Trachemys is a genus of turtles belonging to the family Emydidae. The genus Trachemys is native to the Americas, ranging from the United States to northern Argentina. Trachemys adiutrix Vanzolini, 1995 – Maranhão slider Trachemys callirostris – Colombian sliderT. C. callirostris – Colombian slider T. c. chichiriviche – Venezuelan sliderTrachemys decorata – Hispaniolan slider Trachemys decussata – Cuban sliderT. D. angusta – western Cuban slider T. d. decussata – eastern Cuban sliderTrachemys dorbigni – D'Orbigny's slider Trachemys emolli – Nicaraguan slider Trachemys gaigeae – Big Bend sliderT. G. gaigeae – Big Bend slider T. g. hartwegi – Nazas sliderTrachemys medemi Vargas-Ramírez, del Valle, Ceballos & Fritz, 2017 – Atrato slider Trachemys nebulosa – Baja California sliderT. N. hiltoni – Fuerte slider T. n. nebulosa – Baja California sliderTrachemys ornata – ornate slider Trachemys scripta – pond sliderT. S. elegans – red-eared slider T. s. scripta – yellow-bellied slider T. s. troostii – Cumberland sliderTrachemys stejnegeri – Central Antillean sliderT.
S. malonei – Inagua slider T. s. stejnegeri – Puerto Rican slider T. s. vicina – Dominican sliderTrachemys taylori – Cuatro Ciénegas slider Trachemys terrapen – Jamaican slider Trachemys venusta – Meso-American sliderT. v. cataspila – Huasecan slider T. v. grayi – Gray's slider or Tehuantepec slider T. v. iversoni McCord, Joseph-Ouni, Hagen & Blanck, 2010 – Yucatan slider T. v. panamensis McCord, Joseph-Ouni, Hagen & Blanck, 2010 – Panamanian slider T. v. uhrigi McCord, Joseph-Ouni, Hagen & Blanck, 2010 – Uhrig's slider T. v. venusta – Belize sliderTrachemys yaquia – Yaqui sliderNota bene: In the above list, a binomial authority or a trinomial authority in parentheses indicates that the species or subspecies was described in a genus other than Trachemys. † Trachemys haugrudi Jasinski, 2018 - Haugrud's slider turtle Agassiz L. Contributions to the Natural History of the United States of America. Vol. I. Boston: Little and Company. Li + 452 pp.. University of Michigan Animal Diversity Web | Genus Trachemys
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
A frog is any member of a diverse and carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura. The oldest fossil "proto-frog" appeared in the early Triassic of Madagascar, but molecular clock dating suggests their origins may extend further back to the Permian, 265 million years ago. Frogs are distributed, ranging from the tropics to subarctic regions, but the greatest concentration of species diversity is in tropical rainforests. There are accounting for over 85 % of extant amphibian species, they are one of the five most diverse vertebrate orders. Warty frog species tend to be called toads, but the distinction between frogs and toads is informal, not from taxonomy or evolutionary history. An adult frog has a stout body, protruding eyes, anteriorly-attached tongue, limbs folded underneath, no tail. Frogs have glandular skin, with secretions ranging from distasteful to toxic, their skin varies in colour from well-camouflaged dappled brown and green to vivid patterns of bright red or yellow and black to show toxicity and ward off predators.
Adult frogs live on dry land. Frogs lay their eggs in water; the eggs hatch into aquatic larvae called tadpoles that have internal gills. They have specialized rasping mouth parts suitable for herbivorous, omnivorous or planktivorous diets; the life cycle is completed. A few species bypass the tadpole stage. Adult frogs have a carnivorous diet consisting of small invertebrates, but omnivorous species exist and a few feed on fruit. Frog skin has a rich microbiome, important to their health. Frogs are efficient at converting what they eat into body mass, they are an important food source for predators and part of the food web dynamics of many of the world's ecosystems. The skin is semi-permeable, making them susceptible to dehydration, so they either live in moist places or have special adaptations to deal with dry habitats. Frogs produce a wide range of vocalizations in their breeding season, exhibit many different kinds of complex behaviours to attract mates, to fend off predators and to survive.
