Timophanes was an Ancient Corinthian and brother of the renowned Greek statesman and general Timoleon. During the 360s BC, the city-state of Corinth found herself in an unfamiliar, in the forty plus years since the end of the Peloponesian War, the political power houses of the eastern Mediterranean had changed fairly drastically. The city-states of Athens and Thebes had each contended to become the political, Timophanes was, as noted by Diodorus Siculus a man of outstanding wealth and used this to turn the mercenaries towards their previous employers. Diodorus relates how Timophanes would walk about the Corinthian market with “a band of ruffians” aiming towards installing himself as tyrant and he would go as far as putting to death a “great number of leading citizens” before being publicly assassinated by Timoleon
Chios is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea,7 kilometres off the Anatolian coast. The island is separated from Turkey by the Çeşme Strait, Chios is notable for its exports of mastic gum and its nickname is the Mastic Island. Tourist attractions include its medieval villages and the 11th-century monastery of Nea Moni, the island forms a separate municipality within the Chios regional unit, which is part of the North Aegean region. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Chios town, locals refer to Chios town as Chora. Chios island is crescent or kidney shaped,50 kilometres long north to south,29 kilometres at its widest. The terrain is mountainous and arid, with a ridge of mountains running the length of the island, the two largest of these mountains and Epos, are situated in the north of the island. The center of the island is divided between east and west by a range of peaks, known as Provatas. Chios can be divided into five regions, Midway up the east coast lie the main centers, the main town of Chios.
Chios Town, with a population of 32,400, is built around the main harbour. The town was damaged by an earthquake in 1881. North of Chios Town lies the suburb of Vrontados, which claims to be the birthplace of Homer. The suburb lies in the Omiroupoli municipality, and its connection to the poet is supported by a site known traditionally as Teachers Rock. The villages, built between the 14th and 16th centuries, have a carefully designed layout with fortified gates and narrow streets to protect against the frequent raids by marauding pirates. Between Chios Town and the Mastichochoria lie a number of historic villages including Armolia, Myrmighi. Along the east coast are the villages of Kataraktis and to the south Nenita. Directly in the centre of the island, between the villages of Avgonyma to the west and Karyes to the east, is the 11th century monastery of Nea Moni, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The monastery was built with funds given by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX, the monastery had substantial estates attached, with a thriving community until the massacre of 1822.
It was further damaged during the 1881 earthquake, in 1952, due to the shortage of monks, Nea Moni was converted to a convent
Theron of Acragas
Theron, son of Aenesidamus, was a Greek tyrant of the town of Acragas in Sicily from 488 BC. With this force at his disposal, he was able to control of the towns government. He soon became an ally of Gelo, who at that time controlled Gela, Theron went to war with the city of Selinunte and the tyrant of Himera, Terillus. The latter, expelled from his city, therefore sought an alliance with Carthage through his son-in-law Anaxilas, Theron occupied Himera but was besieged in this city by a Carthaginian army, assisted by Terillus. In 480 BC, with the support of Gelo, won a victory outside the walls of Himera against the Carthaginians. During the reign of Theron, Acragas along with Syracuse and Selinunte formed a kind of triumvirate which dominated Greek Sicily at the time, Theron died in 473 BC and was briefly succeeded by his son Thrasydaeus, before he was defeated by Gelos brother and successor, Hiero I. After that defeat, Acragas came under the control of Syracuse, pindar dedicates two Olympian odes,2 &3, to Theron, both for the same victory in the chariot race at the Olympic Games of 476 B. C.
The poet Simonides of Ceos was active at Therons court, the death of Minos in Sicily
Corinth is a city and former municipality in Corinthia, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality of Corinth, of which it is the seat and it is the capital of Corinthia. It was founded as Nea Korinthos or New Corinth in 1858 after an earthquake destroyed the settlement of Corinth. Corinth derives its name from Ancient Corinth, a city-state of antiquity, in 1858, the old city, now known as Archaia Korinthos, located 3 kilometres SW of the modern city, was totally destroyed by a magnitude 6.5 earthquake. Nea Korinthos or New Corinth was built a few kilometers away on the coast of the Gulf of Corinth, a magnitude 6.3 earthquake in 1928 devastated the new city, which was rebuilt on the same site. It was rebuilt again after a fire in 1933. The Municipality of Corinth had a population of 58,192 according to the 2011 census, the second most populous municipality in the Peloponnese Region after Kalamata. The municipal unit of Corinth had 38,132 inhabitants, of which Corinth itself had 30,176 inhabitants, placing it in place behind Kalamata.
