Coventry University is a public research university in Coventry, known as Lanchester Polytechnic until 1987, Coventry Polytechnic until it was awarded university status in 1992. Its four faculties, which are made up of schools and departments, run around 300 undergraduate and postgraduate courses. Across the university there are 11 research centres which specialise in different fields, from transport to peace studies. With more than 29,000 students in 2017, Coventry University is the larger of the two universities in the city – the other being the University of Warwick – and the fastest growing university in the UK, it has two principal campuses: one in the centre of Coventry where the majority of its operations are located, one in central London which focuses on business and management courses. The university runs offshoot higher education institutions in Coventry, North Yorkshire, East London, each of which markets itself as being an "alternative to mainstream higher education". Adjacent to the Coventry campus is Coventry University Technology Park, through which several of the university’s commercial subsidiary operations provide business services to local and national organisations.
Coventry is a member of the University Alliance mission group, of which its vice-chancellor, John Latham, is the current chair. The origins of Coventry University can be traced back to the founding of the Coventry School of Design in 1843. Renamed the Coventry School of Art, it was again renamed in the early 20th century to the Municipal Art School as part of the Education Act 1902. One final name change took place in the 1950s. In the late 1950s, to address the need for a high level of technical training which the existing Coventry Technical College could not meet, the construction of a new institution began. Opened in 1961, it was called the Lanchester College of Technology, named after the car engineer Frederick Lanchester. In 1970, the Lanchester College of Technology and the College of Art, along with the Rugby College of Engineering Technology in the neighbouring town of Rugby, amalgamated to form Lanchester Polytechnic; the institution was designated as such in February 1971 by Education Secretary Margaret Thatcher.
The name Lanchester gave the institution a certain degree of obscurity, notably when none of the contestants on the BBC Radio 4 general knowledge show Brain of Britain could give its correct location. The polytechnic cancelled its graduation ceremony in 1974 following the Birmingham pub bombings in fear that public gatherings could be targeted. Lanchester Polytechnic was renamed "Coventry Polytechnic" in 1987, when the Further and Higher Education Act 1992 afforded Coventry Polytechnic university status that year, the name was changed to Coventry University. In 2010, a campus in London was established to further attract international students to the university. In 2012 "Coventry University College" was set up within the main university campus, offering qualifications up to degree-level at a lower cost compared to typical university fees; as of 2017 Coventry is the highest-ranked modern university in the UK in both the Guardian University Guide – in which it ranks 12th overall – and the Complete University Guide.
It places in the top 200 in the Times Higher Education Young University Rankings 2017, which ranks universities around the world that are aged 50 years or under. In July 2017, the university announced Margaret Casely-Hayford as its new chancellor, replacing Sir John Egan; the campus in Coventry is undergoing a £430 million investment programme for the period up to 2022, with a new £37 million science and health building and £73 million student accommodation complex – opening in 2017 and 2018 – central to the development scheme. Coventry occupies a purpose-built 33-acre campus in Coventry City Centre adjacent to Coventry Cathedral and the Herbert Art Gallery and Museum, it occupies a mix of new purpose-built buildings, converted structures, those inherited from its predecessor institutions. The centrepiece of the campus is The Hub, an award-winning building which opened in August 2011; the Hub is the home of the Coventry University Students’ Union, student support services, a bar/nightclub, a food hall and food outlets which are catered by Sodexo In September 2012, a new £55 million engineering building was opened, with facilities such as a full-scale Harrier jump jet, a wind tunnel and flight simulators.
The Hub was awarded a BREEAM'excellent' rating and between them The Hub and the engineering building feature sustainable initiatives such as grey-water harvesting, a biomass boiler and a green roof. The opening of the buildings marks the first stage of a £160 million redevelopment plan of the campus phased over 15 years. Coventry's £ 20 million library is on the outskirts of the campus, it was opened by Princess Anne in September 2001 and contains over 2,000 print periodicals, 350,000 monographs, more than 6,000 video tapes, audio tapes and films. The library has a distinctive turreted exterior and has won awards for its interior design which features a light distribution system to make the most of natural light throughout the building. There are two converted buildings on the campus. A former car engine factory built in 1910 located next to the university's library now houses the Coventry Business School, a cinema built in 1880 on Jordan Well is home to the School of Media and Performing Arts, now part of the Faculty of Arts and Humanities, part of the Coventry School of Art and Design.
