An ambulance is a medically equipped vehicle which transports patients to treatment facilities, such as hospitals. In some instances, out-of-hospital medical care is provided to the patient. Ambulances are used to respond to medical emergencies by emergency medical services. For this purpose, they are equipped with flashing warning lights and sirens, they can transport paramedics and other first responders to the scene, carry equipment for administering emergency care and transport patients to hospital or other definitive care. Most ambulances use a design based on pick-up trucks. Others take the form of motorcycles, buses and boats. Vehicles count as an ambulance if they can transport patients. However, it varies by jurisdiction as to whether a non-emergency patient transport vehicle is counted as an ambulance; these vehicles are not equipped with life-support equipment, are crewed by staff with fewer qualifications than the crew of emergency ambulances. Conversely, EMS agencies may have emergency response vehicles that cannot transport patients.
These are known by names such as fly-cars or response vehicles. The term ambulance comes from the Latin word "ambulare" as meaning "to walk or move about", a reference to early medical care where patients were moved by lifting or wheeling; the word meant a moving hospital, which follows an army in its movements. Ambulances were first used for emergency transport in 1487 by the Spanish forces during the siege of Málaga by the Catholic Monarchs against the Emirate of Granada. During the American Civil War vehicles for conveying the wounded off the field of battle were called ambulance wagons. Field hospitals were still called ambulances during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 and in the Serbo-Turkish war of 1876 though the wagons were first referred to as ambulances about 1854 during the Crimean War; the history of the ambulance begins in ancient times, with the use of carts to transport incurable patients by force. Ambulances were first used for emergency transport in 1487 by the Spanish, civilian variants were put into operation during the 1830s.
Advances in technology throughout the 19th and 20th centuries led to the modern self-powered ambulances. Ambulances can be grouped into types depending on whether or not they transport patients, under what conditions. In some cases, ambulances may fulfil more than one function (such as combining emergency ambulance care with patient transport Emergency ambulance – The most common type of ambulance, which provide care to patients with an acute illness or injury; these can be road-going vans, helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft or converted vehicles such as golf carts. Patient transport ambulance – A vehicle, which has the job of transporting patients to, from or between places of medical treatment, such as hospital or dialysis center, for non-urgent care; these can be buses or other vehicles. Response vehicle – Also known as a fly-car, nontransporting EMS vehicle and variations. A vehicle, used to reach an acutely ill patient and provide on scene care. In some places, these vehicles can transport a patient, but only if they are able to sit in a regular car seat.
Response units may be backed up by an emergency ambulance which can transport the patient, or may deal with the problem on scene, with no requirement for a transport ambulance. These can be a wide variety of vehicles, from standard cars, to modified vans, pedal cycles, quad bikes or horses. Fire engines are used for this purpose in North America; these units can function as a vehicle for supervisors. Charity ambulance – A special type of patient transport ambulance is provided by a charity for the purpose of taking sick children or adults on trips or vacations away from hospitals, hospices or care homes where they are in long term care. Examples include; these are based on a bus. Bariatric ambulance – A special type of patient transport ambulance designed for obese patients equipped with the appropriate tools to move and manage these patients. In the US, there are four types of ambulances. There are Type I, Type II, Type III and Type IV. Type I is based upon a heavy truck chassis and is used for Advanced Life Support and rescue work.
Type II is a van based ambulance with few modifications except for a raised roof and is used for basic life support and transfer of patients. Type III is a van chassis but with a custom-made rear compartment and has the same uses as Type I ambulances. Type IV is for smaller ad hoc patient transfer that use smaller utility vehicles in which passenger vehicles and trucks would have difficulty in traversing, such as large industrial complexes, commercial venues, special events with large crowds. Ambulances can be based on many types of vehicle although emergency and disaster conditions may lead to other vehicles serving as makeshift ambulances: Van or pickup truck – A typical general-purpose ambulance is based on either the chassis of a van or a light-duty truck; this chassis is modified to the designs and specifications of the purchaser. Vans may either retain their original body and be upfitted inside, or may be based on a chassis without the original body with a modular box body fitted instead.
