The Arcadia quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey Astrogeology Research Program. The quadrangle is located in the portion of Mars’ western hemisphere and covers 240° to 300° east longitude. The quadrangle uses a Lambert conformal conic projection at a scale of 1,5,000,000. The Arcadia quadrangle is referred to as MC-3, the southern and northern borders of the Arcadia quadrangle are approximately 3,065 km and 1,500 km wide, respectively. The north to south distance is about 2,050 km, the quadrangle covers an approximate area of 4.9 million square km, or a little over 3% of Mars’ surface area. The region called Tempe Terra is in the Arcadia quadrangle, several features found in this quadrangle are interesting, especially gullies which are believed to be caused by relatively recent flows of liquid water. Dark slope streaks and dust devil tracks can have a striking appearance, Arcadia is the name of a telescopic albedo feature located at 45° north latitude and 260° east longitude on Mars.
The feature was named after a region in southern Greece. The name was approved by the International Astronomical Union in 1958, the quadrangle contains Alba Patera, the largest volcano in the solar system and Tempe Terra, a highly fractured block of ancient crust about the size of Alaska. Large troughs are called fossae in the language used for Mars. This term is derived from Latin, therefore fossa is singular and these troughs form when the crust is stretched until it breaks. The stretching can be due to the weight of a nearby volcano. Fossae/pit craters are common near volcanoes in the Tharsis and Elysium system of volcanoes, a trough often has two breaks with a middle section moving down, leaving steep cliffs along the sides, such a trough is called a graben. Lake George, in northern New York State, is a lake that sits in a graben, pit craters are often associated with graben. Pit craters do not have rims or ejecta around them, like impact craters do, studies have found that on Mars a fault may be as deep as 5 km, that is the break in the rock goes down to 5 km.
Moreover, the crack or fault sometimes widens or dilates and this widening causes a void to form with a relatively high volume. When surface material slides into the void, a pit crater or a pit crater chain forms, on Mars, individual pit craters can join to form chains or even to form troughs that are sometimes scalloped. Other ideas have been suggested for the formation of fossae and pit craters, there is evidence that they are associated with dikes of magma
Due to the types of investigations involved, it is closely linked with Earth-based geology. The structures of the giant planets and their moons are examined, as is the make-up of the bodies of the Solar System, such as asteroids, the Kuiper Belt. He made important contributions to the field and the study of impact craters, asteroids, today many institutions are concerned with the study and communication of planetary sciences and planetary geology. The Visitor Center at Barringer Meteor Crater near Winslow, Arizona includes a Museum of planetary geology, the Geological Society of Americas Planetary Geology Division has been growing and thriving since May 1981 and has two mottos, One planet just isnt enough. And “The GSA Division with the biggest field area, Planetary geology uses a wide variety of standardised descriptor names for features. All planetary feature names recognised by the International Astronomical Union combine one of names with a possibly unique identifying name. The conventions which decide the more precise name are dependent on which planetary body the feature is on and this means that in some cases names may change as new imagery becomes available, or in other cases widely adopted informal names changed in line with the rules.
The standard names are chosen to consciously avoid interpreting the underlying cause of the feature, J. F. Bell III, B. A. Campbell, M. S. Robinson. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences, Manual of Remote Sensing, archived from the original on 2006-08-13
Mars Global Surveyor
Mars Global Surveyor was an American robotic spacecraft developed by NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory and launched November 1996. Mars Global Surveyor was a mapping mission that examined the entire planet. It completed its mission in January 2001 and was in its third extended mission phase when, on 2 November 2006. A faint signal was detected three days indicated that it had gone into safe mode. Attempts to recontact the spacecraft and resolve the problem failed, Mars Global Surveyor achieved the following science objectives during its primary mission, Characterize the surface features and geological processes on Mars. Determine the composition and physical properties of minerals, rocks. Determine the global topography, planet shape, and gravitational field, establish the nature of the magnetic field and map the crustal remnant field. Monitor global weather and the structure of the atmosphere. Imaging of possible landing sites for the 2007 Phoenix spacecraft and analysis of key sites of scientific interest, such as sedimentary-rock outcrop sites.
Continued monitoring of changes on the due to wind and ice. The Surveyor spacecraft, fabricated at the Lockheed Martin Astronautics plant in Denver, is a box with wing-like projections extending from opposite sides. When fully loaded with propellant at the time of launch, the spacecraft weighed 1,060 kg, most of Surveyors mass lies in the box-shaped module occupying the center portion of the spacecraft. The other module, called the module, houses Surveyors rocket engines. The Mars Global Surveyor mission cost about $154 million to develop and build, mission operations and data analysis cost approximately $20 million/year. MOC returned more than 240,000 images spanning portions of 4.8 Martian years, from September 1997, a high resolution image from MOC covers a distance of either 1.5 or 3.1 km long. Often, a picture will be smaller than this because it has been cut to just show a certain feature and these high resolution images may cover features 3 to 10 km long. When a high resolution image is taken, an image is taken as well.
