La Grande Illusion
La Grande Illusion is a 1937 French war film directed by Jean Renoir, who co-wrote the screenplay with Charles Spaak. The story concerns class relationships among a small group of French officers who are prisoners of war during World War I and are plotting an escape; the title of the film comes from the book The Great Illusion by British journalist Norman Angell, which argued that war is futile because of the common economic interests of all European nations. The perspective of the film is generously humanistic to its characters of various nationalities. La Grande Illusion is regarded by critics and film historians as one of the masterpieces of French cinema and among the greatest films made. Orson Welles named La Grande Illusion as one of the two movies he would take with him "on the ark." Empire magazine ranked it #35 in "The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema" in 2010. During the First World War, two French aviators, the aristocratic Captain de Boeldieu and the working-class Lieutenant Maréchal, set out on a flight to examine the site of a blurred spot found on photographs from an earlier air reconnaissance mission.
They are shot down by a German aviator and aristocrat, Rittmeister von Rauffenstein, both are taken prisoner by German ground forces. Upon returning to base, Rauffenstein sends a subordinate to find out if the aviators are officers and, if so, to invite them to lunch. During the meal and Boeldieu discover they have mutual acquaintances—a depiction of the familiarity, if not solidarity, within the upper classes that crosses national boundaries. Boeldieu and Maréchal are taken to a prisoner-of-war camp, where they meet a colorful group of French prisoners and stage a vaudeville-type performance just after the Germans have taken Fort Douaumont in the epic Battle of Verdun. During the performance, word arrives. Maréchal interrupts the show, the French prisoners spontaneously burst into "La Marseillaise"; as a result of the disruption, Maréchal is placed in solitary confinement, where he suffers badly from lack of human contact and hunger. Boeldieu and Maréchal help their fellow prisoners to finish digging an escape tunnel.
However, just before it is completed, everyone is transferred to other camps. Because of the language barrier, Maréchal is unable to pass word of the tunnel to an incoming British prisoner. Boeldieu and Maréchal are moved from camp to camp arriving in Wintersborn, a mountain fortress prison commanded by Rauffenstein, so badly injured in battle that he has been promoted, but given a posting away from the front, much to his regret. Rauffenstein tells them. At Wintersborn, the pair are reunited with a fellow prisoner, from the original camp. Rosenthal is a wealthy French Jew, a naturalized French citizen, the son of a Polish father and a Danish mother, who generously shares the food parcels he receives. Boeldieu comes up with an idea, after observing how the German guards respond to an emergency, he volunteers to distract the guards for the few minutes needed for Maréchal and Rosenthal to escape. After a commotion staged by the prisoners, the guards are ordered to assemble them in the fortress courtyard.
During the roll call, it is discovered. He makes his presence known high up in the fortress. Maréchal and Rosenthal take the opportunity to lower themselves from a window by a homemade rope and flee. Rauffenstein stops the guards from firing at Boeldieu with their rifles and pleads with his fellow aristocrat to give himself up. Boeldieu refuses, Rauffenstein reluctantly shoots at him with his pistol, aiming for his legs but hitting him in the stomach. Nursed in his final moments by a grieving Rauffenstein, Boeldieu laments that their usefulness to society will end with this war, he pities Rauffenstein, who will have to find a new purpose in the emerging social order. Maréchal and Rosenthal journey across the German countryside. Rosenthal injures his foot, they quarrel and part, but Maréchal returns to help his comrade. They take refuge in the modest farmhouse of a German woman, who has lost her husband at Verdun, along with three brothers, at battles which, with quiet irony, she describes as "our greatest victories."
She generously takes them in, doesn't betray them to a passing German army patrol. Maréchal begins to fall in love with her, she with him, but he and Rosenthal leave from a sense of duty to the war effort after Rosenthal recovers from his injury. Maréchal declares his intention to come back for Elsa and her daughter, after the war. A German patrol sights the two fugitives crossing a snow-covered valley; the soldiers fire a few rounds, but the patrol leader orders them to cease fire, saying the pair have crossed into Switzerland. We last glimpse them from a distance, trudging through their future uncertain. According to Renoir's memoirs, Erich von Stroheim, despite having been born in Vienna, Austria did not speak much German and struggled with learning the language along with his lines in between filming scenes; the exteriors of "Wintersborn" were filmed at the Upper Koenigsbourg Castle in Alsace. Other exteriors were filmed at the artillery barracks at Colmar and at Neuf-Brisach on the Upper Rhine.