Those based on pickup trucks always have modular bodies. Those vehicles intended for intensive care or require a large amount of equipment to be carried may be based on
Archibald MacLeish was an American poet and writer, associated with the modernist school of poetry. MacLeish studied English at law at Harvard University, he saw action during the First World War and lived in Paris in the 1920s. On returning to the US, he contributed to Henry Luce's magazine Fortune from 1929 to 1938. For five years MacLeish was Librarian of Congress, a post he accepted at the urging of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. From 1949 to 1962, MacLeish was Boylston Professor of Oratory at Harvard University. MacLeish was awarded three Pulitzer Prizes for his work. MacLeish was born in Illinois, his father, Scottish-born Andrew MacLeish, worked as a dry goods merchant and was a founder of the Chicago department store, Carson Pirie Scott. His mother, was a college professor and had served as president of Rockford College, he grew up on an estate bordering Lake Michigan. He attended the Hotchkiss School from 1907 to 1911. For his college education, MacLeish went to Yale University, where he majored in English, was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, was selected for the Skull and Bones society.
He enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he served as an editor of the Harvard Law Review. His studies were interrupted by World War I, in which he served first as an ambulance driver and as an artillery officer, he fought at the Second Battle of the Marne. His brother, Kenneth MacLeish was killed in action during the war, he graduated from law school in 1919, taught law for a semester for the government department at Harvard worked as an editor for The New Republic. He next spent three years practicing law with the Boston firm Hall & Stewart. MacLeish expressed his disillusion with war in his poem Memorial Rain, published in 1926. In 1923 MacLeish left his law firm and moved with his wife to Paris, where they joined the community of literary expatriates that included such members as Gertrude Stein and Ernest Hemingway, they became part of the famed coterie of Riviera hosts Gerald and Sarah Murphy, which included Hemingway, Zelda and F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Dos Passos, Fernand Léger, Jean Cocteau, Pablo Picasso, John O'Hara, Cole Porter, Dorothy Parker and Robert Benchley.
He returned to America in 1928. From 1930 to 1938 he worked as a writer and editor for Henry Luce's Fortune magazine, during which he became politically active with anti-fascist causes. By the 1930s, he considered Capitalism to be "symbolically dead" and wrote the verse play Panic in response. While in Paris, Harry Crosby, publisher of the Black Sun Press, offered to publish MacLeish's poetry. Both MacLeish and Crosby had overturned the normal expectations of society, rejecting conventional careers in the legal and banking fields. Crosby published MacLeish's long poem Einstein in a deluxe edition of 150 copies. MacLeish was paid US$200 for his work. In 1932, MacLeish published his long poem Conquistador which presents Cortés's conquest of the Aztecs as symbolic of the American experience. In 1933, Conquistador was awarded the first of three awarded to MacLeish. In 1938 MacLeish published as a book a long poem "Land of the Free", built around a series of 88 photographs of the rural depression by Dorothea Lange, Walker Evans, Arthur Rothstein, Ben Shahn and the Farm Security Administration and other agencies.
The book was influential on Steinbeck in writing The Grapes of Wrath. American Libraries has called MacLeish "one of the hundred most influential figures in librarianship during the 20th century" in the United States. MacLeish's career in libraries and public service began, not with an internal desire, but from a combination of the urging of a close friend Felix Frankfurter, as MacLeish put it, "The President decided I wanted to be Librarian of Congress." Franklin D. Roosevelt's nomination of MacLeish was a controversial and political maneuver fraught with several challenges. MacLeish sought support from expected places such as the president of Harvard, MacLeish's current place of work, but found none, it was support from unexpected places, such as M. Llewellyn Raney of the University of Chicago libraries, which alleviated the ALA letter writing campaign against MacLeish's nomination." The main Republican arguments against MacLeish's nomination from within Congress was: that he was a poet and was a "fellow traveler" or sympathetic to communist causes.
