Francis Seymour-Conway, 3rd Marquess of Hertford
Francis Charles Seymour-Conway, 3rd Marquess of Hertford KG, GCH PC, styled Viscount Beauchamp between 1793 and 1794 and Earl of Yarmouth between 1794 and 1822, was a British Tory politician and art collector. Seymour-Conway was the son of Francis Seymour-Conway, 2nd Marquess of Hertford, by his second wife Isabella Anne Ingram, daughter of Charles Ingram, 9th Viscount of Irvine. Lord Yarmouth sat as Member of Parliament for Orford from 1797 to 1802, for Lisburn from 1802 to 1812, for Antrim from 1812 to 1818 and for Camelford from 1820 to 1822. In March 1812 he was sworn of the Privy Council and appointed Vice-Chamberlain of the Household under Spencer Perceval, he continued in the post after Lord Liverpool became prime minister in May 1812 after Perceval's assassination, but relinquished it in July of that year. The same year he was appointed Lord Warden of a post he held until his death, he succeeded his father in the marquessate in 1822. The same year he was made a Knight of the Garter and appointed Vice-Admiral of Suffolk, a post he retained until his death.
Lord Hertford was a considerable art collector, as were his son and grandson. Seymour-Conway was an amateur cricketer who made three known appearances in first-class cricket matches from 1797 to 1799, he was associated with Surrey and was a member of the Marylebone Cricket Club. He died in March 1842, aged 64, was succeeded by his eldest son, Richard; the Marchioness of Hertford died in March 1856, aged 84. Lord Hertford married Maria Emilia Fagnani, reputedly the illegitimate daughter of the 4th Duke of Queensberry and a married Italian aristocrat, the Marchesa Fagnani, on 18 May 1798, they had three children: Lady Francis Maria Seymour-Conway Captain Richard Seymour-Conway, 4th Marquess of Hertford Lord Henry Seymour-Conway Lord Hertford was the prototype for the characters of the Marquess of Monmouth in Benjamin Disraeli's 1844 novel Coningsby and Lord Steyne in William Makepeace Thackeray's 1847–8 serial Vanity Fair. Thackeray's illustration of the Marquis for issue 11 was considered to bear such a resemblance to Hertford that threat of prosecution for libel suppressed its publication.
In Hertford's last years, he was said to live with a retinue of prostitutes and the mental instability which afflicted several members of his family became noticeable. Charles Greville described him as broken with infirmities and unable to speak due to paralysis of the tongue and claimed "there has been, so far as I know, no such example of undisguised debauchery". Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Marquess of Hertford
An official residence is the residence at which a nation's head of state, head of government, religious leader, leaders of international organizations, or other senior figure resides. It may or may not be the same location where the individual conducts work-related functions or lives. 3 Sutton Place, New York City Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Presidential Palace State House Kiriri Presidential Palace Unity Palace Palácio Presidencial Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Kinshasa Presidential Palace Palais de la Nation Palais du mont Ngaliema Palais de Marbre Brazzaville Presidential Palace Le Palais de la Présidence Presidential Palace Abdeen Palace Heliopolis Palace Koubbeh Palace Montaza Palace Ras el-Tin Palace Government Building Asmara President's Office National Palace Imperial Palace Presidential Palace State House Osu Castle formal residence Golden Jubilee House current residence Peduase Lodge retreat Presidential Palace Villa Syli Belle Vue Presidential Palace State House Royal Palace State House Executive Mansion Al-Sikka, Tripoli Al Nasr Convention Centre Dar al-Salam Hotel Abusita Navy Base Royal Palace of Tripoli Bab al-Azizia Iavoloha Ambohitsorohitra Sanjika Palace New State House Presidential Palace Presidential Palace State House Clarisse House Mechouar Essaid, Rabat Dâr-al-Makhzen, Fes Dâr-al-Makhzen, Meknes Marchane Palace, Tangier Bahia Palace, Marrakech El Badi Palace, Marrakech Palácio da Ponta Vermelha State House Presidential Palace Aso Rock Villa Rivers State:Government House Urugwiro Presidential Palace Palais de la Republique State House State House Villa Somalia Mahlamba Ndlopfu, Genadendal Residence, Cape Town Leeuwenhof Cape Province:Government House Transvaal:Government House Natal:Government House Orange Free State:Government House Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Lozitha Palace State House The Palace of the Governors Carthage Palace State House State House State House Government House Government House Government House Ilaro Court Palace of the Revolution Presidential Palace Government House Palacio Nacional, Dominican Republic Government House National Palace King's House Government House Jamaica House Vale Royal Government House Government House Government House President's House St. Anns Diplomatic Residence Whitehall Official residence Belize House Government House Rideau Hall Citadelle of Quebec 24 Sussex Drive Harrington Lake Stornoway The Farm, Gatineau Park 7 Rideau Gate British Columbia:Government House Manitoba:Government House New Brunswick:Old Government House Nova Scotia:Government House Prince Edward Island:Government House Newfoundland and Labrador:Government House Quebec:Édifice Price/Price Building *The provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Quebec no longer have official residences for their lieutenant governors, but do provide them with accommodations.