An early script version of La Grande Illusion had Rosenthal and Maréchal agreeing to meet in a restaurant at the end of the war. In the final scene, everyone there would be ce
Fail Safe (1964 film)
Fail Safe is a 1964 Cold War thriller film directed by Sidney Lumet, based on the 1962 novel of the same name by Eugene Burdick and Harvey Wheeler. It portrays a fictional account of a nuclear crisis; the film features performances by actors Henry Fonda, Dan O'Herlihy, Walter Matthau and Frank Overton. Larry Hagman, Fritz Weaver, Dom DeLuise and Sorrell Booke appeared in early film roles. Fail Safe describes how Cold War tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States lead to an accidental thermonuclear first strike after an error sends a group of US bombers to bomb Moscow. In 2000, the novel was adapted again as a televised play, starring George Clooney, Richard Dreyfuss and Noah Wyle, broadcast live in black and white on CBS. During a VIP visit to the headquarters of the Strategic Air Command, at Offutt Air Force Base in Omaha, the Air Force's early warning radar indicates that an unidentified aircraft has intruded into American airspace. Shortly after, the "intruder" is identified as an off-course civilian airliner and the alert is cancelled, but a computer error causes one American bomber group to receive orders for an attack on Moscow.
Attempts to rescind this order fail because a new Soviet countermeasure jams American radio communications. With his orders confirmed, Colonel Jack Grady, the US bomber group's commander, orders them to continue to their target; the president of the United States and his advisers attempt to recall the bombers or shoot them down. Communications are opened with the Soviet chairman; the jamming ceases but the crew follows their training, dismissing the counter-orders they receive as a Soviet ruse. The President struggles to find a resolution, he offers to sacrifice an American target to appease the Soviets and he orders an American bomber towards New York City. The President's advisers in the Pentagon discover that in doing so, the President is sacrificing the First Lady, visiting New York City. A single American bomber destroys it; the President orders General Black, whose wife and children live in New York, to make a corresponding nuclear attack on New York, using the Empire State Building as ground zero.
After releasing the bombs, Black kills himself. The last moments of the film show images of people in New York going about their daily lives, unaware of the coming disaster; the film was shot in black and white, in a dramatic, theatrical style with claustrophobic close-ups, sharp shadows and ponderous silences between several characters. There was no musical underscoring or any music played, except as radio background during a scene at an Air Force base in Alaska. With few exceptions, the action takes place in the White House underground bunker, the Pentagon war conference room, the SAC war room, a single bomber cockpit. Shots of normal daily life are seen only after the title opening credits and in the final scene depicting an ordinary New York City day, its residents unsuspecting of their imminent destruction, each scene ending with a freeze-frame shot at the moment of impact; the Soviets are not depicted in the film. The progress of the attack is followed on giant, electronic maps in the Pentagon War Room and SAC Headquarters.
Conversations with the Soviet Premier are translated by an American interpreter. Suspense builds through dialog between the President and other officials, including an advisor to the Department of Defense, Professor Groeteschele, an old college friend of the President, General Black and SAC commander General Bogan; the "Vindicator" bombers are represented in the film by sometimes stock footage of a real US aircraft, the Convair B-58 Hustler. Fighters sent to attack the bombers are illustrated by film clips of the Lockheed F-104 Starfighter, Convair F-102 Delta Dagger, Dassault Mirage III and McDonnell F-101 Voodoo. Stock footage was used because the United States Air Force declined to cooperate in the production, disliking the premise of a lack of control over nuclear strike forces; the scene depicting bombers taking off was stock footage of a single B-58 takeoff edited to look like several bombers taking off in succession. A nightmare quality is imparted to many of the flying sequences by depicting the planes in photographic negative.
