The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Philip K. Crowe
Philip Kingsland Crowe was an American journalist, intelligence officer and career diplomat. Crowe was a journalist at the New York Evening Post, traveled in French Indochina and ran big game hunt before working on ads in the magazines Life and Fortune. During World War II, he worked in the Office of Strategic Services where he was the secret intelligence officer in charge of an area, covering China and India, he joined the U. S. Foreign Service in 1948. Crowe was U. S. Ambassador to Ceylon from 1953 to 1958 and in South Africa from 1959 to 1961. In 1969 he was appointed Ambassador to Norway and served until August 31, 1973. Following the ambassador period in Norway, Crowe was ambassador in Denmark from 1973 to 1975, he published several books on ethic conservation and his time as a diplomat. Bronze star, the Order of Yun-Hui from the Republic of China Grand Cross, Order of St. Olav from Norway Officer in the French Legion of Honor from France
Sri Lanka–United States relations
Sri Lanka – United States relations are bilateral relations between Sri Lanka and the United States. In a 2005 BBC World Service Poll, 30% of Sri Lankans view American influence positively, with 20% expressing a negative view. According to the 2012 U. S. Global Leadership Report, 14% of Sri Lankans approve of U. S. leadership, with 37% disapproving and 49% uncertain. In 2004 Prime Minister Ranil Wickramasinghe was invited to the White House by President George W. Bush, this was the 1st time a Sri Lankan prime minister was invited to the White House. U. S. assistance has totaled more than $2 billion since Sri Lanka's independence in 1948. Through the U. S. Agency for International Development, it has contributed to Sri Lanka's economic growth with projects designed to reduce unemployment, improve housing, develop the Colombo Stock Exchange, modernize the judicial system, improve competitiveness. At the June 2003 Tokyo Donors' Conference on Sri Lanka, the United States pledged $54 million, including $40.4 million of USAID funding.
Following the 2004 tsunami, the United States provided $135 million in relief and reconstruction assistance. In addition, the International Broadcasting Bureau operates a radio-transmitting station in Sri Lanka. Under President Mahinda Rajapaksa, relations with the US were strained, but the ties improved after President Maithripala Sirisena and Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe came to power in 2015. In May 2015, US Secretary of State John Kerry visited Sri Lanka for an official tour. US Counsellor of the State Department Thomas Shannon visited Sri Lanka in December 2015 where the first US-Sri Lanka partnership dialogue to improve Governance, Development Cooperation and People-to-People ties. US offered assistance to help Sri Lanka become an economic and strategic hub in the Indian Ocean region. Principal U. S. Embassy Officials include: The U. S. Embassy in Sri Lanka is located in Colombo, as are U. S. Agency for International Development offices and Public Affairs offices. IBB offices are located near 75 km north of Colombo.
The U. S. Armed Forces maintain a limited military-to-military relationship with the Sri Lanka defense establishment. United States and Sri Lanka started to enhance defence relations beyond the sale of military equipment, training facilities were extended when Sri Lanka was in an internal battle with a secessionist movement Tamil Tigers. During Ranil Wickremesinghe's time as Prime Minister in 2002, agreements were signed with the US which allowed Sri Lanka to get assistance in terms of military training, military technology, special training in counter-terrorism, direct monetary assistance for military development. During the ceasefire period, United States Pacific Command assessment team conducted a study from 12 September 2002 to 24 October 2002, which made several recommendations to strengthen the capabilities of the Sri Lanka Army, Sri Lanka Navy and Sri Lanka Air Force in case of the peace process failing. After studying the weakness of the military, the study recommended the use of cluster bombs to destroy unarmoured area targets and arming Kfir's and Mi-24 gunships with guided weapons in case of fighting close to enemy forces.