Casa Presidencial, Costa Rica Casa Presidencial called Casa Blanca Casa Presidencial National Palace Palacio José Cecilio del Valle None. The President uses own private residence. Los Pinos National Palace Castillo de Chapultepec *In every state of the Mexico the Palacio de Gobierno, or Government Palace, was the official residence the governor, they are now maintained as the relevant governor's offices. Querétaro Casa de la Corregidora Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Palacio de las Garzas White House Camp David Number One Observatory Circle Blair House Presidential Townhouse Trowbridge House Waldorf Astoria New York (Ambassador to
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna the Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands, is a French island collectivity in the South Pacific between Tuvalu to the northwest, Fiji to the southwest, Tonga to the southeast, Samoa to the east, Tokelau to the northeast. Though both French and Polynesian and Futuna is distinct from the entity known as French Polynesia, its land area is 142.42 km2 with a population of 11,558 at the 2018 census. Mata-Utu is biggest city; the territory is made up of three main volcanic tropical islands along with a number of tiny islets, is split into two island groups that lie about 260 km apart, namely the Wallis Islands in the northeast, the Hoorn Islands in the southwest, including Futuna Island proper and the uninhabited Alofi Island. Since 2003, Wallis and Futuna has been a French overseas collectivity. Between 1961 and 2003, it had the status of a French overseas territory, though its official name did not change when the status changed. Polynesians settled the islands that would be called Wallis and Futuna around the year 1000 AD/CE, when the Tongan Empire expanded into the area.
The original inhabitants built forts and other identifiable ruins on the islands, some of which are still intact. Futuna was first put on the European maps by Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire during their circumnavigation of the globe in 1616, they named the islands "Hoornse Eylanden" after the Dutch town of Hoorn. This was translated into French as "Isles de Horne." The French were the first Europeans to settle in the territory, with the arrival of French missionaries in 1837, who converted the population to Roman Catholicism. Pierre Chanel, canonized as a saint in 1954, is a major patron of the island of Futuna and the region; the Wallis Islands are named after the British explorer, Samuel Wallis, who sailed past them in 1767 after discovering Tahiti. On 5 April 1842, the missionaries asked for the protection of France after the rebellion of a part of the local population. On 5 April 1887, the Queen of Uvea signed a treaty establishing a French protectorate; the kings of Sigave and Alo on the islands of Futuna and Alofi signed a treaty establishing a French protectorate on 16 February 1888.
