Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt
The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC. The dynasty's reign is called the Saite Period after the city of Sais, where its pharaohs had their capital, marks the beginning of the Late Period of ancient Egypt; this dynasty traced its origins to the Twenty-fourth Dynasty. Psamtik I was a descendant of Bakenranef, following the Neo-Assyrian Empire's invasions during the reigns of Taharqa and Tantamani, he was recognized as sole king over all of Egypt. While the Neo-Assyrian Empire was preoccupied with revolts and civil war over control of the throne, Psamtik threw off his ties to the Assyrians circa 655 BC, formed alliances with King Gyges of Lydia, recruited mercenaries from Caria and ancient Greece to resist Assyrian attacks. With the sack of Nineveh in 612 BC and the fall of the Assyrian Empire, both Psamtik and his successors attempted to reassert Egyptian power in the Near East, but were driven back by the Neo-Babylonian Empire under Nebuchadnezzar II.
With the help of Greek mercenaries, Apries was able to hold back Babylonian attempts to conquer Egypt, only for the Persians to do so. Their king, Cambyses II, captured and executed Psamtik III; the 26th Dynasty may be related to the 24th Dynasty. Manetho begins the dynasty with: Ammeris the Nubian, 12 years Stephinates, 7 years Nechepsos, 6 years Necho, 8 years; when the Nubian King Shabaka defeated Bakenranef, son of Tefnakht, he installed a Nubian commander as governor at Sais. This may be the man named Ammeris. Stephinates may be a descendant of Bakenrenef, he is sometimes referred to as Tefnakht II in the literature. Nechepsos has been identified with a local king named Nekauba. Manetho's Necho is King Necho I. Necho was killed during a conflict with the Nubian king Tantamani. Psamtik I fled to Nineveh – capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire – and returned to Egypt when Ashurbanipal defeated Tantamani and drove him back south. Scholars now start the 26th Dynasty with the reign of Psamtik I. Sextus Julius Africanus states in his accurate version of Manetho's Epitome that the dynasty numbered 9 pharaohs, beginning with a "Stephinates" and ending with Psamtik III.
Africanus notes that Psamtik I and Necho I ruled for 54 and 8 years respectively. History of ancient Egypt Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt family tree Late Period of ancient Egypt Saite Oracle Papyrus Aidan Dodson, Dyan Hilton; the Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. The American University in Cairo Press, London, 2004. Kenneth Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, 1100–650 B. C. Aris & Phillips. 1986 ISBN 978-0-85668-298-8. Karl Jansen-Winkeln, Bild und Charakter der ägyptischen 26. Dynastie, Altorientalische Forschungen, 28, 165–182
Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt
The Eleventh Dynasty of ancient Egypt is a well-attested group of rulers. Its earlier members before Pharaoh Mentuhotep II are grouped with the four preceding dynasties to form the First Intermediate Period, whereas the members are considered part of the Middle Kingdom, they all ruled from Thebes in Upper Egypt. The relative chronology of the 11th Dynasty is well established by contemporary attestations and, except for count Intef and Mentuhotep IV, by the Turin canon. Manetho's statement that Dynasty XI consisted of 16 kings, who reigned for 43 years is contradicted by contemporary inscriptions and the evidence of the Turin King List, whose combined testimony establishes that this kingdom consisted of seven kings who ruled for a total of 143 years. However, his testimony that this dynasty was based at Thebes is verified by the contemporary evidence, it was during this dynasty. This dynasty traces its origins to a nomarch of Thebes, "Intef the Great, son of Iku", mentioned in a number of contemporary inscriptions.
However, his immediate successor Mentuhotep. An inscription carved during the reign of Wahankh Intef II shows that he was the first of this dynasty to claim to rule over the whole of Egypt, a claim which brought the Thebans into conflict with the rulers of Herakleopolis Magna, Dynasty X. Intef undertook several campaigns northwards, captured the important nome of Abydos. Warfare continued intermittently between the Thebean and Heracleapolitan dynasts until the 14th regnal year of Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II, when the Herakleopolitans were defeated, this dynasty could begin to consolidate their rule; the rulers of Dynasty XI reasserted Egypt's influence over her neighbors in Africa and the Near East. Mentuhotep II sent renewed expeditions to Phoenicia to obtain cedar. Sankhkara Mentuhotep III sent an expedition from Coptos south to the land of Punt; the reign of its last king, thus the end of this dynasty, is something of a mystery. Contemporary records refer to "seven empty years" following the death of Mentuhotep III, which correspond to the reign of Nebtawyra Mentuhotep IV.
