Robert P. Jackson
Robert Porter Jackson is an American foreign service officer and diplomat. He is a career member of the Senior Foreign Service with the rank of Minister-Counselor. From 2013 to 2015 he was Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, he was the United States Ambassador to Cameroon. Prior to that he was Deputy Chief of Mission and Chargé d'Affaires, a.i. at the U. S. Embassies in Morocco and Senegal. Mr. Jackson has served as Director of the Office for the Promotion of Human Rights and Democracy, his other overseas postings include Burundi, Canada, Côte d'Ivoire and Zimbabwe. He received his B. A. from Bowdoin College, his M. A. from The George Washington University's Elliott School of International Affairs and his M. S. from National Defense University. U. S. Embassy Yaoundé: Ambassador’s biography U. S. Department of State: Biography of Robert P. Jackson
Ghana the Republic of Ghana, is a country located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa. Spanning a land mass of 238,535 km2, Ghana is bordered by the Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, Togo in the east and the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean in the south. Ghana means "Warrior King" in the Soninke language; the first permanent state in the territory of present-day Ghana dates back to the 11th century. Numerous kingdoms and empires emerged over the centuries, of which the most powerful was the Kingdom of Ashanti. Beginning in the 15th century, numerous European powers contested the area for trading rights, with the British establishing control of the coast by the late 19th century. Following over a century of native resistance, Ghana's current borders were established by the 1900s as the British Gold Coast, it became independent of the United Kingdom on 6 March 1957. Ghana's population of 30 million spans a variety of ethnic and religious groups.
According to the 2010 census, 71.2% of the population was Christian, 17.6% was Muslim, 5.2% practised traditional faiths. Its diverse geography and ecology ranges from coastal savannahs to tropical rain forests. Ghana is a unitary constitutional democracy led by a president, both head of state and head of the government. Ghana's growing economic prosperity and democratic political system have made it a regional power in West Africa, it is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States, Group of 24 and the Commonwealth of Nations. The etymology of the word Ghana means "warrior king" and was the title accorded to the kings of the medieval Ghana Empire in West Africa, but the empire was further north than the modern country of Ghana, in the region of Guinea. Ghana was recognized as one of the great kingdoms in Bilad el-Sudan by the ninth century. Ghana was inhabited in the Middle Ages and the Age of Discovery by a number of ancient predominantly Akan kingdoms in the Southern and Central territories.
This included the Ashanti Empire, the Akwamu, the Bonoman, the Denkyira, the Mankessim Kingdom. Although the area of present-day Ghana in West Africa has experienced many population movements, the Akans were settled by the 5th century BC. By the early 11th century, the Akans were established in the Akan state called Bonoman, for which the Brong-Ahafo Region is named. From the 13th century, Akans emerged from what is believed to have been the Bonoman area, to create several Akan states of Ghana based on gold trading; these states included Bonoman, Denkyira, Mankessim Kingdom, Akwamu Eastern region. By the 19th century, the territory of the southern part of Ghana was included in the Kingdom of Ashanti, one of the most influential states in sub-saharan Africa prior to the onset of colonialism; the Kingdom of Ashanti government operated first as a loose network, as a centralised kingdom with an advanced specialised bureaucracy centred in the capital city of Kumasi. Prior to Akan contact with Europeans, the Akan people created an advanced economy based on principally gold and gold bar commodities traded with the states of Africa.
The earliest known kingdoms to emerge in modern Ghana were the Mole-Dagbani states. The Mole-Dagomba came on horseback from present-day Burkina Faso under Naa Gbewaa. With their advanced weapons and based on a central authority, they invaded and occupied the lands of the local people ruled by the Tendamba, established themselves as the rulers over the locals, made Gambaga their capital; the death of Naa Gbewaa caused civil war among his children, some of whom broke off and founded separate states including Dagbon, Mossi and Wala. Akan trade with European states began after contact with Portuguese in the 15th century. Early European contact by the Portuguese people, who came to the Gold Coast region in the 15th century to trade and established the Portuguese Gold Coast, focused on the extensive availability of gold; the Portuguese built a trading lodge at a coastal settlement called Anomansah which they renamed São Jorge da Mina. In 1481, King John II of Portugal commissioned Diogo d'Azambuja to build the Elmina Castle, completed in three years.