The municipal unit of Corinth includes apart from Corinth proper the town of Archaia Korinthos, the town of Examilia, the municipal unit has an area of 102.187 km2. Corinth is an industrial hub at a national level. Corinth Refineries are one of the largest oil refining Industrial complex in Europe, copper cables, petroleum products, medical equipment, gypsum, ceramic tiles, mineral water and beverages, meat products, and gums are produced nearby. As of 2005, a period of deindustrialization has commenced as a large complex, a textile factory. Corinth is a road hub. The A7 toll motorway for Tripoli and Kalamata, branches off the A8/European route E94 toll motorway from Athens at Corinth, Corinth is the main entry point to the Peloponnesian peninsula, the southernmost area of continental Greece. KTEL Korinthias provides intercity bus service in the peninsula and to Athens via the Isthmos station southeast of the city center, local bus service is available. The city has connected to the Proastiakos, the Athens suburban rail network, since 2005.
The port of Corinth, located north of the city centre and close to the northwest entrance of the Corinth Canal, at 3756. 0’ N /2256. 0’ E, serves the needs of industry. It is mainly a cargo exporting facility and it is an artificial harbour (depth approximately 9 metres, protected by a concrete mole
Byzantium was an ancient Greek colony that became Constantinople, and still Istanbul. Byzantium was colonised by the Greeks from Megara in c. 657 BC, the etymology of Byzantion is unknown. It has been suggested that the name is of Thraco-Illyrian origin and it may be derived from a Thracian or Illyrian personal name, Byzas. Ancient Greek legend refers to a king Byzas, the leader of the Megarian colonists, the form Byzantium is a Latinisation of the original name. Much later, the name Byzantium became common in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire and this usage was introduced only in 1555 by the historian Hieronymus Wolf, a century after the empire had ceased to exist. During the time of the empire, the term Byzantium was restricted to just the city, the European side featured only two fishing settlements and Semistra. The origins of Byzantium are shrouded in legend, the traditional legend has it that Byzas from Megara founded Byzantium in 667 BC when he sailed northeast across the Aegean Sea.
The tradition tells that Byzas, son of King Nisos, planned to found a colony of the Dorian Greek city of Megara, Byzas consulted the oracle of Apollo at Delphi, which instructed Byzas to settle opposite the Land of the Blind. Leading a group of Megarian colonists, Byzas found a location where the Golden Horn and he adjudged the Chalcedonians blind not to have recognized the advantages the land on the European side of the Bosphorus had over the Asiatic side. In 667 BC he founded Byzantium at their location, thus fulfilling the oracles requirement and it was mainly a trading city due to its location at the Black Seas only entrance. Byzantium conquered Chalcedon, across the Bosporus on the Asiatic side, Byzantium was besieged by Greek forces during the Peloponnesian War. As part of Spartas strategy for cutting off supplies to Athens. The Athenian military took the city in 408 BC, after siding with Pescennius Niger against the victorious Septimius Severus, the city was besieged by Roman forces and suffered extensive damage in 196 AD.
Byzantium was rebuilt by Septimius Severus, now emperor, and quickly regained its previous prosperity and it was bound to Perinthos during the period of Septimius Severus. The location of Byzantium attracted Roman Emperor Constantine I who, in 330 AD, after his death the city was called Constantinople. This combination of imperialism and location would affect Constantinoples role as the nexus between the continents of Europe and Asia and it was a commercial and diplomatic centre. With its strategic position, Constantinople controlled the trade routes between Asia and Europe, as well as the passage from the Mediterranean Sea to the Black Sea. On May 29,1453, the city fell to the Ottoman Turks, and again became the capital of a powerful state, the Turks called the city Istanbul, the name derives from eis-tin-polin
Theramenes was an Athenian statesman, prominent in the final decade of the Peloponnesian War. He was particularly active during the two periods of government at Athens, as well as in the trial of the generals who had commanded at Arginusae in 406 BC. A moderate oligarch, he found himself caught between the democrats on the one hand and the extremist oligarchs on the other. Successful in replacing a narrow oligarchy with a one in 411 BC, he failed to achieve the same end in 404 BC. Theramenes was a figure in four major episodes of Athenian history. He served as a general for years after this, but was not reelected to that office in 407 BC. After the Battle of Arginusae, in which he served as a trierarch, he was assigned to rescue Athenian sailors from sinking ships, after the Athenian defeat at Aegospotami in 405 BC, Theramenes arranged the terms by which Athens surrendered to Sparta. He became a member of the oligarchic government, known as the Thirty Tyrants. Theramenes remained a controversial figure after his death, Lysias vigorously denounced him while prosecuting several of his political allies.