Modern scholars identify his vizier Amenemhat with Amenemhat I, the first king of Dynasty XII, as part of a theory that Amenemhat became king as part of a palace coup. The only certain details of Mentuhotep's reign was that two remarkable omens were witnessed at the quarry of Wadi Hammamat by the vizier Amenemhat. Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt family tree Media related to 11th dynasty of Egypt at Wikimedia Commons
The Ptolemaic dynasty, sometimes known as the Lagids or Lagidae, was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period. Their rule lasted for 275 years, from 305 to 30 BC, they were the last dynasty of ancient Egypt. Ptolemy, one of the seven somatophylakes who served as Alexander the Great's generals and deputies, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BC. In 305 BC, he declared himself Ptolemy I known as Sōter "Saviour"; the Egyptians soon accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt. Ptolemy's family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 30 BC. All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy. Ptolemaic queens regnant, some of whom were married to their brothers, were called Cleopatra, Arsinoe or Berenice; the most famous member of the line was the last queen, Cleopatra VII, known for her role in the Roman political battles between Julius Caesar and Pompey, between Octavian and Mark Antony.
Her apparent suicide at the conquest by Rome marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt. Dates in brackets represent the regnal dates of the Ptolemaic pharaohs, they ruled jointly with their wives, who were also their sisters. Several queens exercised regal authority. Of these, one of the last and most famous was Cleopatra, with her two brothers and her son serving as successive nominal co-rulers. Several systems exist for numbering the rulers. Ptolemy I Soter married first Thaïs Artakama Eurydice, Berenice I Ptolemy II Philadelphus married Arsinoe I Arsinoe II. Cleopatra II Philometora Soteira, in opposition to Ptolemy VIII Physcon Cleopatra III Philometor Soteira Dikaiosyne Nikephoros ruled jointly with Ptolemy IX Lathyros and Ptolemy X Alexander I Ptolemy IX Lathyros married Cleopatra IV Cleopatra Selene. Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos married Cleopatra V Tryphaena Cleopatra V Tryphaena ruled jointly with Berenice IV Epiphaneia and Cleopatra VI Tryphaena Cleopatra ruled jointly with Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator, Ptolemy XIV and Ptolemy XV Caesarion.
Arsinoe IV, in opposition to Cleopatra Ptolemy Keraunos - eldest son of Ptolemy I Soter. Became king of Macedonia. Ptolemy Apion - son of Ptolemy VIII Physcon. Made king of Cyrenaica. Bequeathed Cyrenaica to Rome. Ptolemy Philadelphus - son of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII. Ptolemy of Mauretania - son of King Juba II of Numidia and Mauretania and Cleopatra Selene II, daughter of Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony. King of Mauretania. Contemporaries describe a number of the Ptolemaic dynasty members as obese, whilst sculptures and coins reveal prominent eyes and swollen necks. Familial Graves' disease could explain the swollen necks and eye prominence, although this is unlikely to occur in the presence of morbid obesity; this is all due to inbreeding within the Ptolemaic dynasty. In view of the familial nature of these findings, members of this dynasty suffered from a multi-organ fibrotic condition such as Erdheim–Chester disease or a familial multifocal fibrosclerosis where thyroiditis and ocular proptosis may have all occurred concurrently.