The context image shows the footprint of the high resolution picture
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its resources. The organization has four science disciplines, concerning biology, geology. The USGS is a research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior, the USGS employs approximately 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia. The USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, the current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is science for a changing world. The agencys previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its anniversary, was Earth Science in the Public Service. Prompted by a report from the National Academy of Sciences, the USGS was created, by a last-minute amendment and it was charged with the classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.
This task was driven by the need to inventory the vast lands added to the United States by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the legislation provided that the Hayden and Wheeler surveys be discontinued as of June 30,1879. Clarence King, the first director of USGS, assembled the new organization from disparate regional survey agencies, after a short tenure, King was succeeded in the directors chair by John Wesley Powell. Administratively, it is divided into a Headquarters unit and six Regional Units, Other specific programs include, Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide. The National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location, the USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System. The USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, and it maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research.
It conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards, USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time, the USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online, since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. USGS operates a number of related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program. USGS Water data is available from their National Water Information System database
Mare Acidalium quadrangle
The Mare Acidalium quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey Astrogeology Research Program. The quadrangle is located in the portion of Mars’ western hemisphere and covers 300° to 360° east longitude. The quadrangle uses a Lambert conformal conic projection at a scale of 1,5,000,000. The Mare Acidalium quadrangle is referred to as MC-4, the southern and northern borders of the quadrangle are approximately 3,065 km and 1,500 km wide, respectively. The north to south distance is about 2,050 km, the quadrangle covers an approximate area of 4.9 million square km, or a little over 3% of Mars’ surface area. Most of the region called Acidalia Planitia is found in Acidalium quadrangle, parts of Tempe Terra, Arabia Terra, and Chryse Planitia are in this quadrangle. This area contains many bright spots on a background that may be mud volcanoes. There are some gullies that are believed to have formed by recent flows of liquid water. Mare Acidalium is the name of a telescopic albedo feature located at 45° N, the feature was named for a well or fountain in Boeotia, Greece.
According to classical tradition, it is a location where Venus, the name was approved by the International Astronomical Union in 1958. The quadrangle contains many interesting features, including gullies and possible shorelines of an ancient northern ocean, the boundary between the southern highlands and the northern lowlands lies in Mare Acidalium. The Face on Mars, of great interest to the public, is located near 40.8 degrees north and 9.6 degrees west. When Mars Global Surveyor examined it with high resolution, the turned out to just be an eroded mesa. Mare Acidalium contains the Kasei Valles system of canyons and this huge system is 300 miles wide in some places—Earths Grand Canyon is only 18 miles wide. The HiRISE image below of Acidalia Colles shows gullies in the northern hemisphere, gullies occur on steep slopes, especially craters. Gullies are believed to be relatively young because they have few, if any craters, each gully has an alcove and apron. Although many ideas have been put forward to them, the most popular involve liquid water either coming from an aquifer or left over from old glaciers.
There is evidence for both theories, most of the gully alcove heads occur at the same level, just as one would expect of an aquifer
Terra Sabaea is a large area on Mars. Its coordinates are 2°N 42°E and it covers 4,700 kilometres at its broadest extent and it was named in 1979 after a classic albedo feature on the planet. Terra Sabaea is fairly large and parts of it are found in five quadrangles, Arabia quadrangle, Syrtis Major quadrangle, Iapygia quadrangle, Ismenius Lacus quadrangle, some landscapes look just like glaciers moving out of mountain valleys on Earth. Some have an appearance, looking like a glacier after almost all the ice has disappeared. What is left are the moraines—the dirt and debris carried by the glacier, the center is hollowed out because the ice is mostly gone. These supposed alpine glaciers have been called glacier-like forms or glacier-like flows, glacier-like forms are a and maybe more accurate term because we cannot be sure the structure is currently moving. Another, more general term sometimes seen in the literature is viscous flow features, a variety of other features on the surface have been interpreted as directly linked to flowing ice, such as fretted terrain, lineated valley fill, concentric crater fill, and arcuate ridges. A variety of surface textures seen in imagery of the midlatitudes, the pictures below show features believed to be glaciers—some may still contain ice, in others the ice has probably largely disappeared.