Some historians have found in Theramenes a selfish opportunist, others a principled moderate, the details of his actions, his motivations, and his character continue to be debated down to the present day. No ancient biographies of Theramenes are known, but his life and actions are well documented. The Attic orator Lysias deals with him at length in several of his speeches, only the barest outlines of Theramenes life outside the public sphere have been preserved in the historical record. His father, Hagnon had played a significant role in Athenian public life in the decades before Theramenes appearance on the scene. Hagnons career overlapped with his sons when he served as one of the ten commissioners appointed by the government of the 400 to draft a new constitution in 411 BC, Theramenes first appearance in the historical record comes with his involvement in the oligarchic coup of 411 BC. In this context, a number of Athenian aristocrats, led by Peisander and with Theramenes prominent among their ranks and this intrigue was initiated by the exiled nobleman Alcibiades, who was at that time acting as an assistant to the Persian satrap Tissaphernes.
Accordingly, a number of trierarchs and other leaders of the Athenian army at Samos began planning the overthrow of the democracy, in Athens, meanwhile, a party of young oligarchic revolutionaries succeeded in gaining de facto control of the government through assassination and intimidation. After making arrangements to their satisfaction at Samos the leaders of the conspiracy set sail for Athens, among them was Theramenes, Thucydides refers to him as one of the leaders of the party that put down the democracy—an able speaker and a man with ideas. At this point, several conflicts began to develop that threatened the future of the new government at Athens, the planned coup at Samos was thwarted by the efforts of Samian democrats and a group of Athenians who they entrusted with helping them
Phalaris was the tyrant of Akragas in Sicily, from approximately 570 to 554 BC. Phalaris was entrusted with the building of the temple of Zeus Atabyrius in the citadel, under his rule, Agrigentum seemed to have attained considerable prosperity. He supplied the city water, adorned it with fine buildings. On the northern coast of the island, the people of Himera elected him general with absolute power, according to the Suda he succeeded in making himself master of the whole of the island. He was at last overthrown in an uprising headed by Telemachus, the ancestor of Theron of Acragas. Phalaris was renowned for his excessive cruelty, among his alleged atrocities is cannibalism, he was said to have eaten suckling babies. Some scholars of the early 20th century proposed a connection between Phalaris bull and the bull-images of Phoenician cults, and hypothesized a continuation of Eastern human sacrifice practices and this idea has subsequently fallen out of favor. The story of the bull cannot be dismissed as pure invention, who lived less than a century afterwards, expressly associates this instrument of torture with the name of the tyrant.
There was certainly a brazen bull at Agrigentum that was carried off by the Carthaginians to Carthage and this is said to have been taken by Scipio the Elder and restored to Agrigentum circa 200 BC. Some four centuries after his death, Phalaris was the object of a literary reinvention whereby he came to be seen as a leader who was a patron of philosophy. This new reputation was due to 1) a paradoxical defence of his character attributed to Lucian, in 1699, Richard Bentley published a famous Dissertation on the Epistles of Phalaris in which he proved the spuriousness of the epistles. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th-9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and this was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedonia, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the end of the Mediterranean Sea. Classical Greek culture, especially philosophy, had a influence on ancient Rome. For this reason Classical Greece is generally considered to be the culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture and is considered the cradle of Western civilization. Classical Antiquity in the Mediterranean region is considered to have begun in the 8th century BC. Classical Antiquity in Greece is preceded by the Greek Dark Ages and this period is succeeded, around the 8th century BC, by the Orientalizing Period during which a strong influence of Syro-Hittite, Assyrian and Egyptian cultures becomes apparent.