List of Seleucid rulers Hellenistic period History of ancient Egypt Donations of Alexandria Ptolemaic Decrees List of Ptolemaic pharaohs On Weights and Measures - contains a chronology of the Ptolemies Susan Stephens, Seeing Double. Intercultural Poetics in Ptolemaic Alexandria. A. Lampela and the Ptolemies of Egypt; the development of their political relations 273-80 B. C.. J. G. Manning, The Last Pharaohs: Egypt Under the Ptolemies, 305-30 BC. Livius.org: Ptolemies — by Jona Lendering
Eighth Dynasty of Egypt
The Eighth Dynasty of ancient Egypt is a poorly known and short-lived line of pharaohs reigning in rapid succession in the early 22nd century BC with their seat of power in Memphis. The Eighth Dynasty held sway at a time referred to as the end of the Old Kingdom or the beginning of the First Intermediate Period; the power of the pharaohs was waning while that of the provincial governors, known as nomarchs, was important, the Egyptian state having by effectively turned into a feudal system. In spite of close relations between the Memphite kings and powerful nomarchs, notably in Coptos, the Eighth Dynasty was overthrown by the nomarchs of Heracleopolis Magna, who founded the Ninth Dynasty; the Eighth Dynasty is sometimes combined with the preceding Seventh Dynasty, owing to the lack of archeological evidence for the latter which may be fictitious. Egyptologists estimate that the Eighth Dynasty ruled Egypt for 20–45 years and various dates have been proposed: 2190—2165 BC, 2181–2160 BC, 2191–2145 BC, 2150–2118 BC.
Two historical sources dating to the New Kingdom list kings belonging to the Eighth Dynasty. The earliest of the two and main historical source on the Eighth Dynasty is the Abydos king list, written during the reign of Seti I; the kings listed on the entries 40 to 56 of the Abydos king list are placed between the end of the Sixth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom period and the beginning of the Eleventh Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom. Furthermore, the names of these kings are different from those known from the Ninth and Tenth Dynasties, none of which are on the Abydos list; as a consequence, entries 40 to 56 of the list are assigned to the Eighth Dynasties. The other New Kingdom source on the Eighth Dynasty is the Turin canon, written during the reign of Ramses II; the Turin papyrus was copied from an earlier source which, as the Egyptologist Kim Ryholt has shown, was itself riddled with lacunae and must have been in a poor state. In addition, the Turin papyrus is itself damaged and cannot be read without much difficulty.
In total three names are present on papyrus fragments which might be allocated to Eighth Dynasty kings. These are Netjerkare Siptah, another hard to read name and that of Qakare Ibi, the fifty-third king on the Abydos king list. There seems to be room for two or three more kings before the end of the dynasty as recorded on the list; this would indicate that the missing parts of the Turin canon contained the kings in the fifty-first to fifty-fifth registers of the Abydos King List. Because the Turin papyrus omits the first nine kings on the Abydos list, W. C. Hayes thinks it reasonable that the Egyptians may have divided Dynasties VIII at this point; the Egyptian priest Manetho wrote a history of Egypt during the 3rd century BC known as the Aegyptiaca. Manetho's work has not survived to this day and is only known to us via three writers who quoted from it; these three sources are exceedingly difficult to work with. For example, they contradict each other, as is the case for the two ancient historians — Sextus Julius Africanus and Eusebius of Caesarea — who quote from the section of the Aegyptiaca regarding the Seventh and Eighth Dynasties.
Africanus claims that Dynasty VII consisted of 70 kings that ruled during a period of seventy days in Memphis, Dynasty VIII consisted of 27 kings who reigned for 146 years. However, Eusebius records that during Dynasty VII five kings ruled over seventy five days, Dynasty VIII includes five kings who ruled for 100 years. Seventy kings in seventy days is considered the correct version of Manetho concerning the Seventh Dynasty, but not a factual account of history. Rather, this is interpreted to mean that the pharaohs of this period were ephemeral, the use of seventy may be a pun on the fact that this was Manetho's Seventh Dynasty; because Manetho does not provide actual historical data on this period and no archeological evidence for the Seventh Dynasty has emerged, many Egyptologists have argued that this dynasty is fictitious. Concerning the Eighth Dynasty, it is now agreed that Manetho's estimate for its duration is a substantial overestimation of the reality; the main archaeological evidence for kings of the Eighth Dynasty are royal decrees discovered in Coptos, which name some of the last pharaohs of the dynasty.