In several of the negative sequences the "Soviet interceptors" were French Mirage fighters with Israeli markings. When Fail Safe opened, it garnered excellent reviews, its failure rested with the similarity between it and the nuclear war satire Dr. Strangelove, which appeared in theaters first. Still, the film was applauded as a Cold War thriller; the novel sold through to the 1980s and 1990s, the film was given high marks for retaining the essence of the novel. Over the years, both the novel and the movie were well received for their depiction of a nuclear crisis, despite many critical reviews rejecting the notion that a breakdown in communication could result in the erroneous go-command depicted in the novel and the movie. Fail Safe and Dr. Strangelove were both produced by Columbia Pictures in the period after the Cuban Missile Crisis, when people became much more sensitive to the threat of nuclear war. Strangelove director Stanley Kubrick, who adapted Peter George's novel Red Alert, insisted that the studio release his movie first.
Fail Safe so resembled Red Alert that
Das Boot is a 1981 German submarine film written and directed by Wolfgang Petersen, produced by Günter Rohrbach, starring Jürgen Prochnow, Herbert Grönemeyer, Klaus Wennemann. It has been exhibited both as a theatrical release and as a TV miniseries, in several different home video versions of various running times, in a director's cut version supervised by Petersen in 1997. An adaptation of Lothar-Günther Buchheim's 1973 German novel of the same name, the film is set during World War II and follows German U-boat U-96 and its crew, as they set out on a hazardous patrol in the Battle of the Atlantic, it depicts both the excitement of battle and the tedium of the fruitless hunt, shows the men serving aboard U-boats as ordinary individuals with a desire to do their best for their comrades and their country. Development began in 1979. Several American directors were considered three years earlier. During production, Heinrich Lehmann-Willenbrock, the captain of the real U-96 and one of Germany's top U-boat "tonnage aces" during the war, Hans-Joachim Krug, former first officer on U-219, served as consultants.
One of Petersen's goals was to guide the audience through "a journey to the edge of the mind", showing "what war is all about". Produced with a budget of 32 million DM, the film's high production cost ranks it among the most expensive films in the history of German cinema; the film grossed $84.9 million worldwide. Columbia Pictures released both a German version and an English-dubbed version in the United States theatrically, but the film's German version grossed much higher than the English-dubbed version at the United States box office; the film received positive reviews and was nominated for six Academy Awards, two of which went to Petersen himself. Today, the film is seen as one of the greatest of all German films. Lt. Werner, has been assigned as a war correspondent on the German submarine U-96 in October 1941, he is driven by its captain, chief engineer, to a raucous French bordello where he meets some of the crew. Thomsen, another captain, gives a crude drunken speech to celebrate his Ritterkreuz award, in which he mocks Adolf Hitler.
The next morning, the U-96 sails out of the harbour of La Rochelle and Werner is given a tour of the boat. As time passes, he observes ideological differences between the new crew members and the hardened veterans the captain, embittered and cynical about the war; the new men, including Werner, are mocked by the rest of the crew, who share a tight bond. After days of boredom, the crew is excited by another U-boat's spotting of an enemy convoy, but they are soon spotted by a British destroyer, are bombarded with depth charges, they escape with only light damage. The next three weeks are spent enduring a relentless North Atlantic gale. Morale drops after a series of misfortunes, but the crew is cheered temporarily by a chance encounter with Thomsen's boat. Shortly after the storm ends, the boat encounters a British convoy and launches four torpedoes, sinking two ships, they are spotted by a destroyer and have to dive below test depth, the submarine's rated limit. During the ensuing depth-charge attack, the chief machinist, Johann and has to be restrained.