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Royal Institute of British Architects
The Royal Institute of British Architects is a professional body for architects in the United Kingdom, but internationally, founded for the advancement of architecture under its charter granted in 1837 and Supplemental Charter granted in 1971. Named the Institute of British Architects in London, it was formed in 1834 by several prominent architects, including Decimus Burton, Philip Hardwick, Thomas Allom, William Donthorne, Thomas Leverton Donaldson, William Adams Nicholson, John Buonarotti Papworth, Thomas de Grey, 2nd Earl de Grey. After the grant of the royal charter it had become known as the Royal Institute of British Architects in London dropping the reference to London in 1892. In 1934, it moved to its current headquarters on Portland Place, with the building being opened by King George V and Queen Mary, it was granted its Royal Charter in 1837 under King William IV. Supplemental Charters of 1887, 1909 and 1925 were replaced by a single Charter in 1971, there have been minor amendments since then.
The original Charter of 1837 set out the purpose of the Royal Institute to be:'… the general advancement of Civil Architecture, for promoting and facilitating the acquirement of the knowledge of the various arts and sciences connected therewith…' The operational framework is provided by the Byelaws, which are more updated than the Charter. Any revisions to the Charter or Byelaws require the Privy Council's approval; the design of the Institute's Mycenaean lions medal and the Latin motto Usui civium, decori urbium has been attributed to Thomas Leverton Donaldson, honorary secretary until 1839. The RIBA Guide to its Archive and History records that the first official version of the badge of the Lion Gate at Mycenae was used as a bookplate for the Institute's library and publications from 1835 to 1891, when it was redesigned by J. H. Metcalfe, it was again redesigned in 1931 in 1960 by Joan Hassall. The description in the 1837 by-laws was: "gules, two lions rampant guardant or, supporting a column marked with lines chevron, all standing on a base of the same.
In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries the RIBA and its members had a leading part in the promotion of architectural education in the United Kingdom, including the establishment of the Architects' Registration Council of the United Kingdom and the Board of Architectural Education under the Architects Acts, 1931 to 1938. A member of the RIBA, Lionel Bailey Budden Associate Professor in the Liverpool University School of Architecture, had contributed the article on Architectural Education published in the fourteenth edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, his School, was one of the twenty schools named for the purpose of constituting the statutory Board of Architectural Education when the 1931 Act was passed. Soon after the passing of the 1931 Act, in the book published on the occasion of the Institute's centenary celebration in 1934, Harry Barnes, FRIBA, Chairman of the Registration Committee, mentioned that ARCUK could not be a rival of any architectural association, least of all the RIBA, given the way ARCUK was constituted.
Barnes commented that the Act's purpose was not protecting the architectural profession, that the legitimate interests of the profession were best served by the architectural associations in which some 80 per cent of those practising architecture were to be found. The RIBA Guide to its Archive and History has a section on the "Statutory registration of architects" with a bibliography extending from a draft bill of 1887 to one of 1969; the Guide's section on "Education" records the setting up in 1904 of the RIBA Board of Architectural Education, the system by which any school which applied for recognition, whose syllabus was approved by the Board and whose examinations were conducted by an approved external examiner, whose standard of attainment was guaranteed by periodical inspections by a "Visiting Board" from the BAE, could be placed on the list of "recognized schools" and its successful students could qualify for exemption from RIBA examinations. The content of the acts section 1 of the amending act of 1938, shows the importance, attached to giving architects the responsibility of superintending or supervising the building works of local authorities, rather than persons professionally qualified only as municipal or other engineers.
By the 1970s another issue had emerged affecting education for qualification and registration for practice as an architect, due to the obligation imposed on the United Kingdom and other European governments to comply with European Union Directives concerning mutual recognition of professional qualifications in favour of equal standards across borders, in furtherance of the policy for a single market of the European Union. This led to proposals for reconstituting ARCUK. In the 1990s, before proceeding, the government issued a consultation paper "Reform of Architects Registration"; the change of name to "Architects Registration Board" was one of the proposals, enacted in the Housing Grants and Regeneration Act 1996 and re-enacted as the Architects Act 1997. RIBA Visiting Boards continue to assess courses for exemption from the RIBA's examinations in architecture. Under arrangements made in 2011 the validation criteria are jointly held by the RIBA and the Architects Registration Board, but unlike the ARB, the RIBA va
AIA Gold Medal
The AIA Gold Medal is awarded by the American Institute of Architects conferred "by the national AIA Board of Directors in recognition of a significant body of work of lasting influence on the theory and practice of architecture." It is the Institute's highest award. Since 1947, the medal has been awarded less annually. Gold medal Gold Medal Awards AIA web site
The Canadian dollar is the currency of Canada. It is abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or sometimes Can$ or C$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies, it is divided into 100 cents. Owing to the image of a loon on the one-dollar coin, the currency is sometimes referred to as the loonie by foreign exchange traders and analysts, as it is by Canadians in general, or huard in French. Accounting for 2% of all global reserves, the Canadian dollar is the fifth most held reserve currency in the world, behind the U. S. dollar, the euro, the yen and the pound sterling. The Canadian dollar is popular with central banks because of Canada's relative economic soundness, the Canadian government's strong sovereign position, the stability of the country's legal and political systems; the 1850s were a decade of wrangling over whether to adopt a sterling monetary system or a decimal monetary system based on the US dollar. The British North American provinces, for reasons of practicality in relation to the increasing trade with the neighbouring United States, had a desire to assimilate their currencies with the American unit, but the imperial authorities in London still preferred sterling as the sole currency throughout the British Empire.