Further tentative evidences for the early kings of the dynasty come from tombs in Saqqara, in particular the pyramid of Qakare Ibi in Saqqara. Beyond, there are royal inscriptions found in the Wadi Hammamat and in Upper Egypt, as well as non-royal ones from Upper Egypt as well; the Eighth Dynasty has traditionally been classified as the first dynasty of First Intermediate Period owing to the ephemeral nature of its kings' reigns as well as the sparsity of contemporary evidences, hinting at a decline of the state into chaos. Recent re-appraisal of the archaeological evidences has shown a strong continuity between the Sixth and Eighth Dynasties, so that Egyptologist Hratch Papazian has proposed that the Eighth Dynasty should rather be seen as the last of the Old Kingdom period. Given that five Eighth Dynasty kings bore Pepi II's throne name Neferkare as part of their own names, they may have been descendants of Dynasty VI, who were trying to hold on to some sort of power; some of the acts of the final four Dynasty VIII kings are recorded in their decrees to Shemay, a vizier during this period, although only Qakare Ibi can be connected to any monumental construction.
His pyramid has been found at Saqqara near that of Pepi II and, like its predecessors, had the Pyramid Texts written on the walls. However many kings there were, it is clear that during this time period a breakdown of the central authority of Egypt was underway; the rulers
Memphis was the ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, the first nome of Lower Egypt. Its ruins are located near the town of Mit Rahina, 20 km south of Giza. According to legend related by Manetho, the city was founded by the pharaoh Menes. Capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom, it remained an important city throughout ancient Egyptian history, it occupied a strategic position at the mouth of the Nile Delta, was home to feverish activity. Its principal port, Peru-nefer, harboured a high density of workshops and warehouses that distributed food and merchandise throughout the ancient kingdom. During its golden age, Memphis thrived as a regional centre for commerce and religion. Memphis was believed to be under the protection of the patron of craftsmen, its great temple, Hut-ka-Ptah, was one of the most prominent structures in the city. The name of this temple, rendered in Greek as Aἴγυπτoς by the historian Manetho, is believed to be the etymological origin of the modern English name Egypt; the history of Memphis is linked to that of the country itself.
Its eventual downfall is believed to be due to the loss of its economic significance in late antiquity, following the rise of coastal Alexandria. Its religious significance diminished after the abandonment of the ancient religion following the Edict of Thessalonica; the ruins of the former capital today offer fragmented evidence of its past. They have been preserved, along with the pyramid complex at Giza, as a World Heritage Site since 1979; the site is open to the public as an open-air museum. Memphis has had several names during its history of four millennia, its Ancient Egyptian name was Inbu-Hedj. Because of its size, the city came to be known by various other names that were the names of neighbourhoods or districts that enjoyed considerable prominence at one time or another. For example, according to a text of the First Intermediate Period, it was known as Djed-Sut, the name of the pyramid of Teti; the city was at one point referred to as Ankh-Tawy, stressing the strategic position of the city between Upper and Lower Egypt.
This name appears to date from the Middle Kingdom, is found in ancient Egyptian texts. Some scholars maintain that this name was that of the western district of the city that lay between the great Temple of Ptah and the necropolis at Saqqara, an area that contained a sacred tree. At the beginning of the New Kingdom, the city became known as Men-nefer, which became "Memfi" in Coptic; the name "Memphis" is the Greek adaptation of this name, the name of the pyramid of Pepi I, located west of the city. However, Greek poet Hesiod in his Theogony says that Memphis was a daughter of river god Nilus and the wife of Epaphus, who founded the city and named it after his wife. In the Bible, Memphis is called Noph; the city of Memphis is 20 km south of Cairo, on the west bank of the Nile. The modern cities and towns of Mit Rahina, Abusir, Abu Gorab, Zawyet el'Aryan, south of Cairo, all lie within the administrative borders of historical Memphis; the city was the place that marked the boundary between Upper and Lower Egypt..
The island of the city is today uninhabited. The closest settlement is the town of Mit Rahina. Estimates of historical population size differ between sources. According to Tertius Chandler, Memphis had some 30,000 inhabitants and was by far the largest settlement worldwide from the time of its foundation until around 2250 BCE and from 1557 to 1400 BCE. K. A. Bard is more cautious and estimates the city's population to have amounted to about 6,000 inhabitants during the Old Kingdom. Memphis became the capital of Ancient Egypt for over eight consecutive dynasties during the Old Kingdom; the city reached a peak of prestige under the 6th dynasty as a centre for the worship of Ptah, the god of creation and artworks. The alabaster sphinx that guards the Temple of Ptah serves as a memorial of the city's former power and prestige; the Memphis triad, consisting of the creator god Ptah, his consort Sekhmet, their son Nefertem, formed the main focus of worship in the city. Memphis declined after the 18th dynasty with the rise of Thebes and the New Kingdom, was revived under the Persians before falling into second place following the foundation of Alexandria.