The boat sustains heavy damage, but is able to safely surface when night falls. A British tanker they torpedoed is still afloat and on fire, so they torpedo it again, only to learn there are still sailors aboard; the crew swim towards them. Unable to accommodate prisoners, the captain orders the boat away; the worn-out U-boat crew looks forward to returning home to La Rochelle in time for Christmas, but the ship is ordered to La Spezia, which means passing through the Strait of Gibraltar—an area defended by the Royal Navy. The U-boat makes a secret night rendezvous at the harbour of Vigo, in neutral although Axis-friendly Spain, with the SS Weser, an interned German merchant ship that clandestinely provides U-boats with fuel and other supplies; the filthy officers seem out of place at the opulent dinner prepared for them, but are warmly greeted by enthusiastic officers eager to hear their exploits. The captain learns from an envoy of the German consulate that his request for Werner and the Chief Engineer to be sent back to Germany has been denied.
The crew finishes resupplying and departs for Italy. As they approach the Straits of Gibraltar and are just about to dive, they are attacked and damaged by a British fighter plane, wounding the navigator, Kriechbaum; the captain orders the boat directly south towards the North African coast at full speed determined to save his crew if he loses the boat. British warships begin shelling and they are forced to dive; when attempting to level off, the boat does not respond and continues to sink until, just before being crushed by the pressure, it lands on a sea shelf, at the depth of 280 metres. The crew works to make numerous repairs before running out of oxygen. After over 16 hours, they are able to surface by blowing their ballast tanks, limp back towards La Rochelle under cover of darkness with only one engine still operational; the crew is exhausted when they reach La Rochelle on Christmas Eve. Shortly after Kriechbaum is taken ashore to a waiting ambulance, Allied planes bomb and str
The Americanization of Emily
The Americanization of Emily is a 1964 American black-and-white romantic dark comedy-drama war film written by Paddy Chayefsky, produced by Martin Ransohoff, directed by Arthur Hiller, starring James Garner, Julie Andrews, Melvyn Douglas, James Coburn. The film features Joyce Grenfell, Keenan Wynn, William Windom; the screenplay by Chayefsky is loosely adapted from the novel of the same name by William Bradford Huie, a SeaBee officer during the Normandy Invasion. The film is set in 1944 London during World War II in the weeks leading up to D-Day. Controversial in its own time, it has since been praised as a "vanguard anti-war film". Both Garner and Andrews have considered the film their personal favorite of those in which they acted. Lieutenant Commander Charlie Madison, United States Naval Reserve, is a cynical and efficient adjutant to Rear Admiral William Jessup in London in 1944. Madison's job as a dog robber is to keep his boss and other high-ranking officers supplied with luxury goods and amiable Englishwomen.
He falls in love with a driver from the motor pool, Emily Barham, who has lost her husband and father in the war. Madison's pleasure-seeking "American" lifestyle amid wartime rationing both fascinates and disgusts Emily, but she does not want to lose another loved one to war and finds the "practising coward" Madison irresistible. Profoundly despondent since the death of his wife, Jessup obsesses over the US Army and its Air Force overshadowing the Navy in the forthcoming D-Day invasion; the mentally unstable admiral decides that "The first dead man on Omaha Beach must be a sailor". A combat film will document the death, the casualty will be buried in a "Tomb of the Unknown Sailor", he orders Madison to get the film made. Despite his best efforts to avoid the duty and his now gung-ho friend, Commander "Bus" Cummings, find themselves and a film crew with the combat engineers, who will be the first sailors ashore; when Madison tries to retreat from the beach, the manic Cummings shoots him in the leg with a Colt.45 pistol.
A German artillery shell lands near the limping-running Madison, making him the first American casualty on Omaha Beach. Hundreds of newspaper and magazine covers reprint the photograph of Madison running ashore, making him a war hero. Jessup, having recovered from his breakdown, is horrified by his part in Madison's death, he plans to use the heroic death in support of the Navy when testifying before a Senate committee in Washington, D. C. Losing another man she loves to the war devastates Emily. Comes unexpected news: Madison is not dead, but is alive and well at the Allied 6th relocation center in Southampton, England. A relieved Jessup plans to show him off during his Senate testimony as the "first man on Omaha Beach," a sailor. Madison, limping from his injury and angry about his senseless near-death, uncharacteristically plans to act nobly by telling the world the truth about what happened if it means being imprisoned for cowardice. By recounting what he had told her Emily persuades Madison to choose happiness with her, to keep quiet and accept his role as a hero.