The end of the Dark Ages is dated to 776 BC. The Archaic period gives way to the Classical period around 500 BC, Ancient Periods Astronomical year numbering Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details The history of Greece during Classical Antiquity may be subdivided into five major periods. The earliest of these is the Archaic period, in which artists made larger free-standing sculptures in stiff, the Archaic period is often taken to end with the overthrow of the last tyrant of Athens and the start of Athenian Democracy in 508 BC. It was followed by the Classical period, characterized by a style which was considered by observers to be exemplary, i. e. classical, as shown in the Parthenon. This period saw the Greco-Persian Wars and the Rise of Macedon, following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period, during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East. This period begins with the death of Alexander and ends with the Roman conquest, Herodotus is widely known as the father of history, his Histories are eponymous of the entire field.
Herodotus was succeeded by authors such as Thucydides, Demosthenes, most of these authors were either Athenian or pro-Athenian, which is why far more is known about the history and politics of Athens than those of many other cities. Their scope is limited by a focus on political and diplomatic history, ignoring economic. In the 8th century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization, literacy had been lost and Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, modifying it to create the Greek alphabet. The Lelantine War is the earliest documented war of the ancient Greek period and it was fought between the important poleis of Chalcis and Eretria over the fertile Lelantine plain of Euboea. Both cities seem to have suffered a decline as result of the long war, a mercantile class arose in the first half of the 7th century BC, shown by the introduction of coinage in about 680 BC
Lysimachus no doubt made Lysimachia the capital of his kingdom, and it must have rapidly risen to great splendour and prosperity. After his death the city fell under Seleucid dominion, and during the wars between Seleucus Callinicus and Ptolemy Euergetes it passed from the hands of the Seleucids into those of the Ptolemies. Whether these latter set the free, or whether it emancipated itself, is uncertain. In 287 BC, the city was damaged by an earthquake. In 277 BCE near Lysimachia the Macedonian king Antigonus II Gonatas defeated the Gauls, as the Aetolians were not able to afford the town the necessary protection, it was destroyed again in 197 BCE by the Thracians during the war of the Romans against Philip of Macedonia. Antiochus the Great restored the place, collected the scattered and enslaved inhabitants and this restoration, appears to have been unsuccessful, and under the dominion of Rome it decayed more and more. The last time the place is mentioned under its ancient name, is in a passage of Ammianus Marcellinus, the emperor Justinian restored it and surrounded it with strong fortifications, and after that time it is spoken of only under the name of Hexamilion.
Lysimachia, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, William, ed. article name needed. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography
Atarneus was an ancient Greek city in the region of Aeolis, Asia Minor. It lies on the mainland opposite the island of Lesbos, northeast of the town of Dikili in modern-day Turkey, Atarneus flowered in the 4th century BC, when it was the seat of government of Hermias of Atarneus, ruling over the area from Atarneus to Assos. The city was deserted by inhabitants in the 1st century AD, the city is known by many for its association with the life of Aristotle. After the death of his father, Aristotle was cared for and educated by Proxenus of Atarneus, at the Academy Aristotle made friends with Hermias, who was to become the ruler of Atarneus. Indeed, after the death of Plato, Aristotle went to stay with Hermias, foss, C. S. Mitchell, G. Reger, R. Talbert, T. Elliott, S. Gillies
Ambracia, was a city of ancient Greece on the site of modern Arta. It was founded as a Corinthian colony in the 7th century BC and was situated about 7 miles from the Ambracian Gulf, on a bend of the navigable river Arachthos, after the expulsion of Gorguss son Periander its government developed into a strong democracy. The early policy of Ambracia was determined by its loyalty to Corinth, ambraciot politics featured many frontier disputes with the Amphilochians and Acarnanians. Hence it took a prominent part in the Peloponnesian War until the defeat at Idomene. In the 4th century BC it continued its policy. With the assistance of Corinth and Athens, it escaped complete domination at Philips hands, in the wars of Philip V of Macedon and the Epirotes against the Aetolian League Ambracia passed from one alliance to the other, but ultimately joined the latter confederacy. During the struggle of the Aetolians against Rome, it stood a stubborn siege, Ambracia was captured and plundered by Marcus Fulvius Nobilior in 189 BC, after which it was declared by Rome a free city, and gradually fell into insignificance.
The foundation by Augustus of Nicopolis, into which the inhabitants were drafted. In Byzantine times a new settlement took its place under the name of Arta, some fragmentary walls of large, well-dressed blocks near this latter town indicate the early prosperity of Ambracia. Epigonus of Ambracia, 6th BC musician Nicocles, auletes Hippasus, tragic actor Epicrates of Ambracia, c