Cagliari is an Italian municipality and the capital of the island of Sardinia, an autonomous region of Italy. Cagliari's Sardinian name Casteddu means castle, it has about 155,000 inhabitants. According to Eurostat, the population of the Functional urban area, the commuting zone of Cagliari, rises to 476,974. Cagliari is the largest city on the island of Sardinia. An ancient city with a long history, Cagliari has seen the rule of several civilisations. Under the buildings of the modern city there is a continuous stratification attesting to human settlement over the course of some five thousand years, from the Neolithic to today. Historical sites include the prehistoric Domus de Janas damaged by cave activity, a large Carthaginian era necropolis, a Roman era amphitheatre, a Byzantine basilica, three Pisan-era towers and a strong system of fortification that made the town the core of Spanish Habsburg imperial power in the western Mediterranean Sea, its natural resources have always been its sheltered harbour, the powerfully fortified hill of Castel di Castro, the modern Casteddu, the salt from its lagoons, from the hinterland, wheat from the Campidano plain and silver and other ores from the Iglesiente mines.
Cagliari was the capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia from 1324 to 1848, when Turin became the formal capital of the kingdom. Today the city is a regional cultural, educational and artistic centre, known for its diverse Art Nouveau architecture and several monuments, it is Sardinia's economic and industrial hub, having one of the biggest ports in the Mediterranean Sea, an international airport, the 106th highest income level in Italy, comparable to that of several northern Italian cities. It is the seat of the University of Cagliari, founded in 1607, of the Primate Roman Catholic archdiocese of Sardinia, since the 5th century AD; the Cagliari area has been inhabited since the Neolithic. It occupies a favourable position between the sea and a fertile plain and is surrounded by two marshes. There are high mountains nearby, to which people could evacuate if the settlement had to be given up. Relics of prehistoric inhabitants were found in Cape Sant ` Elia. Karaly was established around the 8th/7th century BC as one of a string of Phoenician colonies in Sardinia, including Tharros.
Its founding is linked to its position along communication routes with Africa as well as to its excellent port. The Phoenician settlement was located in the Stagno di Santa Gilla, west of the present centre of Cagliari; this was the site of the Roman Portus Scipio, when Arab pirates raided the area in the 8th century it became the refuge for people fleeing from the city. Other Phoenician settlements have been found at Cape Sant'Elia. In the late 6th century BC Carthage took control of part of Sardinia, Cagliari grew under their domination, as testified by the large Tuvixeddu necropolis and other remains. Cagliari was a fortified settlement in what is now the modern Marina quarter, with an annexed holy area in the modern Stampace. Sardinia and Cagliari came under Roman rule in 238 BC, shortly after the First Punic War, when the Romans defeated the Carthaginians. No mention of it is found on the occasion of the Roman conquest of the island but, during the Second Punic War, Caralis was the headquarters of the praetor, Titus Manlius Torquatus, from whence he conducted his operations against Hampsicora and the Carthaginians.
At other times it was the Romans' chief naval station on the island and the residence of its praetor. The Romans built a new settlement east of the old Punic city, the vicus munitus Caralis mentioned by Varro Atacinus; the two urban agglomerations merged during the second century BC. Florus calls it the urbs capital of Sardinia, he represents it as taken and punished by Gracchus, but this statement is wholly at variance with Livy's account of the wars of Gracchus, in Sardinia, according to which the cities were faithful to Rome, the revolt was confined to the mountain tribes. In the Civil War between Caesar and Pompey, the citizens of Caralis were the first to declare in favor of the former, an example soon followed by the other cities of Sardinia. A few years when Sardinia fell into the hands of Menas, the lieutenant of Sextus Pompeius, Caralis was the only city which offered any resistance, but was taken after a short siege. Cagliari continued to be regarded as the capital of the island under the Roman Empire, though it did not become a colony, obtained the status of Municipium.