Calling to mind differences with the party he had over the years, MacLeish avowed that, "no one would be more shocked to learn I am a Communist than the Communists themselves." In Congress MacLeish's main advocate was Senate Majority Leader Alben Barkley, Democrat from Kentucky. With President Roosevelt's support and Senator Barkley's skillful defense in the United States Senate, victory in a roll call vote with sixty-three Senators voting in favor of MacLeish's appointment was achieved. MacLeish was sworn in as Librarian of Congress on July 10, 1939, by the local postmaster at Conway, Massachusetts. MacLeish became privy to Roosevelt's views on the library during a private meeting with the president. According to Roosevelt, the pay levels were too low and many people would need to be removed. Soon afterward, MacLeish joined the retiring Librarian of Congress Herbert Putnam for a luncheon in New York. At the meeting, Putnam relayed his intention to continue working at the Library, that he would be given the title of Librarian Emeritus and that his office would be down the hall from MacLeish's.
This meeting further crystallized for MacLeish that as Librarian of Congress, he would be "an unpopular newcomer, disturbing the status quo." It was a question from MacLeish's daughter, which led him to realize that, "Nothing
Imperial Russian Army
The Imperial Russian Army was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917. In the early 1850s, the Russian army consisted of more than 900,000 regular soldiers and nearly 250,000 irregulars; the last living veteran of the Russian Imperial Army was Ukrainian supercentenarian Mikhail Krichevsky, who died in 2008. Russian tsars before Peter the Great maintained professional hereditary musketeer corps known as streltsy; these were raised by Ivan the Terrible. In times of war the armed forces were augmented by peasants; the regiments of the new order, or regiments of the foreign order, was the Russian term, used to describe military units that were formed in the Tsardom of Russia in the 17th century according to the Western European military standards. There were different kinds of regiments, such as the regulars and reiters. In 1631, the Russians created two regular regiments in Moscow. During the Smolensk War of 1632–1634, six more regular regiments, one reiter regiment, a dragoon regiment were formed.
They recruited children of the landless boyars and streltsy, volunteers and others. Commanding officers comprised foreigners. After the war with Poland, all of the regiments were disbanded. During another Russo-Polish War, they were created again and became a principal force of the Russian army. Regular and dragoon regiments were manned with datochniye lyudi for lifelong military service. Reiters were manned with small or landless gentry and boyars' children and were paid with money for their service. More than a half of the commanding officers were representatives from the gentry. In times of peace, some of the regiments were disbanded. In 1681, there were 25 dragoon and reiter regiments. In the late 17th century, regiments of the new type represented more than a half of the Russian Army and in the beginning of the 18th century were used for creating a regular army. Conscription in Russia was introduced by Peter the Great in December 1699, though reports say Peter's father used it; the conscripts were called "recruits" Peter I formed a modern regular army built on the German model, but with a new aspect: officers not from nobility, as talented commoners were given promotions that included a noble title at the attainment of an officer's rank.
Conscription of peasants and townspeople was based on quota system, per settlement. It was based on the number of households it was based on the population numbers; the term of service in the 18th century was for life. In 1793 it was reduced to 25 years. In 1834, it was reduced to 20 years plus five years in the reserve, in 1855 to 12 years plus three years in the reserve; the history of the Russian army in this era was linked to the name of Russian General Alexander Suvorov, considered one of a few great generals in history who never lost a battle. From 1777 to 1783 Suvorov served in the Crimea and in the Caucasus, becoming a lieutenant-general in 1780, general of infantry in 1783, on the conclusion of his work there. From 1787 to 1791 he again fought the Turks during the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–1792 and won many victories. Suvorov's leadership played a key role in a Russian victory over the Poles during the Kościuszko Uprising; as a major European power, Russia could not escape the wars involving Revolutionary France and the First French Empire, but as an adversary to Napoleon, the leadership of the new tsar, Alexander I of Russia, who came to the throne as the result of his father's murder became crucial.
