. James agreed to develop Stevenson Field as a modern municipal airport in 1936. In 1938 the Manitoba Legislative Assembly passed the St. James-Winnipeg Airport Commission Act creating a commission of the same name with full control over the operation of the airport. In 1940 during the Second World War the Government of Canada placed the airport under the direction of the Minister of Transport and the Royal Canadian Air Force where it remained until 1997. In 1940, Trans-Canada Air Lines was operating daily round trip transcontinental service across Canada via the airport with a routing of Montreal - Ottawa - North Bay - Kapuskasing - Wagaming - Winnipeg - Regina - Lethbridge - Vancouver flown with Lockheed Model 10 Electra twin prop aircraft with connecting service to and from Toronto being offered via North Bay. In 1962 Stevenson Field was renamed Winnipeg International Airport and in 1997 the airport was transferred to the control of the Winnipeg Airports Authority.
The airport was served by Scandinavian Airlines during the mid 1950s on the world's first regular Polar route, which linked Copenhagen and Los Angeles with Douglas DC-6B propliner flights via Søndre Strømfjord and Winnipeg. By 1962, Trans-Canada Air Lines was operating weekly nonstop service between Winnipeg and London Heathrow Airport with Douglas DC-8 jetliners. In 1963, Northwest Airlines was serving the airport with Lockheed L-188 Electra turboprops operated on multi-stop routings of Winnipeg - Grand Forks, ND - Fargo, ND - Minneapolis/St. Paul - Milwaukee - New York City Idlewild Airport and Miami - Fort Lauderdale - St. Petersburg, FL - Atlanta - Chicago O'Hare Airport - Minneapolis/St. Paul - Fargo, ND - Grand Forks, ND - Winnipeg. By 1970, Air Canada was operating twice weekly nonstop service to Glasgow, Scotland with both flights continuing on to London Heathrow, a weekly nonstop flight to London Heathrow, a twice weekly nonstop to Copenhagen with both flights continuing on to Frankfurt and a weekly nonstop to Frankfurt with this flight continuing on to Zurich with all of these services being operated with Douglas DC-8 jets as part of Air Canada's "Western Arrow" international flights at the time.
In 1970, CP Air was operating direct, no change of plane Boeing 737-200 service to San Francisco via stops in Calgary and Vancouver. The original main terminal building was built in 1964, was designed by the architectural firm of Green Blankstein Russell and Associates, it was expanded and renovated in 1984 by the architectural firm of IKOY, a hotel was built across from the terminal in 1998. The original main terminal building was closed on Sunday October 30, 2011 and has since been demolished. Two airlines operating jet aircraft in passenger service were based at the airport: Transair and Greyhound Air. During the mid 1970s, Transair was operating Boeing 737-200 and Fokker F28 Fellowship jets in addition to NAMC YS-11 and de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter turboprops on scheduled flights in Manitoba and Ontario provinces as well as the Northwest Territories and the Yukon with service as far west as Whitehorse and as far east as Toronto from its Winnipeg hub in addition to operating charter services from the airport with Boeing 707 jetliners with charter flights to Europe, the Caribbean and Mexico as well as to Flori
Not to be confused with Canadian Transportation Agency. Transport Canada is the department within the Government of Canada responsible for developing regulations and services of transportation in Canada, it is part of the Transportation and Communities portfolio. The current Minister of Transport is Marc Garneau. Transport Canada is headquartered in Ontario; the Department of Transport was created in 1935 by the government of William Lyon Mackenzie King in recognition of the changing transportation environment in Canada at the time. It merged three departments: the former Department of Railways and Canals, the Department of Marine and Fisheries, the Civil Aviation Branch of the Department of National Defence under C. D. Howe, who would use the portfolio to rationalize the governance and provision of all forms of transportation, he created Trans-Canada Air Lines. The Department of Transport Act came into force November 2, 1936. Prior to a 1994 federal government reorganization, Transport Canada had a wide range of operational responsibilities including the Canadian Coast Guard, the Saint Lawrence Seaway and seaports, as well as Via Rail and CN Rail.