Remains of Roman public buildings were found to the west of Marina in Piazza del Carmine. There was an area of ordinary housing near the modern Via Roma, richer houses on the slopes of the Marina distinct; the amphitheatre is located to the west of the Castello. A Christian community is attested in Cagliari at least as early as the 3rd century, by the end of that century the city had a Christian bishop. In the middle decades of the 4th century bishop Lucifer of Cagliari was exiled because of his opposition to the sentence against Athanasius of Alexandria at the Synod of Milan, he was banished to the desert of Thebais by the emperor Constantius II. Claudi
Alghero known as L'Alguer, is a town of about 44,000 inhabitants in the Italian insular province of Sassari in northwestern Sardinia, next to the Mediterranean Sea. Part of its population descends from Catalan conquerors from the end of the Middle Ages, when Sardinia was part of the Crown of Aragon. Hence, the Catalan language is known as the Alguerès dialect; the name Alghero comes from Aleguerium, a mediaeval Latin word meaning'stagnation of algae'. Alghero is the third university center in the island, coming after Sassari, it hosts the headquarters of the Università degli Studi di Sassari’s Architecture and Design department. In 2012 it was the 10th most visited city by tourists in Italy. For ecclesiastical history, see Roman Catholic Diocese of Alghero-Bosa The area of today's Alghero has been settled since pre-historic times; the Ozieri culture was present here in the 4th millennium BC, while the Nuraghe civilization settled in the area around 1,500 BC. The Phoenicians had arrived by the 8th century BC and the metalworking town of Sant'Imbenia, with a mixed Phoenician and Nuragic population, engaged in trade with the Etruscans on the Italian mainland.
Due to its strategic position on the Mediterranean Sea, Alghero had been developed into a fortified port town by 1102, built by the Genoese Doria family. The Dorias ruled Alghero for centuries, apart from a brief period under the rule of Pisa between 1283–84. Alghero's population grew because of the arrival of Catalan colonists. In the early 16th century Alghero received papal recognition as a bishopric and the status of King's City and developed economically; the city was founded in the early twelfth century between 1102 and 1112, when the noble Doria family of Genoa was allowed to build the first historical nucleus into an empty section of the coast of the parish of Nulauro in Judicature of Torres. For two centuries remained in the orbit of the Maritime Republics and foremost the Genoese apart from 1283-1284 when the Pisans were able to control it for a year, it is plausible that at this time the town shared, given its commercial and multi-ethnic nature, a language similar to the nascent Sassarese.
The village was conquered by force by the Crown of Aragon, at the behest of King Pere IV of Aragon, who actively promoted colonisation of the town and the surrounding area, sending numerous families from different counties and provinces of the Crown of Aragon, including Valencia, Majorca and Aragon. These were granted enticing privileges, in fact replaced the original population some of whom were sent to the Iberian Peninsula and Majorca as slaves; the dialects these families spoke in Alghero, were all similar and derived from the same linguistic family. Over time it settled on its current form of Catalan, despite the subsequent decline of the Crown of Aragon. Alghero today is struggling to retain the use of Catalan, a linguistic island and only 10-15% of its inhabitants speak it in its Alghero variant; the language is recognized by both Sardinia as a minority language. Nowadays it is poorly spoken by young people; the city is trying for some time to protect this dialect, through education programmes and official use within the local authority.
The citizens residing in Alghero however, are from the surrounding territories and prefer either the Italian language or Sardinian and Sassarese. Alghero still maintains a small representation at the Generalitat de Catalunya, without having any institutional power in the territory apart from providing assistance to the preservation of Catalan culture; the city, one of the principal of Sardinia and the fifth most populated region, is one of the gateways to the Island thanks to the nearby airport. It is the capital of the Riviera del Corallo, whose name derives from the fact that its waters provide an abundant supply of precious red coral of the finest quality; the processing and sale of the material has been of great importance to the economy and a branch of coral is inserted in the emblem of the city. The Aragonese were followed by the Spanish Habsburgs, who ruled until 1702 and continued expanding the town. In 1720 Alghero, along with the rest of Sardinia, was handed over to the Piedmont-based House of Savoy.