The Russian army in 1805 had many characteristics of Ancien Régime organization: there was no permanent formation above the regimental level, senior officers were recruited from aristocratic circles, the Russian soldier, in line with 18th-century practice, was beaten and punished to instill discipline. Furthermore, many lower-level officers were poorly trained and had difficulty getting their men to perform the sometimes complex manoeuvres required in a battle; the Russians did have a fine artillery arm manned by soldiers trained in academies and who would fight hard to prevent their pieces from falling into enemy hands. Napoleon defeated the Russians and Austrians at the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805. On August 26, 1827, Nicholas I of Russia declared the "Statute on Conscription Duty"; this statute made it mandatory that all Russian males ages twelve to twenty-five were now required to serve in the Russian armed forces for 25 years. This was the first time that the massive Jewish population was required to serve in the Russian military.
The reasoning for Nicolas for mandatory conscription was because “in the military they would learn not only Russian but useful skills and crafts, they would become his loyal subjects."Many Jewish families began to emigrate out of the Russian Empire in order to escape the conscription obligations. Due to this, the government began to employ khappers who would kidnap Jewish children and turn them over to the government for conscription, it became known that "the khappers were not scrupulous about adhering to the minimum age of 12 and impressed children as young as 8."
Indianapolis Motor Speedway
The Indianapolis Motor Speedway is an automobile racing circuit located in Speedway, Indiana, in the United States. It is the home of the Indianapolis 500 and the Brickyard 400, the home of the United States Grand Prix, it is located on the corner of 16th Street and Georgetown Road six miles west of Downtown Indianapolis. Constructed in 1909, it is the second purpose-built, banked oval racing circuit after Brooklands and the first to be called a'speedway', it has a permanent seating capacity of 257,325. It is the highest-capacity sports venue in the world. Considered flat by American standards, the track is a 2.5-mile-long rectangular oval with dimensions that have remained unchanged since its construction. It has two 5⁄8-mile-long straightaways, four geometrically identical 1⁄4-mile turns, connected by two 1⁄8-mile short straightaways, termed "short chutes", between turns 1 and 2, between turns 3 and 4. A modern, FIA Grade One infield road course was completed in 2000, incorporating part of the oval, including the main stretch and the southeast turn, measuring 2.605 miles.
In 2008, again in 2014, the road course layout was modified to accommodate motorcycle racing, as well as to improve competition. Altogether, the current grounds have expanded from an original 320 acres on which the speedway was first built to cover an area of over 559 acres. Placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975 and designated a National Historic Landmark in 1987, it is the only such site to be affiliated with automotive racing history. In addition to the Indianapolis 500, the speedway hosts NASCAR's Brickyard 400 and Lilly Diabetes 250. From 2000 to 2007, the speedway hosted the Formula One United States Grand Prix, from 2008 to 2015 the Moto GP. On the grounds of the speedway is the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Museum, which opened in 1956, houses the Hall of Fame; the museum moved into its current building located in the infield in 1976. On the grounds is the Brickyard Crossing Golf Resort, which opened as the Speedway Golf Course in 1929; the golf course has 14 holes outside the track, along the backstretch, four holes in the infield.
The speedway served as the venue for the opening ceremonies for the 1987 Pan American Games. The track is nicknamed "The Brickyard", the garage area is famously known as Gasoline Alley. Indianapolis businessman Carl G. Fisher first envisioned building the speedway in 1905 after assisting friends racing in France and seeing that Europe held the upper hand in automobile design and craftsmanship. Fisher began thinking of a better means of testing cars before delivering them to consumers. At the time, racing was just getting started on public roads. Fisher noticed how ill-suited the makeshift courses were for racing and testing, he argued that spectators did not get their money's worth, as they were only able to get a brief glimpse of cars speeding down a linear road. Fisher proposed building a circular track 3 to 5 miles long with smooth 100–150-foot-wide surfaces; such a track would give manufacturers a chance to test cars at sustained speeds and give drivers a chance to learn their limits. Fisher predicted.