Under the Roman Empire, Alexandria remained the most important Egyptian city. Memphis remained the second city of Egypt until the establishment of Fustat in 641 CE, it was largely abandoned and became a source of stone for the surrounding settlements. It was still an imposing set of ruins in the 12th century but soon became a little more than an expanse of low ruins and scattered stone; the legend recorded by Manetho was that Menes, the first pharaoh to unite the Two Lands, established his capital on the banks of the Nile by diverting the river with dikes. The Greek historian Herodotus, who tells a similar story, relates that during his visit to the city, the Persians, at that point the suzerains of the country, paid particular attention to the condition of these dams so that the city was saved from the annual flooding, it has been theorised that Menes was a mythical king, similar to Romulus of Rome. Some scholars suggest that Egypt most became unified through mutual need, developing cultural ties and trading partnerships, although it is u
Fourth Dynasty of Egypt
The Fourth Dynasty of ancient Egypt is characterized as a "golden age" of the Old Kingdom of Egypt. Dynasty IV lasted from c. 2613 to 2494 BC. It was a time of peace and prosperity as well as one during which trade with other countries is documented; the Fourth Dynasty heralded the height of the pyramid-building age. The relative peace of the Third Dynasty allowed the Dynasty IV rulers the leisure to explore more artistic and cultural pursuits. King Sneferu's building experiments led to the evolution from the mastaba styled step pyramids to the smooth sided “true” pyramids, such as those on the Giza Plateau. No other period in Egypt's history equaled Dynasty IV's architectural accomplishments; each of the rulers of this dynasty commissioned at least one pyramid to serve as a cenotaph. It was the second of four dynasties that made up the "Old Kingdom", it has been acknowledged as the most remarkable of all in that isolated period of Egyptian history. It was part of the golden age of Egyptian culture and took place between 2613 and 2494 B.
C. King Sneferu, the first king of the fourth dynasty, held territory in ancient Libya to the Sinai Peninsula, Nubia in the south, it was a successful period and this era is known for its advancement and concentrated government, as seen in the organized building of pyramids and other monuments. Our understanding of the Old Kingdom comes from these structures and objects discovered in the desert cemeteries of Giza, it is not easy to measure the extent of change or explain the causes since there are not many records from the time. They did not have primitive customs or barbarous habits such as in other countries. An example of this would be. Religion and knowledge were where their aspirations lay, they had little aspiration for war and conquest, they were domestic, fond of art, social in their manners. Fourth Dynasty timeline King Sneferu, lauded as "Bringer of Beauty", "Master of All Justice", "Ruler of Lower and Upper Nile", was the first pharaoh of the fourth dynasty and single-handedly marked the climax of the Old Kingdom.
He descended from a family in the Middle Kingdom, that lived near the city Hermopolis and most he ascended to the throne by marrying a royal heiress. There still is debate as to who his father was, the credit being given to Huni, but this cannot be confirmed due to the break in dynasties, his mother, Meresanhk I was either a lesser wife or concubine of Huni which, if it was the latter, would technically not qualify him as having royal blood. Egypt in the third Millennium BC was, by all accounts, a land of plenty. Elites ate fattened ducks and geese and wore fine white linens—when they wore clothes at all. Snefru had a high opinion of himself, proving so when he floated in a boat down the Nile covered only with fishnets; until his reign, an Egyptian king was thought to be a worldly incarnation of Horus, obtaining total deification in death. Snefru was the first king proclaim that he was the embodiment of another sun deity. Khufu, would pursue his father's path, taking the name, Son of the Sun God.