In 1821 a famine led to a revolt by the population, bloodily suppressed. At the end of the same century Alghero was de-militarised. During the Fascist era, part of the surrounding marshes were reclaimed and the suburbs of Fertilia and S. M. La Palma were founded. During World War II Alghero was bombed, its historical centre suffered heavy damage; the presence of malaria in the countryside was overcome in the 1950s. Since Alghero has become a popular tourist resort. Alghero is located along the bay named after the city. In the north of the urban area there is the Nurra plain, to the NW the karstic systems of Capo Caccia, Punta Giglio and Monte Doglia; the south is built by mountains and the plateaus of Villanova Monteleone and Bosa. The climate at Alghero is mild due to the presence of the sea, which attenuates the temperatures during the summer. Summers are warm like in most part of the Mediterranean. Winters are tempered, with the thermometers showing negative Celsius temperatures just a few days per year.
A dialect of Catalan is spoken in Alghero, introduced. Catalan was replaced as the official language of the Isl
Nuraghe Is Paras
The nuraghe Is Paras is an archeological site of Isili, a town in the historical region of Sarcidano, province of South Sardinia. The nuraghe is located in a strategic position dominating the underlying territories open to the West, its shape is that of a trilobate nuraghe, formed by a triangular bastion with three towers at the corners. According to the archaeologist Giovanni Lilliu its tholos is the largest and most harmonious of all those present in Sardinia; the diameter of the base of the tower is of about 12,50 meters, its tholos chamber reached a height of 11,80 meters, making it the tallest dome in the world when it was built in the 15-14th century bc, it was surpassed by the underground tholos of the tomb of Atreus one or two centuries later. Inside the main tower there's a circular well. There was an additional chamber on top of the first one, which would be reached through the still extant spiral staircase. Three smaller towers were added around the main one during the 13th century bc and connected by a wall.
The complex was in turn surrounded by an external wall with towers. Giovanni Lilliu, I nuraghi, torri preistoriche della Sardegna, Cagliari, La Zattera 1962 Ercole Contu, L'architettura nuragica, Ichnussa. La Sardegna dalle origini all'età classica, Scheiwiller 1981 A. Moravetti, Gli interventi del 1975-77 nel nuraghe Is Paras di Isili, in L’eredità del Sarcidano e della Barbagia di Seulo, Sassari - Blackwood e Partners 2000 T. Cossu, Il Nuraghe Is Paras di Isili: campagna di scavo 1998, in L’eredità del Sarcidano e della Barbagia di Seulo, Sassari - Blackwood e Partners 2000
Nora is an ancient Roman and pre-Roman town on a peninsula near Pula, near to Cagliari in Sardinia. In his Description of Greece, Pausanias, a Greek-Roman geographer of the second century, narrates the mythological foundation of the city: "After Aristaeus, the Iberians crossed to Sardinia, under Norax as leader of the expedition, they founded the city of Nora; the tradition is that this was the first city in the island, they say that Norax was a son of Erytheia, the daughter of Geryon, with Hermes for his father." The area was occupied by a village of indigenous Sardinians, but soon became an emporium and a Phoenician city. After the conquest of Carthage, Nora flourished, as it was the first stage on the sea route from Carthage to Sardinia and its most important city, Cagliari; the Nora Stone, a Phoenician inscription found at Nora in 1773, has been dated by palaeographic methods to between the late 9th century and early 8th century BCE, has been interpreted as referring to a Phoenician military victory and conquest of the area.
After a period of domination by Carthage, the town came under Roman control after the conquest of Sardinia in 238 BCE. The city is mentioned in a Roman-period itinerarium, it went into decline from the mid-5th century CE after the Vandal conquest of Sardinia. The island was taken by the Eastern Romans in 535 who ruled it for 300 years According to the Ravenna Cosmography, after the Arab conquest of Carthage in 698 the city lost its economic function and became a simple fort. Nora appears to have been abandoned during the 8th century, its toponym, remained in the name of a curadoria of Judicatus of Caralis at the beginning of the second millennium. Nora was an important trading town in its time, with two protected harbours, one on each side of the peninsula. Several different building styles can be seen in the excavated buildings; because the southern part of Sardinia is sinking into the Mediterranean Sea, a substantial part of the former town is now under the sea. A similar fate has befallen nearby Bithia, now submerged.