Since ice may be present under just a few meters of debris, when there are perfect conditions for producing sand dunes, steady wind in one direction and just enough sand, a barchan sand dune forms. Barchans have a slope on the wind side and a much steeper slope on the lee side where horns or a notch often forms. The whole dune may appear to move with the wind, observing dunes on Mars can tell us how strong the winds are, as well as their direction. If pictures are taken at intervals, one may see changes in the dunes or possibly in ripples on the dune’s surface. On Mars dunes are often dark in color because they were formed from the common, in the dry environment, dark minerals in basalt, like olivine and pyroxene, do not break down as they do on Earth. Although rare, some dark sand is found on Hawaii which has many volcanoes discharging basalt, barchan is a Russian term because this type of dune was first seen in the desert regions of Turkistan. Some of the wind on Mars is created when the dry ice at the poles is heated in the spring, at that time, the solid carbon dioxide sublimates or changes directly to a gas and rushes away at high speeds.
Each Martian year 30% of the dioxide in the atmosphere freezes out and covers the pole that is experiencing winter. Some places in Terra Sabaea show dunes, as in the images below, a concentric crater fill is a landform where the floor of a crater is mostly covered with a large number of parallel ridges. It is common in the mid-latitudes of Mars, and is believed to be caused by glacial movement
Mare Australe quadrangle
The Mare Australe quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey Astrogeology Research Program. The Mare Australe quadrangle is referred to as MC-30, the quadrangle covers all the area of Mars south of 65°, including the South polar ice cap, and its surrounding area. The quadrangles name derives from a name for a feature that is now called Planum Australe. The Mars polar lander crash landed in this region, around the southern ice cap is a surface, called the Dorsa Argentea Formation that may be an old ice-rich deposit. It contains a group of sinuous, branched ridges that resembles eskers that form when streams are under glaciers, the formation often contains pits, two major locations are named Cavi Angusti and Cavi Sisyphi. The pits have steep sides and an irregular shape and they are up to 50 km across and 1 km deep. The quadrangle contains Angustus Labyrinthus, a formation of intersecting valley or ridges, researchers were surprised to see parts of the surface having a Swiss-cheese appearance.
Also, some areas showed strange spider-shaped forms, which were determined to be caused by carbon dioxide gas blowing dust around at certain times of the year, some craters in Mare Australe show gullies. Martian gullies are small, incised networks of channels and their associated downslope sediment deposits. They are named for their resemblance to terrestrial gullies, first discovered on images from Mars Global Surveyor, they occur on steep slopes, especially on the walls of craters. Usually, each gully has an alcove at its head, a fan-shaped apron at its base. They are believed to be relatively young because they have few, a subclass of gullies is found cut into the faces of sand dunes which themselves considered to be quite young. However, this remains a topic of active research, as soon as gullies were discovered, researchers began to image many gullies over and over, looking for possible changes. By 2006, some changes were found, with further analysis it was determined that the changes could have occurred by dry granular flows rather than being driven by flowing water.
With continued observations many more changes were found in Gasa Crater, with more repeated observations and more changes have been found, since the changes occur in the winter and spring, experts are tending to believe that gullies were formed from dry ice. Before-and-after images demonstrated the timing of activity coincided with seasonal carbon-dioxide frost. When dry ice frost changes to a gas, it may lubricate dry material to flow especially on steep slopes, in some years frost, perhaps as thick as 1 meter. This represents 12 to 16 percent of the mass of the entire Martian atmosphere and these observation support predictions from the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model --2010
The Arabia quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey Astrogeology Research Program. The Arabia quadrangle is referred to as MC-12, the quadrangle contains part of the classic area of Mars known as Arabia. It contains a part of Terra Sabaea and a part of Meridiani Planum. It lies on the boundary between the northern plains and the old southern highlands. The quadrangle covers the area from 315° to 360° west longitude, the surface of the Arabia quadrangle appears to be very old because it has a high density of craters, but it is not near as high in elevation as typical old surfaces. On Mars the oldest areas contain the most craters, the oldest period is called Noachian after the quadrangle Noachis, the Arabia area contains many buttes and ridges. Some believe that during certain climate changes an ice-dust layer was deposited, some outflow channels are found in Arabia, namely Naktong Vallis, Locras Valles, Indus Vallis, Scamander Vallis, and Cusus Valles.
Many places in Arabia are shaped into layers, the layers can be a few meters thick or tens of meters thick. On Earth, similar changes of climate results in ice-age cycles, a recent study of layers in craters in western Arabia revealed much about the history of the layers. Although the craters in this study are just outside the boundary for the Arabia quadrangle the findings would probably apply to the Arabia quadrangle as well, the thickness of each layer may average less than 4 meters in one crater, but 20 meters in another. The pattern of layers measured in Becquerel crater, suggests that each layer was formed over a period of about 100,000 years, every 10 layers were bundled together into larger units. The 10-layer pattern is repeated at least 10 times, so every 10-layer pattern took one-million years to form. The tilt of the Earths axis changes by only a more than 2 degrees. In contrast Marss tilt varies by tens of degrees, when the tilt is low, the poles are the coldest places on the planet, while the equator is the warmest—as on Earth.