The US donated the SLNS Samudura during this time. It was reported that the US Navy Pacific Command provided intelligence to the Sri Lankan government during the civil war to hunt down LTTE crews and four ships; this was confirmed by the former president Mahinda Rajapaksa whose government was hostile to the United States. Sri Lankan Americans Foreign relations of Sri Lanka Foreign relations of the United States United States Ambassador to Sri Lanka This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Sri Lanka - U. S. relationsSri Lanka: Background and U. S. Relations
Joseph C. Satterthwaite
Joseph Charles Satterthwaite of Michigan was a career diplomat who served as United States Ambassador to Sri Lanka, Head of the U. S. Legation at Tangier from 1953 to 1955, as United States Ambassador to Burma from April 1955 to April 1957, he served as the first Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs in 1958. He was reappointed as an ambassador, this time to South Africa, from 1961 to 1965. Https://web.archive.org/web/20080314214120/http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/po/com/10404.htm
John H. Reed
John Hathaway Reed was the 67th Governor of Maine, holding office during the 1960s. He was once an Aroostook County potato farmer. Reed was a Republican. Reed was born in Fort Fairfield, Maine, in 1921, he graduated from the University of Maine in 1942. He served in the United States Navy in World War II, first graduating from Harvard's Navy Supply Corps School in 1944. After coming home, he was elected to the Maine House of Representatives in 1954, he served one term before being elected to the Maine Senate. At the start of his second senate term, he was elected Senate President, an office which in Maine is first in line for the governorship. Upon Clauson's death, Reed became governor and was the fourth Governor Maine had in 1959, after Clauson, Robert Haskell, Edmund Muskie, he was elected over Democrat Frank M. Coffin to finish Clauson's term in 1960, he was narrowly reelected over Democrat Maynard C. Dolloff in 1962 to serve Maine's first 4-year term as governor. In 1966, he was defeated by Democrat Ken Curtis.
Reed was a strong supporter of the Vietnam War and was close to President Lyndon Johnson, a Democrat, who appointed him to the National Transportation Safety Board in 1966. After serving in that post, he was appointed by President Richard Nixon, a Republican, US ambassador to Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Reed was appointed ambassador to Sri Lanka and the Maldives a second time by President Ronald Reagan, a Republican, in 1981. Reed lived in Washington, D. C. after his retirement. He died there on October 31, 2012. On March 24, 1944, Reed married Cora Mitchell Davison at the Newport Naval Chapel. Cora Davison was born on August 13, 1920, in Haverhill, Massachusetts, to John A. Davison and Ruth Hoitt. Cora Davison was a graduate of Haverhill High School in 1938 and from the former McIntosh School of Business in Lawrence, in 1940, she worked as a secretary in the office of the Clarence Walker Shoe Factory in Haverhill prior to moving with her family to Newport, where she took a position as executive secretary to the commanding officer of the Newport Naval Supply Depot, during World War II.
Here she met her future husband. John and Cora had two daughters and three grandchildren: Cheryl Reed Ruth Ann Reed, married to Jerry Duford Reed Duford Drew Duford Curt DufordHis wife Cora died on November 7, 2004, at Washington Home and Hospice Center after a long illness
History of the Maldives
The history of the Maldives is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the surrounding regions, comprising the areas of South Asia and Indian Ocean. The Maldives had a strategic importance because of its location on the major marine routes of the Indian Ocean; the Maldives' nearest neighbours are Sri Lanka and India, both of which have had cultural and economic ties with Maldives for centuries. The Maldives provided the main source of cowrie shells used as a currency throughout Asia and parts of the East African coast. Most Maldives were influenced by Kalingas of ancient India who were earliest sea traders to Sri Lanka and Maldives from India and were responsible for the spread of Buddhism. Hence ancient Hindu culture has an indelible impact on Maldives' local culture. After the 16th century, when colonial powers took over much of the trade in the Indian Ocean, first the Portuguese the Dutch, the French meddled in local politics. However, this interference ended when the Maldives became a British Protectorate in the 19th century and the Maldivian monarchs were granted a good measure of self-governance.
