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List of algorithms

The following is a list of algorithms along with one-line descriptions for each. Brent's algorithm: finds a cycle in function value iterations using only two iterators Floyd's cycle-finding algorithm: finds a cycle in function value iterations Gale–Shapley algorithm: solves the stable marriage problem Pseudorandom number generators: ACORN generator Blum Blum Shub Lagged Fibonacci generator Linear congruential generator Mersenne Twister Coloring algorithm: Graph coloring algorithm. Hopcroft–Karp algorithm: convert a bipartite graph to a maximum cardinality matching Hungarian algorithm: algorithm for finding a perfect matching Prüfer coding: conversion between a labeled tree and its Prüfer sequence Tarjan's off-line lowest common ancestors algorithm: compute lowest common ancestors for pairs of nodes in a tree Topological sort: finds linear order of nodes based on their dependencies. Force-based algorithms Spectral layout Network analysis Link analysis Girvan–Newman algorithm: detect communities in complex systems Web link analysis Hyperlink-Induced Topic Search PageRank TrustRank Flow networks Dinic's algorithm: is a polynomial algorithm for computing the maximum flow in a flow network.

Edmonds–Karp algorithm: implementation of Ford–Fulkerson Ford–Fulkerson algorithm: computes the maximum flow in a graph Karger's algorithm: a Monte Carlo method to compute the minimum cut of a connected graph Push–relabel algorithm: computes a maximum flow in a graph Edmonds' algorithm: find maximum or minimum branchings Euclidean minimum spanning tree: algorithms for computing the minimum spanning tree of a set of points in the plane Euclidean shortest path problem: find the shortest path between two points that does not intersect any obstacle Longest path problem: find a simple path of maximum length in a given graph Minimum spanning tree Borůvka's algorithm Kruskal's algorithm Prim's algorithm Reverse-delete algorithm Nonblocking minimal spanning switch say, for a telephone exchange Shortest path problem Bellman–Ford algorithm: computes shortest paths in a weighted graph Dijkstra's algorithm: computes shortest paths in a graph with non-negative edge weights Floyd–Warshall algorithm: solves the all pairs shortest path problem in a weighted, directed graph Johnson's algorithm: All pairs shortest path algorithm in sparse weighted directed graph Transitive closure problem: find the transitive closure of a given binary relation Traveling salesman problem Christofides algorithm Nearest neighbour algorithm Warnsdorff's rule: A heuristic method for solving the Knight's tour problem.

A*: special case of best-first search that uses heuristics to improve speed B*: a best-first graph search algorithm that finds the least-cost path from a given initial node to any goal node Backtracking: abandons partial solutions when they are found not to satisfy a complete solution Beam search: is a heuristic search algorithm, an optimization of best-first search that reduces its memory requirement Beam stack search: integrates backtracking with beam search Best-first search: traverses a graph in the order of importance using a priority queue Bidirectional search: find the shortest path from an initial vertex to a goal vertex in a directed graph Breadth-first search: traverses a graph level by level Brute-force search: An exhaustive and reliable search method, but computationally inefficient in many applications. D*: an incremental heuristic search algorithm Depth-first search: traverses a graph branch by branch Dijkstra's algorithm: A special case of A* for which no heuristic function is used General Problem Solver: a seminal theorem-proving algorithm intended to work as a universal problem solver machine.

Iterative deepening depth-first search: a state space search strategy Jump point search: An optimization to A* which may reduce computation time by an order of magnitude using further heuristics. Lexicographic breadth-first search: a linear time algorithm for ordering the vertices of a graph Uniform-cost search: a tree search that finds the lowest-cost route where costs vary SSS*: state space search traversing a game tree in a best-first fashion similar to that of the A* search algorithm F*: Special algorithm to merge the two arrays Cliques Bron–Kerbosch algorithm: a technique for finding maximal cliques in an undirected graph MaxCliqueDyn maximum clique algorithm: find a maximum clique in an undirected graph Strongly connected components Path-based strong component algorithm Kosaraju's algorithm Tarjan's connected components algorithm Subgraph isomorphism problem Bitap algorithm: fuzzy algorithm that determines if strings are equal. Phonetic algorithms Daitch–Mokotoff Soundex: a Soundex refinement which allows matching of Slavic and Germanic surnames Double Metaphone: an improvement on Metaphone Match rating approach: a phonetic algorithm developed by Western Airlines Metaphone: an algorithm for indexing words by their sound, when pronounced in English NYSIIS: phonetic algorithm, improves on Soundex Soundex: a phonetic algorithm for indexing names by sound, as pronounced in English String metrics: compute a similarity or dissimilarity score between two pairs of text strings Damerau–Levenshtein distance compute a distance measure between two strings, improves on Levenshtein distance Dice's coefficient: a similarity measure related to the Jaccard index Hamming distance: sum number of positions which are