The islands were put under the authority of the French colony of New Caledonia. In 1917, the three traditional kingdoms were annexed to France and turned into the Colony of Wallis and Futuna, still under the authority of the Colony of New Caledonia. During World War II, the islands' administration was pro-Vichy until a Free French corvette from New Caledonia deposed the regime on 26 May 1942. Units of the US Marine Corps landed on Wallis on 29 May 1942. In 1959, the inhabitants of the islands voted to become a French overseas territory, effective in 1961, thus ending their subordination to New Caledonia. In 2005, the 50th King of Uvea, Tomasi Kulimoetoke II, faced being deposed after giving sanctuary to his grandson, convicted of manslaughter; the King claimed. There were riots in the streets involving the King's supporters, who were victorious over attempts to replace the King. Two years Tomasi Kulimoetoke died on 7 May 2007; the state was in a six-month period of mourning. During this period, mentioning a successor was forbidden.
On 25 July 2008, Kapiliele Faupala was installed as King despite protests from some of the royal clans. The territory is divided into three traditional kingdoms: Uvea, on the island of Wallis, Sigave, on the western part of the island of Futuna, Alo, on the eastern part of the island of Futuna and on the uninhabited island of Alofi: referred to the villages with municipal status called MuaThe capital of the collectivity is Matāʻutu on the island of Uvéa, the most populous of the Wallis Islands; as an overseas collectivity of France, it is governed under the French constitution of 28 September 1958, has universal suffrage for those over 18 years of age. The French president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term; the head of state is President Emmanuel Macron of France as represented by the Administrator-Superior Thierry Queffelec. The President of the Territorial Assembly is Petelo Hanisi since 11 December 2013; the Council of the Territory consists of three kings and three members appointed by the high administrator on the advice of the Territorial Assembly.
The legislative branch consists of the unicameral Territorial Assembly or Assemblée territoriale of 20 seats. Wallis and Futuna elect one senator to the French Senate and one deputy to the French National Assembly. Justice is administered under French law by a tribunal of the first instance in Mata-Utu, but the three traditional kingdoms administer justice according to customary law; the Court of Appeal is in New Caledonia. The territory participates in the Franc Zone, as a permanent member of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community and as an observer of the Pacific Islands Forum. Wallis and Fut
Charles Stuart, 1st Baron Stuart de Rothesay
Charles Stuart, 1st Baron Stuart de Rothesay, known as Sir Charles Stuart between 1812 and 1828, was a British diplomat. He was twice Ambassador to France and served as Ambassador to Russia between 1841 and 1844. Stuart was the son of Lieutenant-General the Honourable Sir Charles Crichton-Stuart, younger son of Prime Minister John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, his mother was Louisa, daughter of Lord Vere Bertie, younger son of Robert Bertie, 1st Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven. He was educated at Oxford. Stuart joined the Diplomatic Service in 1801,and was appointed as Secretary of Legation in Vienna, a post he held until 1804, he was sent to Petersburg and this was followed by an assignment in French occupied Spain in 1808. He served as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Portugal and Brazil between 1810 and 1814. Ambassador to the Netherlands between February and May 1815, it was during his posting as ambassador in Spain that he became indispensable to the Duke of Wellington. At the Generals' insistence, he was appointed British Ambassador to France.
During Napoleon's Hundred Days, he left Paris and was in Brussels at the start of the Waterloo Campaign, where during his stay he attended the Duchess of Richmond's Ball. After the fall of Napoleon, he escorted the exiled French King Louis XVIII back to Paris, became British Ambassador there until 1824. From 1825 to 1826 he was once more Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Portugal and Brazil, he was created Count of Machico in 1825 by John VI of Portugal and Marquess of Angra in Brazil in 1826 by Maria II of Portugal, was a Knight of the Portuguese Order of the Tower and Sword. In 1825 the Portuguese King John VI named Stuart his plenipotentiary with powers to negotiate and sign with Brazil a Treaty on the recognition of that country's independence. Invested with those powers, Stuart signed the treaty recognising Brazilian independence on 29 August 1825, on 15 November of the same year the Portuguese King ratified the treaty. In January 1828 he was once again appointed Ambassador to France and was raised to the peerage Baron Stuart de Rothesay, of the Isle of Bute, at the same time.