Frogs are valued as food by humans and have many cultural roles in literature and religion. Frog populations have declined since the 1950s. More than one third of species are considered to be threatened with extinction and over 120 are believed to have become extinct since the 1980s; the number of malformations among frogs is on the rise and an emerging fungal disease, has spread around the world. Conservation biologists are working to resolve them; the use of the common names "frog" and "toad" has no taxonomic justification. From a classification perspective, all members of the order Anura are frogs, but only members of the family Bufonidae are considered "true toads"; the use of the term "frog" in common names refers to species that are aquatic or semi-aquatic and have smooth, moist skins. There are numerous exceptions to this rule; the European fire-bellied toad has a warty skin and prefers a watery habitat whereas the Panamanian golden frog is in the toad family Bufonidae and has a smooth skin.
The origin of the order name Anura — and its original spelling Anoures — is the Ancient Greek "alpha privative" prefix ἀν- "without", οὐρά, meaning "animal tail". It refers to the tailless character of these amphibians; the origins of the word frog are debated. The word is first attested in Old English as frogga, but the usual Old English word for the frog was frosc, it is agreed that the word frog is somehow related to this. Old English frosc remained in dialectal use in English as frosh and frosk into the nineteenth century, is paralleled in other Germanic languages, with examples in the modern languages including German Frosch, Icelandic froskur, Dutch vors; these words allow us to reconstruct a Common Germanic ancestor *froskaz. The third edition of the Oxford English Dictionary finds that the etymology of *froskaz is uncertain, but agrees with arguments that it could plausibly derive from a Proto-Indo-European base along the lines of *preu = "jump". How Old English frosc gave rise to frogga is, uncertain, as the development does not involve a regular sound-change.
Instead, it seems that there was a trend in Old English to coin nicknames for animals ending in -g, with examples—themselves all of uncertain etymology—including dog, pig and wig. Frog appears to have been adapted from frosc as part of this trend. Meanwhile, the word toad, first attested as Old English tādige, is unique to English and is of uncertain etymology, it is the basis for the word tadpole, first attested as Middle English taddepol meaning'toad-head'. About 88% of amphibian species are classified in the order Anura; these include over 7,000 species in 56 families, of which the Craugastoridae, Hylidae and Bufonidae are the richest in species. The Anura include any fossil species that fit within the anuran definition; the characteristics of anuran adults include: 9 or fewer presacral vertebrae, the presence of a urostyle formed of fused vertebrae, no tail, a long and forward-sloping ilium, shorter fore limbs than hind limbs and ulna fused and fibula fused, elongated an
The Caudata are a group of amphibians containing the salamanders and all extinct species of salamander-like amphibians more related to salamanders than to frogs. They are characterized by a superficially lizard-like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults. Disagreement exists between different authorities as to the definition of the terms "Caudata" and "Urodela"; some maintain that Urodela should be restricted to the crown group, with Caudata being used for the total group. Others use Urodela for the total group; the former approach seems to be most adopted and is used in this article. The origins and evolutionary relationships between the three main groups of amphibians is a matter of debate. A 2005 molecular phylogeny, based on rDNA analysis, suggested that the first divergence between these three groups took place soon after they had branched from the lobe-finned fish in the Devonian, before the breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea.
The briefness of this period, the speed at which radiation took place, may help to account for the relative scarcity of amphibian fossils that appear to be related to lissamphibians. However, more recent studies have found more recent age for the basalmost divergence among lissamphibians; the first known fossil salamanders are Kokartus honorarius from the Middle Jurassic of Kyrgyzstan and two species of the neotenic, aquatic Marmorerpeton from England of a similar date. They looked superficially like robust modern salamanders but lacked a number of anatomical features that developed later. Karaurus sharovi from the Upper Jurassic of Kazakhstan resembled modern mole salamanders in morphology and had a similar burrowing lifestyle; the Cryptobranchoidea and the Salamandroidea known as Diadectosalamandroidei, are believed to be sister groups. Both seem to have appeared before the end of the Jurassic, the former being exemplified by Chunerpeton tianyiensis, Pangerpeton sinensis, Jeholotriton paradoxus, Regalerpeton weichangensis, Liaoxitriton daohugouensis and Iridotriton hechti, the latter by Beiyanerpeton jianpingensis.