The Maldives gained total independence from the British on 26 July 1965. However, the British continued to maintain an air base on the island of Gan in the southernmost atoll until 1976; the British departure in 1976 at the height of the Cold War immediately triggered foreign speculation about the future of the air base. The Soviet Union made a move to request the use of the base, but the Maldives refused; the greatest challenge facing the republic in the early 1990s was the need for rapid economic development and modernisation, given the country's limited resource base in fishing and tourism. Concern was evident over a projected long-term sea level rise, which would prove disastrous to the low-lying coral islands; these first Maldivians did not leave any archaeological remains. Their buildings were built of wood, palm fronds and other perishable materials, which would have decayed in the salt and wind of the tropical climate. Moreover, chiefs or headmen did not reside in elaborate stone palaces, nor did their religion require the construction of large temples or compounds.
Comparative studies of Maldivian oral and cultural traditions and customs indicate that one of the earliest settlers were descendants of Tamils from ancient Tamilakam in the Sangam period, most fishermen from the southwest coasts of present India and the northwestern shores of Sri Lanka. One such community are the Giraavaru people, they are mentioned in ancient legends and local folklore about the establishment of the capital and kingly rule in Malé. Depictions of these early societies see, according to some, a matriarchal society with each atoll ruled by a chief queen according to some accounts or by others, several theocratic societies ruled by priests known as Sawamias of heliolatric and astrolatric religions. Several foreign travellers Arabs, had written about a kingdom of the Maldives ruled over by a queen. Al-Idrisi, referring to earlier writers, mentions the name of one of the queens, a member of the Aadeetta dynasty. A strong underlying layer of Dravidian population and culture survives in Maldivian society, with a clear Tamil-Malayalam substratum in the language, which appears in place names, kinship terms, poetry and religious beliefs.
Malabari seafaring culture led to Malayali settling of the Laccadives, the Maldives were evidently viewed as an extension of that archipelago. Some argue that Sindhis accounted for an early layer of migration. Seafaring from Debal began during the Indus valley civilisation; the Jatakas and Puranas show abundant evidence of this maritime trade. There are minor signs of Southeast Asian settlers some adrift from the main group of Austronesian reed boat migrants that settled Madagascar; the earliest written history of the Maldives is marked by the arrival of Sinhalese people, who were descended from the exiled Magadha Prince Vijaya from the ancient city known as Sinhapura in North East India. He and his party of several hundred landed in Sri Lanka, some in the Maldives circa 543 to 483 BC. According to the Mahavansa, one of the ships that sailed with Prince Vijaya, who went to Sri Lanka around 500 BC, went adrift and arrived at an island called Mahiladvipika, being identified with the Maldives, it is said that at that time, the people from Mahiladvipika used to travel to Sri Lanka.
Their settlement in Sri Lanka and the Maldives marks a significant change in demographics and the development of the Indo-Aryan language Dhivehi, most similar in grammar and structure to Sinhala, to the more ancient Elu Prakrit, which has less Pali. Alternatively, it is believed that Vijaya and his clan came from western India – a claim supported by linguistic and cultural features, specific descriptions in the epics themselves, e.g. that Vijaya visited Bharukaccha in his ship on the voyage down south. Philostorgius, a Greek historian of Late Antiquity, wrote of a hostage among the Romans, from the island called Diva, presumed to be the Maldives, baptised Theophilus. Theophilus was sent in the 350s to convert the Himyarites to Christianity, went to his homeland from Arabia. Des
The Maldives the Republic of Maldives, are an Asian country, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea. The country lies southwest of Sri India, about 1,000 kilometres from the Asian continent; the chain of 26 atolls stretches from Ihavandhippolhu Atoll in the north to the Addu City in the south. Comprising a territory spanning 298 square kilometres, the Maldives is one of the world's most geographically dispersed sovereign states as well as the smallest Asian country by land area and population, with around 427,756 inhabitants. Malé is the capital and a populated city, traditionally called the "King's Island" for its central location; the Maldives archipelago is located on the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge, a vast submarine mountain range in the Indian Ocean, which forms a terrestrial ecoregion, together with the Chagos Archipelago and Lakshadweep. With an average ground-level elevation of 1.5 metres above sea level, it is the world's lowest country, with its highest natural point being the lowest in the world, at 5.1 metres.