He continued as Ambassador to France until November 1830. In 1841 he was made Ambassador to Russia, a post he held until 1844, he was appointed a Knight of the Order of the Bath in 1812 and sworn of the Privy Council in 1814. In 1815 he was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath Lord Stuart de Rothesay married Lady Elizabeth Margaret, daughter of Philip Yorke, 3rd Earl of Hardwicke, on 6 February 1816, they had two daughters: wife of Charles Canning, 1st Earl Canning. Hon. Louisa Anne Stuart, wife of Henry Beresford, 3rd Marquess of Waterford. Early retirement from the diplomatic service meant. By 1830 he had purchased much at Highcliffe, Dorset. Had been owned by his forebears, the estate had been sold by his father, he engaged William Donthorne, a founder member of the Royal Institute of British Architects, to design a new Highcliffe Castle. The castle is built on an L shaped plan, oriented on a south-east axis, so the oriel window is central on the south east elevation, providing a vista across the landscaped gardens to a panorama of the needles and Isle of Wight.
Used in the building of the house was carved medieval stonework from the Norman Benedictine Abbey of St Peter at Jumieges and from the Grande Maison des Les Andelys. Both of these buildings had fallen into disrepair after the French Revolution. Included in the castle, were a 16th-century oriel window and a stained glass window. After the Castle was completed, Charles became Ambassador to Russia in 1841; however ill-health caused his return to England and he died at Highcliffe in November 1845, aged 66, when the barony became extinct. He was buried at St Mark's Church and his memorial can still be seen there. Lady Stuart de Rothesay remained a widow until her death in June 1867. De Ros, Dowager Lady, "", The Regency Library (Originally published in Murray's Magazine Part I. 5, 1889, pp. +and+did+not+do+the+honours+of+the+ball+well&dq=, +and+did+not+do+the+honours+of+the+ball+well&pgis=1 40–43 Highcliffe Castle staff, Lord Stuart de Rothesay, Highcliffe Castle, archived from the original on 16 January 2014, retrieved August 2012 Oliver.
Hôtel de Charost
Hôtel de Charost is a hôtel particulier located at 39 rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré in Paris. Since 1814, it has been the official residence of the ambassador of the United Kingdom to France, it is located near the Élysée Palace. The hôtel was built in the 1720s for Armand de Bethune, 2nd Duke of Charost, a senior courtier of Louis XV, it was designed by the king's own architect. The building was sited on the rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré, a winding road that passed through fields and market gardens to the village of Roule on the outskirts of Paris. After it had been an aristocratic home, the hôtel became the Embassy of Portugal, offices for the French home office, an Imperial Palace and the temporary residence of the Austrian ambassador. In 1803, it was bought by the sister of Napoleon Bonaparte. In 1814, she sold the building to the Duke of Wellington. Borghese passed the gold onto Napoleon, exiled to Elba following the Treaty of Fontainebleau, his dramatic return that climaxed the next year at Waterloo was financed with the sale of this house to the British.
Media related to Hôtel de Charost at Wikimedia Commons
Robert Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Earl of Lytton
Robert Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Earl of Lytton, was an English statesman, Conservative politician, poet. He served as Viceroy of India between 1876 and 1880 - during his tenure as which Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India - and as British Ambassador to France from 1887 to 1891, his tenure as Viceroy was successful, but controversial for its ruthlessness in both domestic and foreign affairs: for his response to the Great Famine of 1876–78, the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Lytton's policies were alleged to be informed by his Social Darwinism, his son Victor Bulwer-Lytton, 2nd Earl of Lytton, born in India served as Governor of Bengal and as acting Viceroy, he was the father-in-law of the architect Sir Edwin Lutyens, who designed New Delhi. Lytton was a protégé of Benjamin Disraeli in domestic affairs, of Richard Lyons, 1st Viscount Lyons, his predecessor as Ambassador to France, in foreign affairs, his tenure as Ambassador to Paris was successful, Lytton was afforded the rare tribute – for an Englishman – of a French state funeral in Paris.