According to James Garner, William Holden was meant to play the lead role of "Charlie" Madison. Garner was selected to play the character "Bus" Cummings; when Holden backed out of the project, Garner took the lead role, James Coburn was brought in to play "Bus". The film introduced the song "Emily", composed by Johnny Mandel with lyrics by Johnny Mercer; the song was recorded by Frank Sinatra with Nelson Riddle arranging and conducting on October 3, 1964 and included in the Reprise LP, Softly, as I Leave You. It was recorded by Andy Williams for Dear Heart and by Barbra Streisand for The Movie Album; the Americanization of Emily is based on William Bradford Huie's 1959 novel of the same name. The New York Times ran a brief news item mentioning Huie's novel prior to its publication, but never reviewed the novel, although in 1963 Paddy Chayefsky's development of the novel into a screenplay was found worthy of note. A first draft of the screenplay for the film was written by George Goodman who had a success at MGM with his The Wheeler Dealers with James Garner in the male lead and the same director and producer.
In 1964 a Broadway musical with music written by John Barry was announced. Chayefsky's adaptation, while retaining the title, situation and many specific plot incidents told a different story. "I found the book, serious in tone a funny satire, that's how I'm treating it". The screenplay's theme of cowardice as a virtue has no parallel in the novel; the screenplay implies, but never explicitly explains, what is meant by the term "Americanization". The novel uses "Americanized" to refer to a woman who accepts, as a normal condition of wartime, the exchange of her sexual favors for gifts of rare wartime commodities. Thus, in reply to the question "has Pat been Americanized", a character answers: Thoroughly, she carries a diaphragm in her kitbag. She has seen the ceilings of half the rooms in the Dorchester, she asks that it be after dinner: she doesn't like it on an empty stomach. She admits, she requires that it be in a bed, that the bed be in Claridge's, the Savoy, or the Dorchester. This theme runs throughout the novel.
Another character says, "We operate just like a whorehouse.... We swap it for Camels and nylons and steak and eggs and lipstick... this dress... came from Saks Fifth Avenue in the diplo
Breaker Morant (film)
Breaker Morant is a 1980 Australian war drama film directed by Bruce Beresford, who co-wrote the screenplay, based on Kenneth G. Ross' 1978 play of the same name; the film concerns the 1902 court martial of Lieutenants Harry Morant, Peter Handcock, George Witton—one of the first war crime prosecutions in British military history. Australians serving in the British Army during the Second Anglo-Boer War, Lts. Morant and Witton stood accused of murdering captured enemy combatants and an unarmed civilian in the Northern Transvaal; the film is notable for its exploration of the Nuremberg Defense, the politics of the death penalty, the human cost of total war. As the trial unfolds, the events in question are shown in flashbacks. In 1980, the film won ten Australian Film Institute Awards including: Best Film, Best Direction, Leading Actor, Supporting Actor, Art Direction and Editing, it was nominated for the 1980 Academy Award for the Best Writing. Breaker Morant remains the movie with which Beresford is most identified and has "hoisted the images of the accused officers to the level of Australian icons and martyrs."
In a 1999 interview, Beresford explained that Breaker Morant "never pretended for a moment" that the defendants were not guilty as charged. He had intended the film to explore how wartime atrocities can be "committed by people who appear to be quite normal." Beresford concluded that he was "amazed" that so many people see his film as being about "poor Australians who were framed by the Brits." In Pretoria, South Africa, in 1902, Major Charles Bolton is summoned to a meeting with Lord Kitchener. He is told that three officers of the Bushveldt Carbineers—Lieutenants Harry Morant, Peter Handcock, George Witton -- have been arrested and charged with murdering captured Boers and a German missionary. Explaining ominously that the Kaiser has protested diplomatically about the latter killing, Kitchener asks Major Bolton to appear for the prosecution. To the Major's visible dismay, he is told that witnesses which would help the defence have been sent to India and that the defence counsel is expected to give him no trouble.