By the Upper Cretaceous, most or all of the living salamander families had appeared. All known fossil salamanders and all extinct species fall under the order Caudata, while sometimes the extant species are grouped together as the Urodela. There are about 655 extant species of salamander
The true frogs, family Ranidae, have the widest distribution of any frog family. They are abundant throughout most of the world, occurring on all continents except Antarctica; the true frogs are present in North America, northern South America, Europe and Asia. The Asian range extends across the East Indies to New Guinea and a single species has spread into the far north of Australia. True frogs are smooth and moist-skinned, with large, powerful legs and extensively webbed feet; the true frogs vary in size, ranging from small—such as the wood frog —to the largest frog in the world, the goliath frog. Many of the true frogs live close to water. Most species go through a tadpole stage. However, as with most families of frogs, there is large variation of habitat within the family; those of the genus Tomopterna are burrowing frogs native to Africa and exhibit most of the characteristics common to burrowing frogs around the world. There are arboreal species of true frogs, the family includes some of the few amphibians that can live in brackish water.
The subdivisions of the Ranidae are still a matter of dispute, although many are coming to an agreement. Most authors believe the subfamily Petropedetinae is a distinct family called Petropedetidae; the validity of the Cacosterninae is disputed. Still, there is general agreement today that the Mantellidae, which were considered another ranid subfamily, form a distinct family. There is a recent trend to split off the forked-tongued frogs as distinct family Dicroglossidae again. In addition, the delimitation and validity of several genera is in need of more research. Namely, how the huge genus Rana is best split up requires more study. While the splitting-off of several genera—like Pelophylax—is rather uncontroversial, the American bullfrogs separated in Lithobates and groups such as Babina or Nidirana represent far more disputed cases. While too little of the vast diversity of true frogs has been subject to recent studies to say something definite, as of mid-2008, studies are going on, several lineages are recognizable.
Genera such as Nyctibatrachus and Staurois, the complex around Euphlyctis, Nannophrys and the paraphyletic Fejervarya are very ancient offshoots of the main Raninae lineage. Amolops has been delimited as a monophyletic group. Odorrana and Rana plus some proposed minor genera form another group. A group including Clinotarsus, Huia in the strict sense and Meristogenys An ill-defined assemblage of Babina, Hylarana, Pulchrana and Sylvirana, as well as Hydrophylax and Pelophylax, which are not monophyletic. Most of them are now treated as junior synonyms of the genus Hylarana. A number of taxa are placed in Ranidae incertae sedis, that is, their taxonomic status is too uncertain to allow more specific placement. Rhacophorus depressus was included in Ranidae, but has since been given its own family; the subfamilies included under Ranidae, now treated as separate families, are: Ceratobatrachinae Conrauinae Dicroglossinae Micrixalinae Nyctibatrachinae Petropedetinae Ptychadeninae Raninae Ranixalinae Cai, Hong-xia.
Zootaxa 1531: 49–55. PDF fulltext Cogger, H. G.. G.. Fog City Press. ISBN 1-877019-69-0 Frost, Darrel R.: Amphibian Species of the World Version 3 - Petropedetidae Noble, 1931. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Retrieved 2006-AUG-05. Frost, Darrel R. et al.: The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. Number 297. New York. Gordon, Malcolm S.. J. Exp. Biol. 38: 659–678. PDF fulltext Hillis, D. M. Constraints in naming parts of the Tree of Life. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 42: 331–338. Doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.08.001 PDF fulltext Hillis, D. M.. P.: Phylogeny of the New World true frogs. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 34: 299–314. Doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.10.007 PDF fulltext Kotaki, Manabu. Zool. Sci. 25: 381–390. Doi:10.2108/zsj.25.381 Pauly, Greg B.. Herpetologica 65: 115-128. Rafinesque, C. S.: "Fine del prodromo d'erpetologia siciliana ". Specchio delle Scienze, o, Giornale Enciclopedico di Sicilia 2: 102-104... Stuart, Bryan L.: The phylogenetic problem of Huia. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
46: 49-60. Doi:10
Chameleons or chamaeleons are a distinctive and specialized clade of Old World lizards with over 160 species described as of June 2015. These species come in a range of colors, many species have the ability to change color. Chameleons are distinguished by their feet. Most species, the larger ones in particular have a prehensile tail. Chameleons' eyes are independently mobile, but in aiming at a prey item, they focus forward in coordination, affording the animal stereoscopic vision. Chameleons are adapted for visual hunting, they live in warm habitats that range from rain forest to desert conditions, with various species occurring in Africa, southern Europe, across southern Asia as far as Sri Lanka. They have been introduced to Hawaii and Florida, are kept as household pets; the English word chameleon is a simplified spelling of Latin chamaeleōn, a borrowing of the Greek χαμαιλέων, a compound of χαμαί "on the ground" and λέων "lion". A group of chameleons is referred to by the collective noun "camp".