A significant part of the town of Nora situated on land belonging to the Italian Army has not been excavated. The ruins of Nora are an open-air museum, the remains of the theatre are used for concerts in the summer
Barumini is a comune in the Province of South Sardinia in the Italian region of Sardinia, located about 50 kilometres north of Cagliari and about 15 kilometres northeast of Sanluri. Barumini borders the following municipalities: Gergei, Las Plassas, Villanovafranca, it is home to a Nuraghe complex listed in the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Official website Barumini Sistema Cultura Foundation Museum of Barumini's History
Borore is a comune in the Province of Nuoro in the Italian region Sardinia, located about 110 kilometres north of Cagliari and about 50 kilometres west of Nuoro. Borore borders the following municipalities: Aidomaggiore, Dualchi, Norbello, Santu Lussurgiu, Scano di Montiferro. Official website
Porto Torres is a comune and city in the Province of Sassari, northern Sardinia, Italy. It is situated on the north-west coast about 25 kilometres east of the Gorditanian promontory, on the spacious bay of the Gulf of Asinara. Porto Torres' territory is situated on the north-west part of Sardinian Coast; the extension of municipality is 10200 hectare and is subdivided in two parts, with the same extension. One part includes the industrial area and the Roman ruins; this part of territory is, since 1997, a national park. The morphology of "city part" is flat. Part of this hill formation is in Porto Torres' territory and the highest elevation of it is Monte Alvaro with it thickness of 342 m; the communal territory is crossed by Rio Mannu and Fiume Santo. The first draws the edge of Porto Torres territory on west, while instead the latter flows near the city and was used as a fluvial way as early as the Roman age. In ancient times, Turris Libyssonis was one of the most considerable cities in Sardinia.
It was of purely Roman origin, founded by Julius Caesar, as it bore the title Colonia Julia. Pliny described it as a colony, the only on the island in his time, suggesting that there was no town on the spot, but a fort or castellum, it is noticed by Ptolemy and in the Itineraries, but without any indication that it was a place of any importance. The ancient remains still existing prove that it must have been a considerable town under the Roman Empire. According to inscriptions on ancient milestones, the principal road through the island ran directly from Caralis to Turris, a sufficient proof that the latter was a place much frequented. Indeed, two roads, which diverged at Othoca connected Caralis to Turris, the more important keeping inland and the other following the west coast, it was an episcopal see during the early part of the Middle Ages. The existing port at Porto Torres, wholly artificial, is based in great part on Roman foundations; the ancient city continued to be inhabited till the 11th century, when the greater part of the population migrated to Sassari, about 15 kilometres inland, situated on a hill.
It was under Genoese hands before, in the early 15th century, it was conquered by the Aragonese. After the Spanish rule it was part of the Kingdom of Sardinia. Torres was separated from the comune of Sassari in 1842. At the time the area, built around the basilica of San Gavino joined the fishermen's community near the port to form the new Porto Torres; the 11th-century Basilica of San Gavino, built using only hardstones like marble and granite, is the largest Romanesque church in Sardinia. Instead of the usual western facade and eastern apse, the cathedral sports two apses; the crypt holds several Roman sarcophagi. Neolithic necropolis of Su Crucifissu Mannu and Li Lioni. Nuraghe of la Camusina, Li Pedriazzi and Minciaredda. Remains of the Roman bridge, the largest in Sardinia with its arches and a span of 160 to 170 metres on the Rio Mannu Palazzo Re Barbaro Catacombs of Tanca Borgona and piazzale Amsicora. Aragonese Towers of the port and of Abbacurrente; the port is connected by ferries with Genoa, Toulon, Civitavecchia.
Highway SS131/E25 to Sassari and Cagliari, a national road to Santa Teresa Gallura. A railway operated by Trenitalia connects the town with Sassari, the rest of the island. Chemical industries support the modern economy of Porto Torres. Fiume Santo, a 1,040 MW power station owned by E. ON, is 5 to 10 kilometres west in the municipality of Sassari. Plans related to industrial conversion are in progress in Porto Torres, where seven research centres are developing the transformation from traditional fossil fuel related industry to an integrated production chain from vegetable oil using oleaginous seeds to bio-plastics; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Turris Libyssonis". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. 2. London: John Murray. P. 1241