He visited the Brooklands circuit outside London in 1907, after viewing the banked layout, it solidified his determination to build the speedway. With dozens of car makers and suppliers in Indiana, Fisher proclaimed, "Indianapolis is going to be the world's greatest center of horseless carriage manufacturer, what could be more logical than building the world's greatest racetrack right here?"Fisher began looking around the Indianapolis area for a site to build his track. In December 1908, he convinced James A. Allison, Arthur Newby, Frank W. Wheeler to join him in purchasing the property for $72,000; the group incorporated the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Company on March 20, 1909, with a capitalization of $250,000, with Fisher and James Allison in for $75,000 apiece and Frank Wheeler and Arthur Newby on board for $50,000 each. Construction of the track started in March 1909. Fisher had to downsize his planned 3-mile oval with a 2-mile road course to a 2.5-mile oval to leave room for the grandstands.
Reshaping of the land for the speedway took 500 laborers, 300 mules and a fleet of steam-powered machinery. The track surface consisted of graded and packed soil covered by 2 inches of gravel, 2 inches of limestone covered with taroid, 1–2 inches of crushed stone chips that were drenched with taroid, a final topping of crushed stone. Workers constructed dozens of buildings, several bridges, grandstands with 12,000 seats, an 8-foot perimeter fence. A white-with-green-trim paint scheme was used throughout the property; the first event held at the speedway was a helium gas-filled balloon competition on Saturday, June 5, 1909, more than two months before the oval was completed. The event drew a reported 40,000 people. Nine balloons lifted off "racing" for trophies; the first motorsport event at the track consisted of seven motorcycle races, sanctioned by the Federation of American Motorcyclists, on August 14, 1909. This was planned as a two-day, 15-race program, but ended before the first da
John Edward Masefield was an English poet and writer and the Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom from 1930 until 1967. Among his best known works are the children's novels The Midnight Folk and The Box of Delights, the poems "The Everlasting Mercy" and "Sea-Fever". Masefield was born in Ledbury to Caroline and George Masefield, a solicitor, his mother died giving birth to his sister when Masefield was only six, he went to live with his aunt. His father died soon following a mental breakdown. After an unhappy education at the King's School in Warwick, where he was a boarder between 1888 and 1891, he left to board HMS Conway, both to train for a life at sea, to break his addiction to reading, of which his aunt thought little, he spent several years aboard this ship and found that he could spend much of his time reading and writing. It was aboard the Conway. While on the ship, he listened to the stories told about sea lore, he continued to read, felt that he was to become a writer and story teller himself.
In 1894, Masefield boarded the Gilcruix, destined for Chile – this first voyage bringing him the experience of sea sickness. He recorded his experiences while sailing through the extreme weather, his journal entries reflecting a delight in seeing flying fish and birds, was awed by the beauty of nature, including a rare sighting of a nocturnal rainbow on his voyage. On reaching Chile, Masefield was hospitalised, he returned home to England as a passenger aboard a steam ship. In 1895, Masefield returned to sea on a windjammer destined for New York City. However, the urge to become a writer and the hopelessness of life as a sailor overtook him, in New York, he deserted ship, he lived as a vagrant for several months, drifting between odd jobs finding work as an assistant to a bar keeper, before returning to New York City. Sometime around Christmas 1895, Masefield read the December edition of Truth, a New York periodical, which contained the poem "The Piper of Arll" by Duncan Campbell Scott. Ten years Masefield wrote to Scott to tell him what reading that poem had meant to him: I had never cared much for poetry, but your poem impressed me and set me on fire.