The family Chamaeleonidae was divided into two subfamilies and Chamaeleoninae, by Klaver and Böhme in 1986. Under this classification, Brookesiinae included the genera Brookesia and Rhampholeon, as well as the genera split off from them, while Chamaeleoninae included the genera Bradypodion, Chamaeleo and Trioceros, as well as the genera split off from them. Since that time, the validity of this subfamily designation has been the subject of much debate, although most phylogenetic studies support the notion that the pygmy chameleons of the subfamily Brookesiinae are not a monophyletic group. While some authorities have preferred to use this subfamilial classification on the basis of the absence of evidence principle, these authorities abandoned this subfamilial division, no longer recognizing any subfamilies with the family Chamaeleonidae. In 2015, Glaw reworked the subfamilial division by placing only the genera Brookesia and Palleon within the Brookesiinae subfamily, with all other genera being placed in Chamaeleoninae.
Some chameleon species are able to change their skin colouration. Different chameleon species are able to vary their colouration and pattern through combinations of pink, red, green, brown, light blue, yellow and purple. Chameleon skin has a superficial layer which contains pigments, under the layer are cells with guanine crystals. Chameleons change colour by changing the space between the guanine crystals, which changes the wavelength of light reflected off the crystals which changes the colour of the skin. Colour change in chameleons has functions in camouflage, but most in social signaling and in reactions to temperature and other conditions; the relative importance of these functions varies with the circumstances, as well as the species. Colour change signals a chameleon's physiological condition and intentions to other chameleons. Chameleons tend to show brighter colours when displaying aggression to other chameleons, darker colours when they submit or "give up"; some species those of Madagascar and some African genera in rainforest habitats, have blue fluorescence in their skull tubercles, deriving from bones and serving a signaling role.
Some species, such as Smith's dwarf chameleon, adjust their colours for camouflage in accordance with the vision of the specific predator species by which they are being threatened. The desert-dwelling Namaqua chameleon uses colour change as an aid to thermoregulation, becoming black in the cooler morning to absorb heat more efficiently a lighter grey colour to reflect light during the heat of the day, it may show both colors at the same time, neatly separated left from right by the spine. For a long time it was thought that chameleons change colour by dispersion of pigment-containing organelles within their skin. However, research conducted in 2014 on panther chameleons has shown that pigment movement only represents part of the story. Chameleons have two superimposed layers within their skin that control their colour and thermoregulation; the top layer contains a lattice of guanine nanocrystals, by exciting this lattice the spacing between the nanocrystals can be manipulated, which in turn affects which wavelengths of light are reflected and which are absorbed.
Exciting the lattice increases the distance between the nanocrystals, the skin reflects longer wavelengths of light. Thus, in a relaxed state the crystals reflect blue and green, but in an excited state the longer wavelengths such as yellow, orange and red are reflected; the skin of a chameleon contains some yellow pigments, which combined with the blue reflected by a relaxed crystal lattice results in the characteristic green color, common of many chameleons in their relaxed state. The oldest described. Other chameleon fossils include Chamaeleo caroliquarti from the Lower Miocene of the Czech Republic and Germany, Chamaeleo intermedius from the Upper Miocene of Kenya; the chameleons are far older than that sharing a common ancestor with iguanids and agamids more than 100 mya. Since fossils have been found in Africa and Asia, chameleons were once more widespread than they are today. Although nearly half of all chameleon species today live in
Leatherback sea turtle
The leatherback sea turtle, sometimes called the lute turtle or leathery turtle or the luth, is the largest of all living turtles and is the fourth-heaviest modern reptile behind three crocodilians. It is the only living species in the genus Dermochelys and family Dermochelyidae, it can be differentiated from other modern sea turtles by its lack of a bony shell, hence the name. Instead, its carapace is covered by oily flesh. Dermochelys is the only extant genus of the family Dermochelyidae. Dermochelys coriacea is the only species in genus Dermochelys; the genus, in turn, contains the only extant member of the family Dermochelyidae. Domenico Agostino Vandelli named the species first in 1761 as Testudo coriacea after an animal captured at Ostia and donated to the University of Padua by Pope Clement XIII. In 1816, French zoologist Henri Blainville coined the term Dermochelys; the leatherback was reclassified as Dermochelys coriacea. In 1843, the zoologist Leopold Fitzinger put the genus in Dermochelyidae.