Significant cuts to Transport Canada at that time resulted in CN Rail being privatized, the coast guard being transferred to Fisheries and Oceans, the seaway and various ports and airports being transferred to local operating authorities. Transport Canada emerged from this process as a department focused on policy and regulation rather than transportation operations. In 2004, Transport Canada introduced non-passenger screening to enhance both airport and civil aviation security. Transport Canada's headquarters are located in Ottawa at Place de Ville, Tower C. Transport Canada has regional headquarters in: Vancouver – Government of Canada Building on Burrard Street and Robson Street Edmonton – Canada Place, 9700 Jasper Avenue NW Winnipeg – Macdonald Building, 344 Edmonton Street Toronto – Government of Canada Building, 4900 Yonge Street Dorval – Pierre Elliott Trudeau Airport, 700 Place Leigh-Capreol Moncton – Heritage Building, 95 Foundry Street Minister of Transport Marc GarneauDeputy Minister, Transport Canada Michael KeenanAssociate Deputy Minister, Thao Pham Assistant Deputy Minister and Security, Kevin Brousseau Associate Assistant Deputy Minister and Security, Aaron McCrombie Assistant Deputy Minister, Pierre-Marc Mongeau Associate Assistant Deputy Minister and Lead, Navigation Protection Act Review, Catherine Higgens Assistant Deputy Minister, Lawrence Hanson Assistant Deputy Minister, Corporate Services, André Lapointe Assistant Deputy Minister, Natasha Rascanin Director General, Corporate Secretariat, Tom Oommen Director General and Marketing, Dan Dugas Regional Director General, Atlantic Region, Ann Mowatt Regional Director General, Quebec Region, Albert Deschamps Regional Director General, Ontario Region, Tamara Rudge Regional Director General and Northern Region, Michele Taylor Regional Director General, Pacific Region, Robert Dick Departmental General Counsel, Henry K. Schultz Chief Audit and Evaluation Executive, Martin Rubenstein Transport Canada is responsible for enforcing several Canadian legislation, including the Aeronautics Act, Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act, Motor Vehicle Safety Act, Canada Transportation Act, Railway Safety Act, Canada Shipping Act, 2001, Marine Transportation Security Act amongst others.
Each inspector with delegated power from the Minister of Transport receives official credentials to exercise their power, as shown on the right. These inspectors are public officers identified within the Criminal Code of Canada; the Motor Vehicle Safety Act was established in 1971 in order to create safety standards for cars in Canada. The department acts as the federal government's funding partner with provincial transport ministries on jointly-funded provincial transportation infrastructure projects for new highways. TC manage a database of traffic collisions in Canada. Transport Canada's role in railways include: railway safety surface and intermodal security strategies for rail travel accessibility safety of federally regulated railway bridges safety and security of international bridges and tunnels Inspecting and testing traffic control signals, grade crossing warning systems rail operating rules regulations and services for safe transport of dangerous goods Canadian Transport Emergency Centre to assist emergency response and handling dangerous goods emergenciesFollowing allegations by shippers of service level deterioration, on April 7, 2008, the federal government of Canada launched a review of railway freight service within the country.
Transport Canada, managing the review, plans to investigate the relationships between Canadian shippers and the rail industry with regards to the two largest railroad companies in the country, Canadian Pacific Railway and Canadian National Railway. On June 26, 2013, the Fair Rail Freight Service Act became law, a response to the Rail Freight Service Review’s Final Report. Transport Canada is responsible for the waterways inside and surrounding Canada; these responsibilities include: responding and investigating marine accidents within Canadian waters enforcing marine acts and regulations establishing and enforcing marine personnel standards and pilotage Marine Safety Marine Security regulating the operation of marine vessels in Canadian watersAs of 2003 the Office of Boating Safety and the Navigable Waters Protection Program were transferred back to Transport Canada. As was certain regulatory aspects of Emergen
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada. Centred on the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, it is near the longitudinal centre of North America 110 kilometres north of the Canada–United States border; the city is named after the nearby Lake Winnipeg. The region was a trading centre for aboriginal peoples long before the arrival of Europeans. French traders built the first fort on the site in 1738. A settlement was founded by the Selkirk settlers of the Red River Colony in 1812, the nucleus of, incorporated as the City of Winnipeg in 1873; as of 2011, Winnipeg is the seventh most populated municipality in Canada. Being far inland, the local climate is seasonal by Canadian standards with average January lows of around −21 °C and average July highs of 26 °C. Known as the "Gateway to the West", Winnipeg is a railway and transportation hub with a diversified economy; this multicultural city hosts numerous annual festivals, including the Festival du Voyageur, the Winnipeg Folk Festival, the Jazz Winnipeg Festival, the Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival, Folklorama.