Since poetry has been the one deep influence in my life, to my love of poetry I owe all my friends, the position I now hold. For the next two years, Masefield was employed by the huge Alexander Smith carpet factory in Yonkers, New York, where long hours were expected and conditions were far from ideal, he purchased up to 20 books a week, devoured both modern and classical literature. His interests at this time were diverse and his reading included works by George du Maurier, Thomas Browne, Dickens, R. L. Stevenson. Chaucer became important to him during this time, as well as poetry by Keats and Shelley, he returned home to England in 1897 as a passenger aboard a steam ship. When Masefield was 23, he met his future wife, Constance de la Cherois Crommelin, 35 and of Huguenot descent. Educated in classics and English Literature, a mathematics teacher, Constance was a good match despite the difference in age; the couple had two children. In 1902 he was in charge of the fine art section of the Arts and Industrial Exhibition in Wolverhampton.
By the time he was 24, Masefield's poems were being published in periodicals and his first collected works, Salt-Water Ballads was published, the poem "Sea-Fever" appearing in this book. Masefield wrote the novels, Captain Margaret and Multitude and Solitude. In 1911, after a long drought of poem writing, he composed "The Everlasting Mercy", the first of his narrative poems, within the next year had produced two more, "The Widow in the Bye Street" and "Dauber"; as a result, he became known to the public and was praised by the critics. When World War I began, although old enough to be exempted from military service, Masefield joined the staff of a British hospital for French soldiers, Hôpital Temporaire d'Arc-en-Barrois, Haute-Marne, serving in 1915 as a hospital orderly publishing his own account of his experiences. At about this time, Masefield moved his country retreat from Buckinghamshire to Lollingdon Farm in Cholsey, Berkshire, a setting that inspired a number of poems and sonnets under the title Lollingdon Downs, which his family used until 1917.
After returning home, Masefield was invited to the United States on a three-month lecture tour. Although their primary purpose was to lecture on English Literature, he intended to collect information on the mood and views of Americans regarding the war in Europe; when he returned to England, he submitted a report to the British Foreign Office, suggested that he should be allowed to write a book about the failure of the allied efforts in the Dardanelles, which could be used in the United States to counter what he thought was German propaganda there. The resulting work Gallipoli was a success, encouraging the British people, lifting them somewhat from the disappointment they had felt as a result of the Allied losses in the Dardanelles. Due to the success of his wartime writings, Masefield met with the head of British Military Intelligence in France and was asked to write an account of the Battle of the Somme. Although Masefield had grand ideas for his book, he was denied access to the official records, therefore, what was to be the preface was published as The Old Front Line, a description of the geography of the Somme area.
Friends' Ambulance Unit
The Friends' Ambulance Unit was a volunteer ambulance service, founded by individual members of the British Religious Society of Friends, in line with their Peace Testimony. The FAU operated from 1939 -- 1946 and 1946 -- 1959 in 25 different countries around the world, it was independent of the Quakers' organisation and chiefly staffed by registered conscientious objectors. The Unit was founded as The First Anglo-Belgian Ambulance Unit at the start of World War I in 1914 and renamed the Friends' Ambulance Unit. Members were trained at Jordans, a hamlet in Buckinghamshire, a centre for Quakerism. Altogether it sent over a thousand men to France and Belgium, where they worked on ambulance convoys and ambulance trains with the French and British armies; the FAU came under the jurisdiction of the British Red Cross Society. It was dissolved in 1919, it was refounded by a committee of former members at the start of World War II in September 1939 with the establishment of a training camp at Manor Farm, Bristol Road, Birmingham.
More than 1,300 members were trained and went on to serve as ambulance drivers and medical orderlies in London during the Blitz, as well as overseas in Finland and Sweden, the Middle East, Greece and Syria, India and Ethiopia, France, Netherlands and Germany and Austria. The Sino-Japanese War had led to deteriorating conditions in China and in 1941 agreement was reached for the FAU to deploy 40 volunteers to deliver medical aid. At first, their job was to secure the delivery of supplies via the "Burma Road", the sole remaining route; when Burma fell to the Japanese in May 1942, the FAU volunteers escaped to China. They regrouped and took on the distribution of medical supplies delivered by "The Hump", the air transport route to Kunming, it is estimated that 80% of medical supplies to China were distributed by the FAU. The FAU's role expanded and they provided a range medical treatments, preventative measures and training of Chinese medical personnel; this expanded further into the reconstruction of medical facilities, notably the hospital at Tengchong in 1944, into agricultural improvements and training.