By 1598, the Dutch had joined the Portuguese in the gold trade, establishing the Dutch Gold Coast and building forts at Fort Komenda and Kormantsi. In 1617, the Dutch captured the Olnini Castle from the Portuguese, Axim in 1642. Other European traders had joined in gold trading by the mid-17th century, most notably the Swedes, establishing the Swedish Gold Coast, Denmark-Norway, establishing the Danish Gold Coast. Portuguese merchants, impressed with the gold resources in the area, named it Costa do Ouro or Gold Coast. Beginning in the 17th century — in addition to the gold trade — Portuguese, Dutch and French traders participated in the Atlantic slave trade in this area. More than thirty forts and castles were built by the Portuguese, Dano-Norwegians and German merchants. In 1874 Great Britain established control over some parts of the country, assigning these areas the status of British Gold Coast. Many military engagements occurred between the British colonial powers and the various Akan nation-states.
The Akan Kingdom of Ashanti defeated the British a few times i
United States Foreign Service
The United States Foreign Service is the primary personnel system used by the diplomatic service of the United States federal government, under the aegis of the United States Department of State. It consists of over 13,000 professionals carrying out the foreign policy of the United States and aiding U. S. citizens abroad. Created in 1924 by the Rogers Act, the Foreign Service combined all consular and diplomatic services of the U. S. government into one administrative unit. In addition to the unit's function, the Rogers Act defined a personnel system under which the United States Secretary of State is authorized to assign diplomats abroad. Members of the Foreign Service are selected through a series of oral examinations, they serve at any of the 265 United States diplomatic missions around the world, including embassies and other facilities. Members of the Foreign Service staff the headquarters of the four foreign affairs agencies: the Department of State, headquartered at the Harry S Truman Building in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D.
C.. The United States Foreign Service is managed by a Director General, an official, appointed by the President of the United States, with the advice and consent of the Senate; the Director General is traditionally former Foreign Service Officer. Starting on November 23, 1975 until October 2, 2016 under a departmental administrative action, the Director General concurrently held the title of Director of the Bureau of Human Resources; the two positions are now separate. As the head of the bureau, the Director General held a rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary of State; the current Director General is William E. Todd, serving in an acting capacity. On September 15, 1789, the 1st United States Congress passed an Act creating the Department of State and appointing duties to it, including the keeping of the Great Seal of the United States. There were two services devoted to diplomatic and consular activity; the Diplomatic Service provided ambassadors and ministers to staff embassies overseas, while the Consular Service provided consuls to assist United States sailors and promote international trade and commerce.
Throughout the 19th century, ambassadors, or ministers, as they were known prior to the 1890s, consuls were appointed by the president, until 1856, earned no salary. Many had commercial ties to the countries in which they would serve, were expected to earn a living through private business or by collecting fees. In 1856, Congress provided a salary for consuls serving at certain posts. Lucile Atcherson Curtis was the first woman in what became the U. S. Foreign Service, she was the first woman appointed as a United States Diplomatic Officer or Consular Officer, in 1923. The Rogers Act of 1924 merged the diplomatic and consular services of the government into the Foreign Service. An difficult Foreign Service examination was implemented to recruit the most outstanding Americans, along with a merit-based system of promotions; the Rogers Act created the Board of the Foreign Service and the Board of Examiners of the Foreign Service, the former to advise the Secretary of State on managing the Foreign Service, the latter to manage the examination process.
In 1927 Congress passed legislation affording diplomatic status to representatives abroad of the Department of Commerce, creating the Foreign Commerce Service. In 1930 Congress passed similar legislation for the Department of Agriculture, creating the Foreign Agricultural Service. Though formally accorded diplomatic status, however and agricultural attachés were civil servants. In addition, the agricultural legislation stipulated that agricultural attachés would not be construed as public ministers. On July 1, 1939, both the commercial and agricultural attachés were transferred to the Department of State under Reorganization Plan No. II; the agricultural attachés remained in the Department of State until 1954, when they were returned by Act of Congress to the Department of Agriculture. Commercial attachés remained with State until 1980, when Reorganization Plan Number 3 of 1979 was implemented under terms of the Foreign Service Act of 1980. In 1946 Congress at the request of the Department of State passed a new Foreign Service Act creating six classes of employees: chiefs of mission, Foreign Service Officers, Foreign Service Reservists, Foreign Service Staff, "alien personnel", consular agents.