Global Flatline

Global Flatline is the seventh album by death metal band Aborted. It was released on January 20, 2012, through Century Media Records; the album was recorded at Hansen Studios in Denmark with producer Jacob Hansen, is the first to feature ex-Abigail Williams members Ken Bedene on drums and Mike Wilson on guitar, as well as bassist J. B. Van Der Wal; the songs "Coronary Reconstruction", "From a Tepid Whiff" and "Grime" all appeared on the band's 2010 EP Coronary Reconstruction. The first single, "Global Flatline", was released digitally on October 25, 2011. All tracks are written except where noted. Sven "Svencho" de Caluwé – vocals Eran Segal – guitar Mike Wilson – guitar Ken Bedene – drums J. B. Van Der Wal – bass Jason Netherton – vocals Keijo Niinimaa – vocals Trevor Strnad – vocals Julien Truchan – vocals Jacob Hansen – producer, mixing, mastering Alex Karlinsky – sound design Justin Osbourn – artwork

Ratlines

Ratlines, pronounced "rattlin's", are lengths of thin line tied between the shrouds of a sailing ship to form a ladder. Found on all square rigged ships, whose crews must go aloft to stow the square sails, they appear on larger fore-and-aft rigged vessels to aid in repairs aloft or conduct a lookout from above. Lower courses in a ratline are made of slats of wood for support where the distance between shrouds is greatest; these wooden boards are called rat-boards. In some instances holes in these slats guide and organise low-tension lines between the deck and the rig. Although the name clove hitch is given by Falconer in his Dictionary of 1769, the knot is much older, having been tied in ratlines at least as early as the first quarter of the sixteenth century; this is shown in early sculpture and paintings. Footrope

Rampart (video game)

Rampart is an arcade game, released in 1990 by Atari Games, that combines the shoot'em up and puzzle genres. It was first made available as an arcade game but was subsequently offered for a number of home gaming platforms; the game is considered a precursor to the tower defense genre. In Rampart, the player is in control of a set of castles, which they must defend, by alternately shooting at attacking ships, repairing any damage done to them within a time limit. Surrounding this castle is a wall, made up of small blocks surrounding a region of the board; this area is considered the player's territory, it may contain one or more castles, any number of cannons. The maintenance of this territory is the primary focus of the game. Once the player defeats the opponent, the player can execute the commander, by walking the plank or beheading; the single-player game consists of six levels. The ultimate aim is to destroy a fleet of attacking ships while repairing any damage the fort sustains. At the start of each level, the player chooses the location of their fort from a number of options.

This location is surrounded by a wall to form a castle, which the player can place cannons within. After this, an attacking round commences, followed by a repair round, where any damage to the castle must be repaired. If the player manages to survive the repair phase, they are given a short amount of time to place additional cannons within the walls of his fort, after which the battle resumes; this cycle continues until either the player fails a repair round, or enough ships in the enemy's fleet are sunk. When the opposing navy has been sufficiently depleted, the level is won, the player may choose another level from the island map. After starting a new game or after a successful repair round, the player may gain extra cannons to be placed in their territory. In the SNES and PC versions only, the cannons gained can be converted into powerups: The Balloon floats at the beginning of phase 1 to the most powerful enemy ship or cannon and converts it to the player side for the successive fighting round.

The Supercannon is bigger than the usual cannons and fire red projectiles, which sink any ship in one hit or leave a permanent fire if they hit the landscape In an attacking round, the player and enemy ships fire at each other using their respective cannons. The player can sink the enemy ships. Enemy ships move around while they fire, making it necessary to lead your target like in Missile Command. Ships come in three types: Single-sailed ships shoot at your walls and move around, but do little else, it takes two shots to sink one. Double-sailed ships require three hits to sink, if they reach the shore they deposit grunts, small tank-like objects that multiply and move around during the repair phase, they can be shot with cannons and destroyed by surrounding them with walls, but they tend to get in the way and are capable of destroying castles if left unchecked. Grunts adjacent to walls during battle can destroy them to get inside a player's area. Red ships require 5 hits to sink, their shots leave fiery craters whenever they strike a wall.

These craters must be built around during the repair phase, each persists for three rounds. Levels feature "dark" versions of each of these ships, which are each capable of taking one additional hit before sinking. In the repair round, the player must repair the damage done to the wall surrounding their territory, they are presented with a random series of polyomino shapes, must place them on the island within a time limit to keep their castles surrounded by walls. While superficially similar to Tetris shapes, these pieces have much greater variety, ranging from 1 by 1 squares that can fit anywhere to big plus and U-shapes; the pieces do not fall, but may be moved around the screen and placed in any spot but they cannot be placed on top of existing objects. Pieces cannot be passed, they must be placed down before getting the next one. At the start of the Repair phase, any territory, not surrounded by a complete, unbroken wall is lost. By placing wall pieces, the player attempts to "capture" territory by completing a wall around it.