The activities in China were international, employing personnel and women, from Britain, United States, New Zealand and elsewhere. Around 200 foreigners took part, eight died and others had their health permanently damaged. About half of the recruits were Quakers but all had a commitment to pacifism and wished to deliver practical help. Responsibility for the relief work in China was passed to the American Friends Service Committee in 1946. Two 12-man sections with eight vehicles, FAU Relief Sections Nos 1 and 2, landed at Arromanches, Normandy on 6 September 1944 from a tank landing craft. Attached to the British Army's civilian affairs branch, the FAU sections provided relief to civilians in Normandy. No 2 FAU was posted to a newly liberated refugee camp at Leopoldsburg, managing reception, disinfection, catering and departures. In November 1944, in response to a request from 21st Army Group, a further five more sections were established and arrived in Europe at the end of 1944. One new member was Gerald Gardiner, who subsequently became Lord Chancellor in Harold Wilson's Labour Party government of 1964–1970.
After a period in Nijmegen, assisting local civilian medical organisations during Operation Market Garden, No 2 FAU cared for a colony of the mentally ill near Cleves in Germany which grew to a population of 25,000. By April, the main work had become the accommodation and care of displaced persons until they could return home. No 2 FAU was involved with the care and support of inmates at the newly liberated Stalag X-B prisoner-of-war camp near Sandbostel, between Bremen and Hamburg in northern Germany in May 1945; the FAU was wound up in 1946 and replaced by the Friends Ambulance Unit Post-War Service, which continued until 1959. The work of the Friends' Ambulance Unit was referred to in the 1947 award of the Nobel Peace Prize to Quakers worldwide and accepted by the Friends Service Council and the American Friends Service Committee; the original trainees in the 1939 training camp issued a statement expressing their purpose: We purpose to train ourselves as an efficient Unit to undertake ambulance and relief work in areas under both civilian and military control, so, by working as a pacifist and civilian body where the need is greatest, to demonstrate the efficacy of co-operating to build up a new world rather than fighting to destroy the old.
While respecting the views of those pacifists who feel they cannot join an organization such as our own, we feel concerned among the bitterness and conflicting ideologies of the present situation to build up a record of goodwill and positive service, hoping that this will help to keep uppermost in men's minds those values which are so forgotten in war and afterwards. Much archival material has survived and has been deposited at Friends House Library, Euston Road, London; the Library has produced Guides to the material: Conscientious Objectors and the Peace Movement in Britain 1914–1945 Friends Ambulance Unit. Conscientious objector#United Kingdom Conscientious objection throughout the world#Conscientious objection in Britain Military Service Act Miles, James E.. The Friends' Ambulance Unit, 1914–1919: a record. London: Swarthmore Press. LCCN. Tegla Davies, Arfor. Friends Ambulance Unit – The Story of the F. A. U. in the Second World War 1939–1945. London: George Allen & Unwin Limited. LCCN 48022555.
Full text available onli
Louis Bromfield was an American author and conservationist. He gained international recognition, won the Pulitzer Prize, pioneered innovative scientific farming concepts. Louis Brumfield was born in Mansfield, Ohio, in 1896 to Charles Brumfield from New England, Annette Marie Coulter Brumfield, the daughter of an Ohio pioneer. Brumfield decided to change the spelling of his name to Bromfield after it was misspelled on one of his early works. One of Mansfield's most famous natives, he made his home at Malabar Farm, near Lucas, from 1939 until his death in 1956. Bromfield was friends with some of the most celebrated personalities of his era, including famous architect F. F. Schnitzer. Malabar Farm was the location for the wedding of Lauren Bacall. Bromfield studied Agriculture at Cornell University, but he transferred to Columbia University to study Journalism, where he was initiated into the fraternal organization Phi Delta Theta, his time at Columbia would be brief. After serving with the American Field Service in World War I and being awarded the Croix de Guerre and the Legion of Honor, he returned to New York City and found work as a reporter.