Meanwhile, the defense counsel, Major James Francis Thomas meets Lieuts. Morant and Witton the day before he is to represent them in court, he tells them. A small town solicitor from New South Wales in civilian life, Major Thomas explains that he has never handled anything except legal documents like wills. Lieut. Handcock quips, "Might come in handy." As court martial proceedings begin the following morning, Major Thomas argues, because his clients are Australians, that only the Australian Army can court martial them. Unmoved, the president of the court martial, Lt. Col. Denny, explains that the defendants may be tried for alleged crimes committed while serving under British command in the Bushveldt Carbineers. Without further ado, Denny reads the indictment; the three stand accused of the murder of a Boer prisoner named Denys Visser and the subsequent shooting of six other captured Boers whose names are unknown. Furthermore, Lts. Morant and Handcock are charged with the murder of the Reverend C.
A. D. Heese. Maj. Bolton begins by calling witnesses who describe a lack of discipline, widespread looting, corruption among the Bushveldt Carbineers at Fort Edward. Maj. Thomas, manages to damage their credibility during cross examination; the testimony turns to the shooting of Visser, shown in flashback. On 5 April 1901, Lt. Morant's close friend, Captain Simon Hunt, had led a group of men to a farmhouse at Duiwelskloof intending to capture or kill Boer Commando Field Cornet Barend Viljoen. On arrival, the Carbineers found the farm swarming with far more armed men than expected. Captain Hunt was wounded, pinned down by enemy fire, left behind when he ordered his men to retreat; when the patrol returned to Fort Edward without Captain Hunt, Intelligence Corps Captain Alfred Taylor suggests Morant "avenge Captain Hunt". After returning to the farm and finding Captain Hunt's body mutilated with knives, Morant gave chase, ambushed Viljoen's men, forced them to retreat with heavy losses. After capturing a Boer named Visser, wearing Captain Hunt's jacket, an enraged Morant ordered his men to line up into a firing squad and shoot him.
They obey his order. Back in the courtroom, Maj. Thomas argues that standing orders existed to shoot "all Boers captured wearing khaki". To the shock of Maj. Thomas and his clients, Maj. Bolton explains that those orders only applied to Boers wearing British uniforms as a ruse of war; when Morant takes the witness stand and is grilled by Bolton, he defends the shooting of Visser by saying that he fought the Boers as they fought him. When asked which of the rules of engagement justifies shooting an unarmed prisoner, Morant shouts, in reference to the caliber of his rifle, "Rule 303." That night, Maj. Thomas angrily tells Morant that he was the best witness the prosecution has yet had; the following day, testimony turns to the shooting of the six Boers. Captain Taylor testifies that, prior to his death, Captain Hunt had paid a visit to Kitchener's headquarters. Following Hunt's return to Fort Edward, Lt. Morant had brought in a group of Boers who had surrendered, only to be told by Captain Hunt that new orders from Kitchener, relayed through Col. Hubert Hamilton, decreed that no more prisoners were to be taken.
Saying, "The gentlemen's war is over", Hunt had had the prisoners all shot. Captain Taylor testifies, that Morant had continued
The Enemy Below
The Enemy Below is a 1957 DeLuxe Color war film in CinemaScope, which tells the story of the battle between an American destroyer escort and a German U-boat during World War II. The movie stars Robert Mitchum and Curt Jürgens as the American and German commanding officers and was directed and produced by Dick Powell; the film was based on a novel by Denys Rayner, a British naval officer involved in anti-submarine warfare throughout the Battle of the Atlantic. For the audible effects, Walter Rossi received the 1958 Academy Award for Best Special Effects; the American Buckley-class destroyer escort USS Haynes detects and attacks a German U-boat, on its way to rendezvous with a German merchant raider in the South Atlantic Ocean. Lieutenant Commander Murrell, a former officer in the merchant marine now an active duty officer in the Naval Reserve, has taken command of Haynes though he is still recovering from injuries incurred in the sinking of his previous ship. Before the U-boat is first spotted, one sailor questions the new captain's ability.