Officers were expected to spend the bulk of their careers abroad and were commissioned officers of the United States, available for worldwide service. Reserve officers spent the bulk of their careers in Washington but were available for overseas service. Foreign Service Staff personnel included support positions; the intent of this system was to remove the distinction between Foreign Service and civil service staff, a source of friction. The Foreign Service Act of 1946 repealed as redundant the 1927 and 1930 laws granting USDA and Commerce representatives abroad diplomatic status, since at that point agricultural and commercial attachés were appointed by the Department of State; the 1946 Act replaced the Board of Foreign Service Personnel, a body concerned with adminis
Stephanie S. Sullivan
Stephanie Sanders Sullivan is an American diplomat and the current ambassador to Ghana. She served as Deputy Assistant Secretary for Central African Affairs and Security Affairs for the Bureau of African Affairs from January 2017 to November 2018, she served as United States Ambassador to the Republic of the Congo, having been nominated by President Obama on June 13, 2013, confirmed by the Senate August 1, 2013 and served through January 20, 2017. Sullivan was born Stephanie Sanders, daughter of Dr. John E. Sanders, a geologist who taught at Yale University and Barnard College and his wife, Barbara Wood Sanders, an art teacher. Sullivan attended the Hackley School; as an undergraduate, Sullivan attended Brown University, where she majored in English language and literature and received the Francis Driscoll Premium Award from the Classics Department. She excelled as a collegiate athlete, she played soccer and lacrosse all four years, made All-Ivy teams in ice hockey and soccer. She graduated with a B.
A. in 1980. Sullivan received an M. S. in security strategy from the National Defense University at the National War College. Sullivan began her career with service in The Peace Corps, working in the Democratic Republic of Congo from 1980 to 1983, teaching English in Mbanza Mboma, it was in the Peace Corps that she met her husband, John Sullivan, serving as a volunteer in Zaire. When she embarked on a career as a U. S. diplomat, Sullivan returned to Africa, serving as a consular and political officer in Cameroon from 1986 to 1988. In 1988 she began the first of several tours with the Executive Secretariat Operations Center. Other assignments included serving as Chief of Operations for the Africa Region of Peace Corps from 1994 to 96, as well as a role as Political Chief at the U. S. Embassy in Ghana. Just before accepting the role as Ambassador, she served two years as Chief of Staff to the Deputy Secretary of State for Management and Resources. Sullivan was nominated to be the next ambassador to Ghana by President Donald Trump on July 9, 2018 and confirmed by the U.
S. Senate on September 6, 2018, she presented her credentials to President Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo on January 23, 2019. Sullivan and her husband, have two sons. In addition to English, she speaks French and Lingala
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
Accra is the capital and largest city of Ghana, covering an area of 225.67 km2 with an estimated urban population of 2.27 million as of 2012. It is organized into 10 local government districts – 9 municipal districts and the Accra Metropolitan District, the only district within the capital to be granted city status. "Accra" refers to the Accra Metropolitan Area, which serves as the capital of Ghana, while the district within the jurisdiction of the Accra Metropolitan Assembly is distinguished from the rest of the capital as the "City of Accra". In common usage, the terms "Accra" and "City of Accra" are used interchangeably; the intersection of the Lafa stream and Mallam junction serves as the western border of Accra, the Great Hall of the University of Ghana forms Accra's northern border, while the Nautical College forms the eastern border. The Gulf of Guinea forms the southern border. Formed from the merger of distinct settlements around British Fort James, Dutch Fort Crêvecoeur, Danish Fort Christiansborg as Jamestown and Christiansborg Accra served as the capital of the British Gold Coast between 1877 and 1957 and has since transitioned into a modern metropolis.
The capital's architecture reflects this history, ranging from 19th-century colonial architecture to modern skyscrapers and apartment blocks. Accra is the Greater Accra Region's economic and administrative hub, serves as the anchor of the larger Greater Accra Metropolitan Area, inhabited by about 4 million people, making it the thirteenth-largest metropolitan area in Africa. Strategic initiatives, such as transportation, are coordinated between the local government authorities, while the Accra Metropolitan Assembly, based in West Ridge, is responsible for the administration of the 60 km2 City of Accra only; the central business district of Accra contains the city's main banks and department stores, as well as an area known as the Ministries, where Ghana's government administration is concentrated. Economic activities in Accra include the financial and commercial sectors and the manufacture of processed food, plywood, textiles and chemicals. Tourism is becoming a thriving source of business for those in arts and crafts, historical sites and local travel and tour agents.