In 1924, his first novel, The Green Bay Tree, won instant acclaim. He won the 1927 Pulitzer Prize for best novel for Early Autumn. All of his 30 books were best-sellers, many, such as The Rains Came and Mrs. Parkington, were made into successful motion pictures. In 1925, Bromfield and his family left for a vacation in France, a country he had come to love during the war, they stayed for thirteen years. Paris was known for its expatriate community of American writers during the years between World War I and World War II. Among the Bromfields' literary friends in the city were Edith Wharton, Natalie Barney, Sinclair Lewis, Gertrude Stein; as World War II threatened Europe, the Bromfield family returned to the United States, where Bromfield bought 1,000 acres near his native Mansfield, Ohio. The farm, which he named "Malabar Farm" was to become his major work during his last 20 years. Bromfield was an early proponent of organic and self-sustaining gardening, his farm was one of the first to stop using pesticides.
The farm was used as a government test site for soil conservation practices. No-till farming, which Bromfield helped develop, is still used in the area surrounding Malabar Farm. Bromfield's writings turned from fiction to nonfiction and his reputation and influence as a conservationist and farmer continued to expand. Today, thousands of visitors annually visit Malabar Farm State Park, which still operates under Bromfield's management philosophy. One of the park's notable features is the Doris Duke Woods, named for philanthropist Doris Duke, a friend of Bromfield's and whose donation helped purchase the property after his death. In the 1980s, Louis Bromfield was posthumously elected to the Ohio Agricultural Hall of Fame, in December 1996, the centennial of his birth, the Ohio Department of Agriculture placed a bust of him in the lobby named for him at the department's new headquarters in Reynoldsburg, Ohio; the innovative and visionary work of Louis Bromfield continues to influence agricultural methodologies around the world.
Malabar Brazil, under the direction of Ellen Bromfield Geld, has expanded the horizons of her father's principles and pursuits. To ensure the work continues well into the 21st century, the Malabar 2000 Foundation plans to develop a center for study at Malabar Farm to further the work begun in Richland County by Louis Bromfield. Bromfield was close friends with acting legend and soil conservationist James Cagney. Louis Bromfield was married in 1921 to New York socialite Mary Appleton Wood, the daughter of prominent New York City attorney Chalmers Wood and his wife Ellen Appleton Smith. Mary Appleton Wood Bromfield died in 1952, they had Ann Bromfield, Hope Bromfield and Ellen Bromfield. The Green Bay Tree, 1924Possession, 1925Early Autumn, 1926A Good Woman, 1927The House of Women, 1927 stageplayThe Work of Robert Nathan, 1927The Strange Case of Miss Annie Spragg, 1928Awake and Rehearse, 1929Tabloid News, 1930Twenty-four Hours, 1930A Modern Hero, 1932The Farm, 1933The Man Who Had Everything, 1935The Rains Came, 1937McLeod's Folly, 1939England: A Dying Oligarchy, 1939Night in Bombay, 1940Wild Is the River, 1941Until the Day Break, 1942Mrs.
Parkington, 1943The World We Live In: Stories, 1944What Became of Anna Bolton, 1944Pleasant Valley, 1945Bitter Lotus, Ohio: The World Publishing Company, 1945, A Few Brass Tacks, 1946Colorado, 1947Kenny, 1947Malabar Farm, 1948The Wild Country, 1948Out of the Earth, 1950Mr. Smith, 1951The Wealth of the Soil, 1952Up Ferguson Way, 1953A New Pattern for a Tired World, 1954Animals and Other People, 1955From My Experience, 1955 Until the day break?? List of ambulance drivers during World War I Works by or about Louis Bromfield at Internet Archive Works by Louis Bromfield at Faded Page The Louis Bromfield Collection The Ohio State University Libraries Rare Books and Manuscripts Collection Malabar Farm home page Literary Encyclopedia article on Louis Bromfield