Lytton was the son of 1st Baron Lytton and Rosina Doyle Wheeler. His uncle was Sir Henry Bulwer, his childhood was spoiled by the altercations of his parents, who separated acrimoniously when he was a boy. However, Lytton received the patronage of John Forster - an influential friend of Leigh Hunt, Charles Lamb, Walter Savage Landor, Charles Dickens -, considered to be the first professional biographer of 19th century England. Lytton's mother, who lost access to her children, satirised his father in her 1839 novel Cheveley, or the Man of Honour, his father subsequently had his mother placed under restraint, as a consequence of an assertion of her insanity, which provoked public outcry and her liberation a few weeks later. His mother chronicled this episode in her memoirs, he was educated at the University of Bonn. Lytton entered the Diplomatic Service in 1849, when aged 18, when he was appointed as attaché to his uncle, Sir Henry Bulwer, Minister at Washington, DC, it was at this time he met Daniel Webster.
He began his salaried diplomatic career in 1852 as an attaché to Florence, subsequently served in Paris, in 1854, in The Hague, in 1856. In 1858, he served in St Petersburg and Vienna. In 1860, he was appointed British Consul General at Belgrade. In 1862, Lytton was promoted to Second Secretary in Vienna, but his success in Belgrade made Lord Russell appoint him, in 1863, as Secretary of the Legation at Copenhagen, during his tenure as which he twice acted as Chargé d'Affaires in the Schleswig-Holstein conflict. In 1864, Lytton was transferred to the Greek court to advise the young Danish Prince. In 1865, he served in Lisbon, where he concluded a major commercial treaty with Portugal, subsequently in Madrid, he subsequently became Secretary to the Embassy at Vienna and, in 1872, to Richard Lyons, 1st Viscount Lyons, Ambassador to Paris. By 1874, Lytton was appointed British Minister Plenipotentiary at Lisbon where he remained until being appointed Governor General and Viceroy of India in 1876.
Midway on his journey he met, by prearrangement, in Egypt, the Prince of Wales returning from his tour through India. On his arrival in Calcutta he was sworn in as Governor General and Viceroy, on 1 January 1877, surrounded by all the Princes of Hindustan, he presided at a spectacular ceremony on the plains of Delhi, which marked the Proclamation of her Majesty, Queen Victoria, as Empress of India. After this the Queen conferred upon him the honor of the Grand Cross of the civil division of the Order of the Bath. In 1879 an attempt was made to assassinate Lord Lytton; the principal event of his viceroyalty was the Afghan war. Lytton served as Viceroy of India from 1876 to 1880, his tenure was successful, but controversial for its ruthlessness in both domestic and foreign affairs. In 1877, Lord Lytton convened a durbar in Delhi, attended by around 84,000 people, including Indian princes and noblemen. In 1878, he implemented the Vernacular Press Act, which enabled the Viceroy to confiscate the press and paper of any Indian Vernacular newspaper that published content that the Government deemed to be'seditious', in response to which there was a public protest in Calcutta, led by the Indian Association and Surendranath Banerjee.
Lytton's son-in-law, Sir Edwin Lutyens and designed New Delhi. Lord Lytton arrived as Viceroy of India in 1876. In the same year, a famine broke out in south India which claimed between 6.1 million and 10.3 million people. His implementation of Britain's trading policy has been blamed for increasing the severity of the famine. Critics have contended that Lytton's belief in Social Darwinism determined his policy in response to the starving and dying Indians. Britain was concerned throughout the 1870s about Russian attempts to increase its influence in Afghanistan, which provided a Central Asian buffer state between the Russian Empire and British India. In September 1878, Lytton sent an emissary to Afghanistan, refused entry; the Amir of Afghanistan, Sher Ali Khan, was perceived at this point to have sided with Russia above Britain. Considering himself left with no real alternative, in November 1878, Lytton ordered an invasion which sparked the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Britain won all the major battles of this war, in the final settlement, the Treaty of Gandamak, saw a government installed, both by person
French Guiana is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas. It borders Brazil to the east and Suriname to the west. Since 1981, when Belize became independent, French Guiana has been the only territory of the mainland Americas, still part of a European country. With a land area of 83,534 km2, French Guiana is the second-largest region of France and the largest outermost region within the European Union, it has a low population density, with only 3.6 inhabitants per square kilometre. Half of its 296,711 inhabitants in 2019 lived in the metropolitan area of its capital. 98.9% of the land territory of French Guiana is covered by forests, a large part of, primeval rainforest. The Guiana Amazonian Park, the largest national park in the European Union, covers 41% of French Guiana's territory. Since December 2015 both the region and the department have been ruled by a single assembly within the framework of a new territorial collectivity, the French Guiana Territorial Collectivity.