Winnipeg was the first Canadian host of the Pan American Games. It is home to several professional sports franchises, including the Winnipeg Blue Bombers, the Winnipeg Jets, Manitoba Moose, Valour FC, the Winnipeg Goldeyes. Winnipeg lies at the confluence of the Assiniboine and the Red River of the North, a location now known as "The Forks"; this point was at the crossroads of canoe routes travelled by First Nations before European contact. Winnipeg is named after nearby Lake Winnipeg. Evidence provided by archaeology, rock art and oral history indicates that native peoples used the area in prehistoric times for camping, hunting, tool making, trading and, farther north, for agriculture. Estimates of the date of first settlement in this area range from 11,500 years ago for a site southwest of the present city to 6,000 years ago at The Forks. In 1805, Canadian colonists observed First Nations peoples engaged in farming activity along the Red River; the practice expanded, driven by the demand by traders for provisions.
The rivers provided an extensive transportation network linking northern First Peoples with those to the south along the Missouri and Mississippi rivers. The Ojibwe made some of the first maps on birch bark, which helped fur traders navigate the waterways of the area. Sieur de La Vérendrye built the first fur trading post on the site in 1738, called Fort Rouge. French trading continued at this site for several decades before the arrival of the British Hudson's Bay Company after France ceded the territory following its defeat in the Seven Years' War. Many French men who were trappers married First Nations women, they developed as an ethnicity known as the Métis because of sharing a traditional culture. Lord Selkirk was involved with the first permanent settlement, the purchase of land from the Hudson's Bay Company, a survey of river lots in the early 19th century; the North West Company built Fort Gibraltar in 1809, the Hudson's Bay Company built Fort Douglas in 1812, both in the area of present-day Winnipeg.
The two companies competed fiercely over trade. The Métis and Lord Selkirk's settlers fought at the Battle of Seven Oaks in 1816. In 1821, the Hudson's Bay and North West Companies merged. Fort Gibraltar was renamed Fort Garry in 1822 and became the leading post in the region for the Hudson's Bay Company. A flood destroyed the fort in 1826 and it was not rebuilt until 1835. A rebuilt section of the fort, consisting of the front gate and a section of the wall, is near the modern-day corner of Main Street and Broadway Avenue in downtown Winnipeg. In 1869–70, present-day Winnipeg was the site of the Red River Rebellion, a conflict between the local provisional government of Métis, led by Louis Riel, newcomers from eastern Canada. General Garnet Wolseley was sent to put down the uprising; the Manitoba Act of 1870 made Manitoba the fifth province of the three-year-old Canadian Confederation. Treaty 1, which encompassed the city and much of the surrounding area, was signed on 3 August 1871 by representatives of the Crown and local Indigenous groups, comprising the Brokenhead Ojibway, Long Plain, Roseau River Anishinabe, Sandy Bay and Swan Lake communities.
On 8 November 1873, Winnipeg was incorporated with the Selkirk settlement as its nucleus. Métis legislator and interpreter James McKay named the city. Winnipeg's mandate was to govern and provide municipal services to citizens attracted to trade expansion between Upper Fort Garry / Lower Fort Garry and Saint Paul, Minnesota. Winnipeg developed after the coming of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1881; the railway divided the North End, which housed Eastern Europeans, from the richer Anglo-Saxon southern part of the city. It contributed to a demographic shift beginning shortly after Confederation that saw the francophone population decrease from a majority to a small minority group; this shift resulted in Premier Thomas Greenway controversially ending legislative bilingualism and removing funding for French Catholic Schools in 1890. By 1911, Winnipeg was Canada's third-largest city. However, the city faced financial difficulty when the Panama Canal opened in 1914; the canal reduced reliance on Canada's rail system for international trade.