However, as the battle begins, Murrell shows himself to be a match for wily U-boat Kapitän-Leutnant von Stolberg, a man, not enamored with the Nazi regime, in a prolonged and deadly battle of wits that tests both men and their crews. Each man grows to respect his opponent. Murrell skillfully stalks the U-boat and subjects von Stolberg and his crew to hourly depth charge attacks. In the end, von Stolberg takes advantage of Murrell's too-predictable pattern of attacks and succeeds in torpedoing the destroyer escort. Although the Haynes is fatally wounded and sinking, it is still battle capable, Murrell has one last trick up his sleeve, he orders his men to set fires on the deck to make the ship look more damaged than it is. He orders the majority of his crew to evacuate in the lifeboats, but retains a skeleton crew to man the bridge, engine room, one of his ship's three-inch guns; as Murrell had hoped, von Stolberg decides to surface before firing his torpedoes. Murrell orders his gun crew to fire first at the U-boat's stern to immobilize it, at the U-boat's deck gun.
Murrell orders his executive officer, Lieutenant Ware, to ram the U-boat. With his boat sinking, von Stolberg orders his crew to set scuttling charges and abandon ship. Murrell, the last man aboard, is about to join his crew in the lifeboats when he spots von Stolberg standing on the conning tower of the sinking U-boat with his injured executive officer, Oberleutnant zur See Heini Schwaffer. Murrell rescues the pair, it is clear that Schwaffer is dying. Ware returns with American and German sailors in the captain's gig to take the three men off before the U-boat's scuttling charges detonate. Aboard another American ship, the German crew consigns Schwaffer's remains to the deep in a traditional ceremony, as the American crew respectfully watches; the movie script differs from the original book. The ship is changed from British to American. More the final scenes of mutual respect and potential friendship between the protagonists is not how the book ends. In the book the destroyer captain hates the German captain so much he takes a swing at him while they are in the lifeboat.
The movie vaguely alludes to the "enemy" being evil, not the Nazis. This gives the title "The Enemy Below". Robert Mitchum as Captain Murrell Curd Jürgens as Kapitän-Leutnant von Stolberg Theodore Bikel as Oberleutnant zur See "Heinie" Schwaffer, von Stolberg's second in command David Hedison as Lieutenant Ware, the executive officer of Haynes Russell Collins as Doctor Kurt Kreuger as von Holem Frank Albertson as Lieutenant Crain Biff Elliot as Quartermaster Ralph Manza as Lieutenant Bonelli Doug McClure as Ensign Merry Darryl F. Zanuck as Chief Curt Jürgens was imprisoned in 1944 in an internment camp in Hungary by order of Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels during World War II. Contrary to some reports, it was not a death camp, he was released. Theodore Bikel was an immigrant Austrian Jew, born in Vienna, Austria, in 1924, he and his family fled to America by way of Palestine in 1937. The destroyer escort USS Haynes was portrayed by the USS Whitehurst, filmed in the Pacific Ocean near Oahu, Hawaii.
Many of Whitehurst's crewmen acted in the film: The phone talkers, the gun and depth charge crews, the sailor fishing, all of the men seen abandoning ship, were real Whitehurst crewmen. The ship's commanding officer, Lieutenant Commander Walter Smith, played the engineering officer, he is the man seen reading comics during the lull before the action. In the same scene an enlisted man can be seen reading The Fall of the Roman Empire; the lead ship of the destroyer escort class portrayed in The Enemy Below, USS Buckley rammed a U-boat in combat and sank it on 6 May 1944, capturing many of the German crew. The actual DE-181 was USS Straub; the tune sung by the U-boat crew on the ocean floor between depth charge attacks is from an 18th-century march called "Der Dessauer Marsch". As a more popular song, it's known by the first line of lyrics as "So leben wir"; the 1966 Star Trek episode "Balance of Terror" is based on this film, with the USS Enterprise cast as the destroyer and the Romulan vessel, using a cloaking device, as the U-boat.