This assembly, the French Guiana Assembly, has replaced the former regional council and departmental council, which were both disbanded. The French Guiana Assembly is in charge of departmental government, its president is Rodolphe Alexandre. Before European contact, the territory was inhabited by Native Americans, most speaking the Arawak language, of the Arawakan language family; the people identified as Lokono. The first French establishment is recorded in 1503, but France did not establish a durable presence until colonists founded Cayenne in 1643. Guiana was developed as a slave society, where planters imported Africans as enslaved laborers on large sugar and other plantations in such number as to increase the population. Slavery was abolished in the colonies at the time of the French Revolution. Guiana was designated as a French department in 1797. But, after France gave up its territory in North America in 1803, it developed Guiana as a penal colony, establishing a network of camps and penitentiaries along the coast where prisoners from metropolitan France were sentenced to forced labor.
During World War II and the fall of France to German forces, Félix Éboué was one of the first to support General Charles de Gaulle of Free France, as early as June 18, 1940. Guiana rallied Free France in 1943, it abandoned its status as a colony and once again became a French department in 1946. After De Gaulle was elected as president of France, he established the Guiana Space Centre in 1965, it is now operated by Arianespace and the European Space Agency. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, several hundred Hmong refugees from Laos immigrated to French Guiana, fleeing displacement after United States involvement in the Vietnam War. In the late 1980s, more than 10,000 Surinamese refugees Maroons, arrived in French Guiana, fleeing the Surinamese Civil War. More French Guiana has received large numbers of Brazilian and Haitian economic migrants. Illegal and ecologically destructive gold mining by Brazilian garimpeiros is a chronic issue in the remote interior rain forest of French Guiana. Integrated in the French central state in the 21st century, Guiana is a part of the European Union, its official currency is the euro.
The region has the highest nominal GDP per capita in South America. A large part of Guiana's economy derives from jobs and businesses associated with the presence of the Guiana Space Centre, now the European Space Agency's primary launch site near the equator; as elsewhere in France, the official language is standard French, but each ethnic community has its own language, of which French Guianese Creole, a French-based creole language, is the most spoken. The region still faces such problems as poor infrastructure, high costs of living, high levels of crime and common social unrest. Guiana is derived from an Amerindian language and means "land of many waters"; the addition of the adjective "French" in most languages other than French is rooted in colonial times, when five such colonies had been named along the coast, subject to differing powers. French Guiana and the two larger countries to the north and west and Suriname, are still collectively referred to as "the Guianas" and constitute one large landmass known as the Guiana Shield.
French Guiana was inhabited by indigenous people: Kalina, Emerillon, Palikur and Wayana. The French attempted to create a colony there in the 18th century in conjunction with its settlement of some Caribbean islands, such as Guadeloupe and Saint-Domingue. Bill Marshall, Professor of Comparative Cultural Studies at the University of Stirling wrote of French Guiana's origins: The first French effort to colonize Guiana, in 1763, failed utterly, as settlers were subject to high mortality given the numerous tropical diseases and harsh climate: all but 2,000 of the initial 12,000 settlers died. During operations as a penal colony beginning in the mid-19th century, France transported 56,000 prisoners to Devil's Island. Fewer than 10% survived their sentence. Île du Diable was the site of a small prison facility, part of a larger penal system by the same name, which consisted of prisons on