Rural Municipality of Springfield
Springfield is a rural municipality in Manitoba, Canada. It stretches from urban industrial development on the eastern boundary of the City of Winnipeg, through urban, rural residential and natural landscapes, to the Agassiz Provincial Forest on the municipality's eastern boundary. Springfield was incorporated in 1880 as a result of changes made to the R. M. of Springfield and Sunnyside. The municipality received its name due to the presence of multiple natural springs found within its borders. Birds Hill Provincial Park nestles into the northwestern corner of Springfield. While farming is still important in the municipality, today many residents are employed in nearby Winnipeg. In the 2011 census the population was 14,069, up 8.3% from 2006. The Springfield provincial election district includes all of the municipality and parts of adjacent East St. Paul. From 1914 through 1966 a Federal riding was called "Springfield" with varying boundaries not always coterminous with the municipality; the R. M. of Springfield contains many sites of historical and cultural significance such as the Sunnyside cemetery, the Springfield Hutterite colony, North Springfield school, Springfield Agricultural Society and others.
In 1996, the Ukrainian Catholic Church of the Immaculate Conception in Cooks Creek was designated a National Historic Site of Canada. Oakbank is the administrative centre of Springfield. Other communities include Dugald, Cooks Creek and Glass; as of 2015, the municipality was governed by 5 ward councillors. The government has come under some scrutiny for having the highest compensation to mayor and council relative to all other municipalities in the Winnipeg capital region. Rural Municipality of Springfield Community Profile: Springfield Rural Municipality, Manitoba. Springfield 1st Rural Municipality in Manitoba 1873-1973, Dugald Women's Institute, Dugald Manitoba Canada 1974, ISBN 0-919212-40-9 Map of Springfield R. M. at Statcan
Rural Municipality of St. Andrews
St. Andrews is a rural municipality in Manitoba, Canada, it lies West Red River and the Southern border is 8 kilometres North of Winnipeg. St. Andrews contains the communities of Petersfield as well as half of Lockport, it is part of Manitoba census division 13. The city of Selkirk, the town of Winnipeg Beach, the village of Dunnottar are located within St. Andrews, however they are independently governed; the name St. Andrews was derived from the Anglican parish of St. Andrews, which existed for several decades prior to the formation of the municipality in February 1880. In addition to the St. Andrews church, the municipality contains many historical and significant buildings and establishments include the St. Andrews Rectory, Captain Kennedy House, Lower Fort Garry, St. Andrews Locks and Dam, Little Britain United Church and Cemetery, Twin Oaks, St. John's Cathedral Boys' School in Breezy Point; these and several others have been recognized as national, provincial, or municipal historic sites.
Other noteworthy establishments include the St. Andrews airport, St. Andrews school, the municipal office, Larter's golf course, Oak Hammock Marsh. Notable people born in St. Andrews include Darren Helm, a professional ice hockey player for the Detroit Red Wings of the National Hockey League. St. Andrews is a municipal government, led by 6 councillors. Since 2012, the mayor of St. Andrews has come under some scrutiny for being the highest-paid mayor of the Winnipeg capital region; the municipal office for St. Andrews is located in Clandeboye. Since the Red River was an important means of transportation in the early settlement and parish, much of St. Andrews' history can be seen along River Road; the parish of St. Andrews was situated between two major fur trading centers of the Hudson's Bay Company, Lower Fort Garry and Upper Fort Garry St. Andrews Anglican Church is one of the most well known historical sites. Built in 1849, it served a centre of Anglican missionary activity in Rupert's Land.
It is the oldest surviving stone church in Western Canada and was designated a national historic site in 1970. Its distinctive steeple and Gothic Revival architecture make it recognizable and the building is used as symbol for both the community as well as the nearby St. Andrews elementary school. Captain William Kennedy House is located along the Red River about 200 meters north of the St. Andrews church. Built in 1866 by Captain William Kennedy it is now used as a tea house, its nearby flower garden is well known among locals and is used for wedding photos. It was recognized as a provincial heritage site in 1984. Twin Oaks and Miss Davis' School Residence was a girls school and boarding house built in the 1850s by the Red River Settlement and the Hudson's Bay Company, it became a National Historic site in 1962. Rural Municipality of St Andrews, Manitoba website Manitoba Historical Society - Rural Municipality of St. Andrews Map of St. Andrews R. M. at Statcan Media related to St. Andrews, Manitoba at Wikimedia Commons