The British North American provinces nonetheless adopted currencies tied to the American dollar. In 1841, the Province of Canada adopted a new system based on the Halifax rating; the new Canadian pound was equal to four US dollars, making one pound sterling equal to 1 pound, 4 shillings, 4 pence Canadian. Thus, the new Canadian pound was worth 5.3 pence sterling. In 1851, the Parliament of the Province of Canada passed an act for the purposes of introducing a pound sterling unit in conjunction with decimal fractional coinage; the idea was that the decimal coins would correspond to exact amounts in relation to the U. S. dollar fractional coinage. In response to British concerns, in 1853 an act of the Parliament of the Province of Canada introduced the gold standard into the colony, based on both the British gold sovereign and the American gold eagle coins; this gold standard was introduced with the gold sovereign being legal tender at £1 = US$4.86 2⁄3. No coinage was provided for under the 1853 act.
Sterling coinage was made legal tender and all other silver coins were demonetized. The British government in principle allowed for a decimal coinage but held out the hope that a sterling unit would be chosen under the name of "royal". However, in 1857, the decision was made to introduce a decimal coinage into the Province of Canada in conjunction with the U. S. dollar unit. Hence, when the new decimal coins were introduced in 1858, the colony's currency became aligned with the U. S. currency, although the British gold sovereign continued to remain legal tender at the rate of £1 = 4.86 2⁄3 right up until the 1990s. In 1859, Canadian colonial postage stamps were issued with decimal denominations for the first time. In 1861, Canadian postage stamps were issued with the denominations shown in cents. In 1860, the colonies of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia followed the Province of Canada in adopting a decimal system based on the U. S. dollar unit. Newfoundland went decimal in 1865, but unlike the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, it decided to adopt a unit based on the Spanish dollar rather than on the U.
S. dollar, there was a slight difference between these two units. The U. S. dollar was created in 1792 on the basis of the average weight of a selection of worn Spanish dollars. As such, the Spanish dollar was worth more than the U. S. dollar, the Newfoundland dollar, until 1895, was worth more than the Canadian dollar. The Colony of British Columbia adopted the British Columbia dollar as its currency in 1865, at par with the Canadian dollar; when British Columbia joined Confederation in 1871, the Canadian dollar replaced the British Columbia dollar. In 1871, Prince Edward Island went decimal within the U. S. dollar unit and introduced coins for 1¢. However, the currency of Prince Edward Island was absorbed into the Canadian system shortly afterwards, when Prince Edward Island joined the Dominion of Canada in 1873. In 1867, the provinces of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia united in a federation named Canada and the three currencies were merged into the Canadian dollar; the Canadian Parliament passed the Uniform Currency Act in April 1871, tying up loose ends as to the currencies of the various provinces and replacing them with a common Canadian dollar.
The gold standard was temporarily abandoned during the First World War and definitively abolished on April 10, 1933. At the outbreak of the Second World War, the exchange rate to the U. S. dollar was fixed at C$1.10 = US$1.00. This was changed to parity in 1946. In 1949, sterling was devalued and Canada followed, returning to a peg of C$1.10 = US$1.00. However, Canada allowed its dollar to float in 1950, whereupon the currency rose to a slight premium over the U. S. dollar for the next decade. But the Canadian dollar fell after 1960 before it was again pegged in 1962 at C$1.00 = US$0.925. This was sometimes pejoratively referred to as the "Diefenbuck" or the "Diefendollar", after the Prime Minister, John Diefenbaker; this peg lasted until 1970. Canadian English, like American English, used the slang term "buck" for a former paper dollar; the Canadian origin of this term derives from a coin struck by the Hudson's Bay Company during the 17th century with a value equal to the pelt of a male beaver – a "buck".
Because of the appearance of the common loon on the back of the $1 coin that replaced the dollar bill in 1987, the word "loonie" was adopted in Canadian parla
The Architectural Review is a monthly international architectural magazine. It has been published in London since 1896, its articles cover the built environment – which includes landscape, building design, interior design and urbanism – as well as theory of these subjects. The Architectural Review was founded as a monthly magazine, the Architectural Review for the Artist and Craftsman, in 1896 by Percy Hastings, owner of the Architectural Press. In 1927 his third son, Hubert de Cronin Hastings, became joint editor of both the Architectural Review and the Architects' Journal, a weekly. Together they made substantial changes to the aims and style of the review, which became a general arts magazine with an architectural emphasis. Contributors from other artistic fields were brought in, among them Hilaire Belloc, Robert Byron, Cyril Connolly, D. H. Lawrence, Paul Nash, Nikolaus Pevsner, P. Morton Shand and Sacheverell Sitwell, Evelyn Waugh. John Betjeman was an assistant editor from 1930 to 1934; the editorial board included Hugh Casson, Osbert Lancaster and James Maude Richards.