The Oxford Street in the district of Osu has grown to become the hub of business and night life in Accra. In 2010, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network think tank designated Accra as a Gamma level world city, indicating a growing level of international influence and connectedness; the word Accra is derived from the Akan word Nkran meaning "ants", a reference to the numerous anthills seen in the countryside around Accra. The name refers to soldier ants, was applied to both the town and people by the Twi speakers; the name of Accra in the Ga language is Ga or Gaga, the same name as that of the Ga people and a cognate with Nkran. The word is sometimes rendered with the nasalised vowels as Gã or Gãgã. Historian Carl Christian Reindorf confirmed this etymology, proposing a link between the martial qualities and migratory behaviour of the local ants and those of the Ga people; the link between the ethonym and ants was explicitly reflected in the recognition of anthills as sacred places.
Ringed by sacred fences, the tall red mounds dotting Accra's hinterland were seen as microcosms of human community and as nodal points between the known world and the world of the dead. While the Ga used the reference to the invasive species of dark-brown swarming ants to connote military prowess and their ancient conquest of Guang speakers residing in the Accra Plains, the Akan-speaking appropriation and translation of this metaphor had a less than generous meaning. Instead of viewing Ga speakers as a formidable military force, the Akan-speaking term "Nkran" cast Ga peoples as pests or nuisances to be controlled or exterminated; the name Ga is a cognate of the name Akan, one of a few words in which corresponds to in Akan. Ga gave its name to the Ga districts surrounding Accra; the name Accra was given to Nkran by Europeans. An earlier spelling used by the Danes was Akra; the main Ga group known as the Tumgwa We led by Ayi Kushie arrived by sea. When the Guan on the coast saw them on their canoes at sea, they looked like ants.
Hence, the Lartehs refer to them as Nkran. Nkran was corrupted by the Danes to Akra to present-day Accra. Nkran in the Ga language is Gaga, thus they started calling themselves Ga. Due to their sheer numbers, the indigenous Lartehs thus relocated to the Akuapem ridge; the Ga are part of the main Guan group that started the initial migration from the Nubia Empire. Accra was not the most prominent trading centre; the Dutch built the nearby outposts of Ussher Fort while the British and the Swedes built James Fort and Christiansborg castles, respectively. By the 17th century, Portugal and Denmark, had constructed forts in the city. Britain acquired the interests of all other countries beginning in 1851, when Denmark sold Christiansborg and their other forts to the British; the Netherlands was the last to sell out, in 1871. In 1873, after decades of tension between the British and Ashantis, the British attacked and destroyed Kumasi; the British captured Accra in 1874, in 1877, at the end of the second Anglo-Asante War, Accra replaced Cape Coast as the capital of the British Gold Coast.
This decision was made. Until this time, the settlement of Accra was confined betwe
Nancy Jo Powell
Nancy Jo Powell was the United States Ambassador to India from April 2012 to May 2014. Powell was Director General of the United States Foreign Service, a position she assumed after serving as the U. S. Ambassador to Nepal. Powell is a career member of the Senior Foreign Service. Ambassador Powell joined the United States Foreign Service in 1977, has held assignments in Africa and South Asia. Media reports alleged that Nancy Powell resignation was inevitable after the officials of the Government of India stopped accepting to meet her. United States Ambassador to India, 2012-2014 Director General of the United States Foreign Service, 2009-2012 Ambassador to Nepal, July 16, 2007 – 2009 National Intelligence Officer for South Asia, National Intelligence Council, 2006–2007 Senior Coordinator for Avian Influenza and Infectious Diseases, 2006 Acting Assistant Secretary of State for the Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, March 14 – November 25, 2005 Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary and the Acting Assistant Secretary of State for Legislative Affairs, November 2004 – March 2005 Ambassador to Pakistan, August 9, 2002 – October 2004 Ambassador to Ghana, August 14, 2001 – May 2002 Acting Assistant Secretary for African Affairs, January 2001 – June 2001 Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for African Affairs, July 1999 – January 2001 Ambassador to Uganda, 1997–1999 Deputy Chief of Mission at the U.
S. Embassy in Dhaka, Bangladesh, 1995–1997 Political Counselor at the U. S. Embassy in New Delhi, India, 1993–1995 Consul General in Calcutta, India, 1992–1993 Deputy Chief of Mission in Lome, Togo, 1990–1992Other overseas assignments have included Islamabad, Pakistan. Foreign Service Journal article on her Lifetime Contributions to American Diplomacy Award. U. S. Embassy in Kathmandu, Nepal Ask the Ambassador an online interactive forum with U. S. Ambassador to Nepal Nancy Powell, April 28, 2008 Appearances on C-SPAN