In 1884, the American naturalist Samuel Garman described the species as Sphargis coriacea schlegelii. The two were united in D. coriacea, with each given subspecies status as D. c. coriacea and D. c. schlegelii. The subspecies were labeled invalid synonyms of D. coriacea. Both the turtle's common and scientific names come from the leathery texture and appearance of its carapace. Older names include "leathery turtle" and "trunk turtle"; the common names incorporating "lute" and "luth" compare the seven ridges that run the length of the animal's back to the seven strings on the musical instrument of the same name. Relatives of modern leatherback turtles have existed in some form since the first true sea turtles evolved over 110 million years ago during the Cretaceous period; the dermochelyids are relatives of the family Cheloniidae, which contains the other six extant sea turtle species. However, their sister taxon is the extinct family Protostegidae that included other species that did not have a hard carapace.
Leatherback turtles have the most hydrodynamic body design of any sea turtle, with a large, teardrop-shaped body. A large pair of front flippers powers the turtles through the water. Like other sea turtles, the leatherback has flattened forelimbs adapted for swimming in the open ocean. Claws are absent from both pairs of flippers; the leatherback's flippers are the largest in proportion to its body among extant sea turtles. Leatherback's front flippers can grow up to 2.7 m in large specimens, the largest flippers of any sea turtle. The leatherback has several characteristics, its most notable feature is the lack of a bony carapace. Instead of scutes, it has leathery skin with embedded minuscule osteoderms. Seven distinct ridges rise from the carapace, crossing from the cranial to caudal margin of the turtle's back. Leatherbacks are unique among reptiles; the entire turtle's dorsal surface is colored dark grey to black, with a scattering of white blotches and spots. Demonstrating countershading, the turtle's underside is colored.
Instead of teeth, the leatherback turtle has points on the tomium of its upper lip, with backwards spines in its throat to help it swallow food and to stop its prey from escaping once caught. D. coriacea adults average 1–1.75 m in curved carapace length, 1.83–2.2 m in total length, 250 to 700 kg in weight. In the Caribbean, the mean size of adults was reported at 384 kg in weight and 1.55 m in CCL. Those nesting in French Guiana, weighed an average of 339.3 kg and measured 1.54 m in CCL. The largest verified specimen found was discovered in the Pakistani beach of Sanspit and measured 213 cm in CCL and 650 kg in weight. A previous contender, the "Harlech turtle", was purportedly 256.5 cm in CCL and 916 kg in weight, however recent inspection of its remains housed at the National Museum Cardiff have found that its true CCL is closer to 1.5 m, casting doubt on the accuracy of the claimed weight, as well. On the other hand, one scientific paper has claimed that the species can weigh up to 1,000 kg without providing more verifiable detail.
The leatherback turtle is scarcely larger than any other sea turtle upon hatching, as they average 61.3 mm in carapace length and weigh around 46 g when freshly hatched. D. Coriacea exhibits several anatomical characteristics believed to be associated with a life in cold waters, including an extensive covering of brown adipose tissue, temperature-independent swimming muscles, countercurrent heat exchangers between the large front flippers and the core body, an extensive network of countercurrent heat exchangers surrounding the trachea. Leatherbacks have been viewed as unique among extant reptiles for their ability to maintain high body temperatures using metabolically generated heat, or endothermy. Initial studies on their metabolic rates found leatherbacks had resting metabolisms around three times higher than expected for reptiles of their size. However, recent studies using reptile representatives encompassing all the size ranges leatherbacks pass through during ontogeny discovered the resting metabolic rate of a large D. coriacea is not different from predicted results based on allometry.
Rather than using a high resting metabolism, leatherbacks appear to take advantage of a high activity rate. Studies on wild D. coriacea discovered. This constant swimming creates muscle-derive