The design of the review was innovative, with bold use of layout and photographs. The articles on European Modernist architecture by P. Morton Shand published from July 1934 were among the earliest in Britain on the subject. By about 1935 the magazine had acquired a leading position in the discourse surrounding Modernism; the journal was influential after the Second World War in raising awareness of "townscape" through regular articles by assistant editor Gordon Cullen, author of several books on the subject. In January 2017, title owner Ascential announced its intention to sell 13 titles including Architectural Review, it was one of 13 titles acquired from Ascential by Metropolis International in a £23.5m cash deal, announced on 1 June 2017. The Architectural Review remains in print, published ten times per year, while its online version is updated daily. Dariush Borbor – former correspondent and contributor 1960s to 1980s Henry Wilson – first editor 1896–1901 John Betjeman – assistant editor, 1930 to 1934 James Maude Richards – co-editor or editor, 1935 to 1971, excluding the war years Nikolaus Pevsner – acting editor 1943 to 1945 and member of editorial board 1945 to 1970 Peter Davey – Editor 1980 to 2005 László Moholy-Nagy – photographer Gordon Cullen – art editor Robert Melville – art critic Peter Blundell Jones – contributor Stephen Gardiner – contributor Douglass Haskell – contributor Ian Nairn – contributor Catherine Slessor, managing editor 1992 – 2009, editor 2010 – 2015 Christine Murray, editor, 2015 – 2018 Manon Mallard, editor
American Prize for Architecture
The American Prize for Architecture known as the Louis H. Sullivan Award, is bestowed to an outstanding practitioner in the United States that has emblazoned a new direction in the history of American Architecture with talent and commitment and has demonstrated consistent contributions to humanity through the built environment and through the art of architecture; the award periodically honors North and South American architects, as well as other global architects practicing on those continents, whose body of architectural work, over time, exemplifies superior design and humanist ideals. Instituted in 1994 as The Louis H. Sullivan Award, The American Prize for Architecture honors the spirit of the founder of modernism, Louis Sullivan, a subsequent generation of Chicago practitioners as Frank Lloyd Wright and Daniel H. Burnham; the American Prize for Architecture was founded in Chicago by The Chicago Athenaeum: Museum of Architecture and Design, is organized jointly with The European Centre for Architecture Art Design and Urban Studies as a way to broadcast globally the significant contributions of America’s rich and inspiring architecture practice and its legacy to the world at large.
The Director of the prize and President of The Chicago Athenaeum, Christian Narkiewicz-Laine, is the curator of the Prize and the Museum solicits nominations from a range of people, including global practitioners, people in business, the general public. The American Prize for Architecture is a trademark of The Chicago Athenaeum; some previous American Prize for Architecture laureates include: Michael Graves, Sir Norman Foster, General Services Administration, Richard Meier, Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architects and Form4 Architecture, James von Klemperer of Kohn Pedersen Fox
Royal Gold Medal
The Royal Gold Medal for architecture is awarded annually by the Royal Institute of British Architects on behalf of the British monarch, in recognition of an individual's or group's substantial contribution to international architecture. It is given for a distinguished body of work rather than for one building, is therefore not awarded for being fashionable; the medal was first awarded in 1848 to Charles Robert Cockerell, its winners include some of the most influential architects of the 19th and 20th centuries, including Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, Frank Lloyd Wright, Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Buckminster Fuller. With the second recipient, the Italian Luigi Canina in 1849, the award went international. Not all recipients were architects. Recognised were engineers such as Ove Arup and Peter Rice who undoubtedly played an outstanding role in the realisation of some of the 20th century's key buildings all over the world; the prize was awarded to influential writers on architecture, including scholars such as the Rev Robert Willis, Sir Nikolaus Pevsner and Sir John Summerson as well as theoreticians such as Lewis Mumford and Colin Rowe.
It honoured archaeologists such as Sir Austen Henry Layard, Karl Richard Lepsius, Melchior de Vogüé, Heinrich Schliemann, Rodolfo Lanciani and Sir Arthur Evans, painters such as Lord Leighton and Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema. Another notable exception was the 1999 award to the city of Barcelona. RIBA page on Royal Gold Medal "List of medal winners 1848-2008". RIBA. Archived from the original on 2014-02-02.|}