This causes gases in the atmosphere, like water and carbon dioxide, to migrate pole ward, when the obliquity is higher, the poles receive more sunlight, causing those materials to migrate away. When carbon dioxide moves from the poles, the pressure increases, maybe causing a difference in the ability of winds to transport. Also, with water in the atmosphere sand grains may stick. This study of the thickness of layers was done using stereo topographic maps obtained by processing data from the high-resolution camera onboard NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, recent research leads scientists to believe that some of the craters in Arabia may have held huge lakes
Lunae Palus quadrangle
The Lunae Palus quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey Astrogeology Research Program. The quadrangle is referred to as MC-10, Lunae Planum and parts of Xanthe Terra and Chryse Planitia are found in the Lunae Palus quadrangle. The Lunae Palus quadrangle contains many ancient river valleys, the quadrangle covers the area from 45° to 90° west longitude and 0° to 30° north latitude on Mars. The Viking I Lander landed in the quadrangle on July 20,1976, at 22. 4°N47. 5°W /22.4 and it was the first robot spacecraft to successfully land on the Red Planet. The sky would be a light pink, the dirt would appear pink. Rocks of many sizes would be spread about, one large rock, named Big Joe, is as big as a banquet table. Some boulders would show erosion due to the wind, there would be many small sand dunes that are still active. The wind speed would typically be 7 meters per second, there would be a hard crust on the top of the soil similar to a deposit, called caliche which is common in the U. S.
Southwest. Such crusts are formed by solutions of minerals moving up through soil, the soil resembled those produced from the weathering of basaltic lavas. The tested soil contained abundant silicon and iron, along with significant amounts of magnesium, sulfur, trace elements and yttrium, were detected. The amount of potassium was five lower than the average for the Earths crust. Some chemicals in the soil contained sulfur and chlorine that were like those remaining after the evaporation of sea water, sulfur was more concentrated in the crust on top of the soil than in the bulk soil beneath. The sulfur may be present as sulfates of sodium, calcium, a sulfide of iron is possible. Both the Spirit Rover and the Opportunity rover found sulfates on Mars, the Opportunity rover found magnesium sulfate and calcium sulfate at Meridiani Planum. These minerals are typical weathering products of mafic igneous rocks, studies with magnets aboard the landers indicated that the soil is between 3 and 7 percent magnetic materials by weight.
The magnetic chemicals could be magnetite and maghemite and these could come from the weathering of basalt rock. Experiments carried out by the Mars Spirit rover indicated that magnetite could explain the nature of the dust. Magnetite was found in the soil and that the most magnetic part of the soil was dark, Viking did three experiments looking for life
The Amazonis quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey Astrogeology Research Program. The Amazonis quadrangle is referred to as MC-8, the quadrangle covers the area from 135° to 180° west longitude and 0° to 30° north latitude on Mars. The Amazonis quadrangle contains the region called Amazonis Planitia and this area is considered to be among the youngest parts of Mars because it has a very low density of craters. The Amazonia period is named after this area and this quadrangle contains special, unusual features called the Medusae Fossae Formation and Sulci. The Amazonis quadrangle is of great interest to scientists because it contains a big part of a formation and it is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. The surface of the formation has been eroded by the wind into a series of ridges called yardangs. These ridges generally point in direction of the winds that carved them. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, another evidence for a fine-grained composition is that the area gives almost no radar return.
For this reason it has called a stealth region. Layers are seen in parts of the formation, images from spacecraft show that they have different degrees of hardness probably because of significant variations in the physical properties, particle size, and/or cementation. Very few impact craters are visible throughout the area so the surface is relatively young, a very rugged terrain extends from the base of Olympus Mons. Sulci is a Latin term that refers to the furrows on the surface of a brain, the furrows are huge—up to a full kilometer deep. It would be difficult to walk across it or to land a space ship there. A picture of this area is shown below, lava flows sometimes cool to form large groups of more-or-less equally sized columns. The resolution of the HiRISE images is such that the columns were found in locations in 2009. Impact craters generally have a rim with ejecta around them, in contrast volcanic craters usually do not have a rim or ejecta deposits, as craters get larger they usually have a central peak.
The peak is caused by a rebound of the floor following the impact. Since the collision that produces a crater is like a powerful explosion, craters can show us what lies deep under the surface