It is reported that Gene Roddenberry paid a fee to the estate of Gary
All Quiet on the Western Front (1930 film)
All Quiet on the Western Front is a 1930 American epic pre-Code war film based on the Erich Maria Remarque novel of the same name. Directed by Lewis Milestone, it stars Louis Wolheim, Lew Ayres, John Wray, Arnold Lucy and Ben Alexander. All Quiet on the Western Front opened to wide acclaim in the United States. Considered a realistic and harrowing account of warfare in World War I, it made the American Film Institute's first 100 Years...100 Movies list in 1998. A decade after the same organization polled over 1,500 workers in the creative community, All Quiet on the Western Front was ranked the seventh-best American epic film. In 1990, the film was selected and preserved by the United States Library of Congress' National Film Registry as being deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant." The film was the first to win the Academy Awards for Best Director. Its sequel, The Road Back, portrays members of the 2nd Company returning home after the war. Professor Kantorek gives an impassioned speech about the glory of serving in the Army and "saving the Fatherland".
On the brink of becoming men, the boys in his class, led by Paul Baumer, are moved to join the army as the new 2nd Company. Their romantic delusions are broken during their brief but rigorous training under the abusive Corporal Himmelstoss, who bluntly informs them, "You're going to be soldiers—and that's all." The new soldiers arrive by train at the combat zone, mayhem, with soldiers everywhere, incoming shells, horse-drawn wagons racing about, prolonged rain. One in the group is killed before the new recruits can reach their post, to the alarm of one of the new soldiers; the new soldiers are assigned to a unit composed of older soldiers, who are not accommodating. The young soldiers find, they have not eaten since breakfast. One of them, "Kat" Katczinsky, had gone to locate something to eat and he returns with a slaughtered hog he has stolen from a field kitchen; the young soldiers "pay" for their dinner with cigarettes. The new recruits' first trip to the trenches with the veterans, to re-string barbed wire, is a harrowing experience when Behn is blinded by shrapnel and hysterically runs into machine-gun fire.
After spending several days in a bunker under bombardment, they at last move into the trenches and repulse an enemy attack. They are sent back to the field kitchens to get their rations; the men start out eating greedily, but settle into a satiated torpor. They hear that they are to return to the front the next day and begin a semi-serious discussion about the causes of the war and of wars in general, they speculate about whether geographical entities offend each other and whether these disagreements involve them. Tjaden speaks familiarly about the Kaiser. One day, Corporal Himmelstoss arrives to the front and is spurned because of his bad reputation. In an attack on a cemetery, Paul stabs a French soldier, but finds himself trapped in a hole with the dying man for an entire night. Throughout the night, he tries to help him, bringing him water, but fails miserably to stop him from dying, he begs the dead body to speak so he can be forgiven. He returns to the German lines and is comforted by Kat.
Going back to the front line, Paul is wounded and taken to a Catholic hospital, along with his good friend Albert Kropp. Kropp's leg is amputated. Around this time, Paul is taken to the bandaging ward, from which, according to its reputation, nobody has returned alive. Paul is given a furlough and visits his family at home, he is shocked by. When Paul visits the schoolroom where he was recruited, he finds Professor Kantorek prattling the same patriotic fervor to a class of younger students. Professor Kantorek asks of Paul to detail his experience, to which the latter reveals that war was not at all like he had envisioned and mentions the deaths of his partners. Disillusioned and angry, Paul returns to the front and comes upon another 2nd company, filled with new young recruits who are now disillusioned, he goes to find Kat, they discuss the inability of the people to comprehend the futility of the war. Kat's shin is broken when a bomb dropped by an aircraft falls nearby, so Paul carries him back to a field hospital - only to find that Kat has been killed by a second explosion.
Crushed by the loss of his mentor, Paul leaves. In the final scene, Paul is back on the front lines, he sees a butterfly just beyond his trench. Paul smiles and reaches out towards the butterfly, but becoming too exposed, he is shot and killed by an enemy sniper; the final shot shows the 2nd Company arriving at the front for the first time, fading out to the image of a cemetery. In the film, Paul is shot while reaching for a butterfly; this scene is different from the book, was inspired by an earlier scene showing