Due to the consequent risks posed by rising sea levels, the government pledged in 2009 to make the Maldives a carbon-neutral country by 2019. Islam was introduced to the Maldivian archipelago in the 12th century, consolidated as a sultanate, developing strong commercial and cultural ties with Asia and Africa. From the mid-16th-century, the region came under the increasing influence of European colonial powers, with the Maldives becoming a British protectorate in 1887. Independence from the United Kingdom was achieved in 1965 and a presidential republic was established in 1968 with an elected People's Majlis; the ensuing decades have been characterised by political instability, efforts at democratic reform, environmental challenges posed by climate change. The Maldives is a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, it is a member of the United Nations, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, the Non Aligned Movement. The World Bank classifies the Maldives as having an upper middle income economy.
Fishing has been the dominant economic activity, remains the largest sector by far, followed by the growing tourism industry. Maldives is rated "high" on the Human Development Index, with its per capita income higher than other SAARC nations; the Maldives was a Commonwealth republic from July 1982 until its withdrawal from the Commonwealth in October 2016 in protest of international criticism of its records in relation to corruption and human rights. The name "Maldives" may derive from මාල දිවයින in Sinhala; the Maldivian people are called Dhivehin. The word theevu means "island", Dhives means "islanders"; the ancient Sri Lankan chronicle Mahawamsa refers to an island called Mahiladiva in Pali, a mistranslation of the same Sanskrit word meaning "garland". Jan S Hogendorn, Grossman Professor of Economics, theorises that the name Maldives derives from the Sanskrit mālādvīpa, meaning "garland of islands". In Tamil, "Garland of Islands" can be translated as Malai Theevu. In Malayalam, "Garland of Islands" can be translated as Maladweepu.
In Kannada, "Garland of Islands" can be translated as Maaledweepa. None of these names is mentioned in any literature, but classical Sanskrit texts dating back to the Vedic period mention the "Hundred Thousand Islands", a generic name which would include not only the Maldives, but the Laccadives, Aminidivi Islands and the Chagos island groups; some medieval travellers such as Ibn Battuta called the islands Mahal Dibiyat from the Arabic word mahal, which must be how the Berber traveller interpreted the local name, having been through Muslim North India, where Perso-Arabic words were introduced to the local vocabulary. This is the name inscribed on the scroll in the Maldive state emblem; the classical Persian/Arabic name for Maldives is Dibajat. The Dutch referred to the islands as the Maldivische Eilanden, while the British anglicised the local name for the islands first to the "Maldive Islands" and to "Maldives". Garcia da Orta writes in his conversational book first published in 1563 as follows: "I must tell you that I have heard it said that the natives do not call it Maldiva but Nalediva.
In the Malabar language nale means diva island. So that in that language the word signifies "four islands," while we, corrupting the name, call it Maldiva." The first Maldivians did not leave any archaeological artifacts. Their buildings were built of wood, palm fronds and other perishable materials, which would have decayed in the salt and wind of the tropical climate. Moreover, chiefs or headmen did not reside in elaborate stone palaces, nor did their religion require the construction of large temples or compounds. Comparative studies of Maldivian oral and cultural traditions and customs confirm that the first settlers were people from the southern shores of the neighboring Indian subcontinent, including the Giraavaru people mentioned in ancient legends and local folklore about the establishment of the capital and kingly rule in Malé. A strong underlying layer of Dravidian population and culture survives in Maldivian society, with a clear Tamil-Malayalam substratum in the language, which appears in place names, kinship terms, poetry and religious beliefs.
Malabari seafaring culture led to