Before the timer expires, the player must have completed a wall around at least one castle to survive the round and continue playing. It is advantageous to capture previously-placed cannons, as only cannons within the player's territory may be used in the subsequent battle phase; when playing with two or three players the game is similar, except that instead of fighting against enemy ships, the players each have their own area of land separated by a river, they shoot at each other's walls. In multiplayer mode, cannons can be destroyed if they take enough hits, there are bonus squares that are worth extra points when captured, there are no grunts or craters, but the game is otherwise similar. Players shoot at each other's walls during the Battle phase and try to make it difficult for them to survive the next repair round. If a player is unable to repair his wall, he must insert another credit to remain in the game, but cannot do so more than three times; the last player remaining is the winner.

If all the players remain in the game for an operator-adjustable number of rounds, they engage in a "Final Battle" at the start of the

ACE model

The ACE model is a statistical model used to analyze the results of twin studies. It aims to decompose sources of phenotypic variation into three categories: additive genetic variance, common environmental factors, specific environmental factors plus measurement error, it is used in genetic epidemiology and behavioural genetics. The basic ACE model relies on several assumptions, including the absence of assortative mating, that there is no genetic dominance or epistasis, that all genetic effects are additive, the absence of gene-environment interactions. In order to address these limitations, several variants of the ACE model have been developed, including an ACE-β model, which emphasizes the identification of causal effects, the ACDE model, which accounts for the presence of dominant genetic effects. ADE model Maes, Hermine H.. "ACE Model". Wiley Stats Ref: Statistics Reference Online. Wiley StatsRef: Statistics Reference Online. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. doi:10.1002/9781118445112.stat06752.

ISBN 9781118445112

Canyon High School (Anaheim, California)

Canyon High School is a traditional four-year high school located in the Anaheim Hills community in the city of Anaheim, California and is an International Baccalaureate school. It is located on 40 acres of land on Imperial Highway between the cross streets of Santa Ana Canyon Road and Nohl Ranch Road, serves students in the Orange Unified School District; the school, which opened its doors in 1973, has a student population of 2,400. The school serves the community of Anaheim Hills as well as parts of East Anaheim and Orange, was designated a California Distinguished School in 2007 by the California Department of Education; the school's fight song is Lee Swing. The school is ranked as one of the top 1,000 high schools in the United States by Newsweek at number 128, a distinction given to less than 1% of high schools nationally, it is the 204th highest ranked school in the state of California. The school started in 1974 as a shared campus with the established Villa Park High School for students in grades 10-12.

Upon completion of the Anaheim Hills campus, a variety of names were considered for the site. A ballot of three proposed names was given to the students of Vista Del Rio Jr. High School to vote on; the students did not like any of the choices. Canyon High School was the name of choice due to its location and the fact that the local students call that area "The Canyon"; the name Canyon High School was selected. Boundary changes in the district and an increase in the population of the Anaheim Hills community resulted in changes at the school; the school was designated to serve students in grades 9 through 12 in 1987, El Rancho Charter School was designated as the only feeder school within the boundaries of Canyon High School. The school implemented an International Baccalaureate Program in 1988. Canyon High School offers a variety of programs for its students including the International Baccalaureate Program, Stellar Technology Program, Specialized Science Program, in addition to numerous college-level Advanced Placement and Honors courses.

Its current API Score is 861, designating the school in the top 10% of all high schools in the state of California. The school focuses on technology, having undergone thousands of dollars worth of upgrading the schools technology, by adding 100 computers, making 19 of its courses available as online classes. In 2019, the U. S. News & World Report ranked the school 387th in the state of California and 2,557th in the United States; the school mascot is a Comanche. Students at Canyon High School compete in the following sports: David Buehler, National Football League kicker Sam Didier, Art Director for Blizzard Entertainment Eden Espinosa, singer/stage actress Seonna Hong, artist Courtney Mathewson, Olympic gold medalist water polo player Omar Benson Miller, actor Connie Needham, actress Brian Nestande, California State Assemblyman Andy Park, Illustrator Craig Ritter, Houston Oilers lineman Chris Snitko, Major League Soccer player James Storm, actor/wrestler Kwame Watson-Siriboe, Major League Soccer player John Cummings, pitcher Rob Deer, All-Star right fielder Grant Green, second baseman Doug Linton, pitcher Vinnie Pestano, pitcher Steve Scarsone, second baseman Eric Valent, first baseman Christian Colon, shortstop Canyon High School website