Egypt, in general, was ruled by two schools of legal authority and traditional authority. Legal authority constituted the king governing, not the people directly, but viziers and nomarches, all posted at different positions. Snefru made use of this by having several posts for trade, military practices, slaveholders. Traditional authority was. At the heart of it, the fourth dynasty Egyptian government became organized so that only the king could direct traditional authority; the Bent Pyramid was Sneferu's first attempt at building a perfect structure, but it slopes and bends to a lower angle, giving the structure a squished look. His Red Pyramid is considered the first true pyramid and earned its name from the reddish tint in the limestone used; the Red Pyramid was considered the first pyramid 150 years after the structures built by King Djoser. The Red Pyramid was the first to be given a solid foundation so that it was stable enough for a taller building, he is said to be responsible for a series of pyramids built in Seila.
He commissioned a total of three pyramids. Although he did not construct any of the pyramids at Giza, he is known as the king who moved the most stone and brick. A lot of Sneferu's political expeditions were to other countries to secure two things: a substantial labor force and access to a large store of materials, he traveled to Libya for these things. His incursions in these areas allowed Sneferu to secure a large labor force, so large, in fact, that it caused huge devastation to the raided countries, he needed cattle and other food sources to provide to the people building his pyramids. By the end of his military efforts, he managed to capture 11,000 prisoners and 13,100 heads of cattle. Khufu, Sneferu's successor—though it is unclear whether he was the biological son of Sneferu—was a widely-known king, he is still known well in present-day media, being featured in movies and television shows. His fame stems from his pyramid on the northeastern plateau at Giza, his mortuary temple was built on the northern end of the pyramid, no longer accessible due to ravages by grave robbers.
Only three-dimensional reliefs have been recovered and have lasted into modern day, including many limestone busts and clay figurines. Khufu's activities in and out of Egypt are not well documented and was romanticized by the Ancient Greeks; these Greeks felt that Khufu was a wicked man who offended the deities an
First Dynasty of Egypt
The First Dynasty of ancient Egypt covers the first series of Egyptian kings to rule over a unified Egypt. It follows the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by Narmer, marks the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period, a time at which power was centered at Thinis; the date of this period is subject to scholarly debate about the Egyptian chronology. It falls within the early Bronze Age and is variously estimated to have begun anywhere between the 34th and the 30th centuries BC. In a 2013 study based on radiocarbon dates, the beginning of the First Dynasty—the accession of Hor-Aha—was placed at 3100 BC give or take a century. Known rulers in the history of Egypt for the First Dynasty are as follows: Information about this dynasty is derived from a few monuments and other objects bearing royal names, the most important being the Narmer Palette and Narmer Macehead, as well as Den and Qa'a king lists. No detailed records of the first two dynasties have survived, except for the terse lists on the Palermo Stone.
The account in Manetho's Aegyptiaca contradicts both the archeological evidence and the other historical records: Manetho names nine rulers of the First Dynasty, only one of whose names matches the other sources, offers information for only four of them. Egyptian hieroglyphs were developed by and their shapes would be used with little change for more than three thousand years. Large tombs of pharaohs at Abydos and Naqada, in addition to cemeteries at Saqqara and Helwan near Memphis, reveal structures built of wood and mud bricks, with some small use of stone for walls and floors. Stone was used in quantity for the manufacture of ornaments and for statues. Tamarix was used to build boats such as the Abydos boats. One of the most important indigenous woodworking techniques was the fixed tenon joint. A fixed tenon was made by shaping the end of one timber to fit into a mortise, cut into a second timber. A variation of this joint using a free tenon became one of the most important features in Mediterranean and Egyptian shipbuilding.
It creates a union between two planks or other components by inserting a separate tenon into a cavity of the corresponding size cut into each component." Human sacrifice was practiced as part of the funerary rituals associated with all of the pharaohs of the first dynasty. It is demonstrated as existing during this dynasty by retainers being buried near each pharaoh's tomb as well as animals sacrificed for the burial; the tomb of Djer is associated with the burials of 338 individuals. The people and animals sacrificed, such as donkeys, were expected to assist the pharaoh in the afterlife. For unknown reasons, this practice ended with the conclusion of the dynasty. Dynasties of ancient Egypt Early Dynastic Period Predynastic Egypt Kuhrt, Amélie, The Ancient Near East: c. 3000–330 BCE, London: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-01353-6. Shaw, The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-280458-8