The hood or bonnet is the hinged cover over the engine of motor vehicles that allows access to the engine compartment for maintenance and repair. In British terminology, hood refers to a fabric cover over the passenger compartment of the car. In many motor vehicles built in the 1930s and 1940s, the resemblance to an actual hood or bonnet is clear when open and viewed head-on; the hood release system is common on most vehicles and consists of an interior hood latch handle, hood release cable and hood latch assembly. The hood latch handle is located below the steering wheel, beside the driver's seat or set into the door frame. On race cars or cars with aftermarket hoods the hood may be held down by hood pins; some aftermarket hoods that have latch system are still equipped with hood pins to hold the hood buttoned down if the latch fails. A hood may contain hood scoop, power bulge, and/or wiper jets. Hoods are made out of steel, but aluminum is gaining popularity with auto companies. Aftermarket manufacturers may construct hoods out of carbon fiber, or dry carbon.
In Japan and Europe, regulations have come into effect that place a limit on the severity of pedestrian head injury when struck by a motor vehicle. This is leading to more advanced hood designs, as evidenced by multicone hood inner panel designs as found on the Mazda RX-8 and other vehicles. Other changes are being made to use the hood as an active structure and push its surface several centimeters away from the hard motor components during a pedestrian crash; this may be achieved by pyrotechnic devices. Front-end bra Trunk
A bumper is a structure attached to or integrated with the front and rear ends of a motor vehicle, to absorb impact in a minor collision, ideally minimizing repair costs. Stiff metal bumpers appeared on automobiles as early as 1904 that had a ornamental function. Numerous developments, improvements in materials and technologies, as well as greater focus on functionality for protecting vehicle components and improving safety have changed bumpers over the years. Bumpers ideally protect pedestrians from injury. Regulatory measures have been enacted to reduce vehicle repair costs, more impact on pedestrians. Bumpers were at first just rigid metal bars; the first bumper appeared on a vehicle in 1897, it was installed by Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriksgesellschaft, a Czech carmaker. The construction of these bumpers was not reliable as they featured only a cosmetic function.. Early car owners had the front spring hanger bolt replaced with ones long enough to be able to attach a metal bar. G. D. Fisher patented a bumper bracket to simplify the attachment of the accessory.
The first bumper designed to absorb impacts appeared in 1901. It was made of rubber and Frederick Simms gained patent for this invention in 1905. Bumpers were added by automakers in the mid-1910s, but consisted a strip of steel across the front and back. Treated as an optional accessory, bumpers became more and more common in the 1920s as automobile designers made them more complex and substantial. Over the next decades, chrome plated bumpers became heavy and decorative until the late 1950s when US automakers began establishing new bumper trends and brand specific designs; the 1960s saw the use of lighter chrome plated blade-like bumpers with a painted metal valance filling the space below it. Multi-piece construction became the norm as automakers incorporated grilles and rear exhaust into the bumpers. On the 1968 Pontiac GTO, General Motors incorporated an "Endura" body-colored plastic front bumper designed to absorb low-speed impact without permanent deformation, it was featured in a TV advertisement with John DeLorean hitting the bumper with a sledgehammer and no damage resulted.
Similar elastomeric bumpers were available on the rear of the 1970-71 Plymouth Barracuda. In 1971, Renault introduced a plastic bumper on the Renault 5. Current design practice is for the bumper structure on modern automobiles to consist of a plastic cover over a reinforcement bar made of steel, fiberglass composite, or plastic. Bumpers of most modern automobiles have been made of a combination of polycarbonate and Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene called PC/ABS. Bumpers offer protection to other vehicle components by dissipating the kinetic energy generated by an impact; this energy is a function of vehicle velocity squared. The kinetic energy is equal to 1/2 the square of the speed. In formula form: E k = 1 2 m v 2 A bumper that protects vehicle components from damage at 5 miles per hour must be four times stronger than a bumper that protects at 2.5 miles per hour, with the collision energy dissipation concentrated at the extreme front and rear of the vehicle. Small increases in bumper protection can lead to weight loss of fuel efficiency.
Until 1959, such rigidity was seen as beneficial to occupant safety among automotive engineers. Modern theories of vehicle crashworthiness point in the opposite direction, towards vehicles that crumple progressively. A rigid vehicle might have excellent bumper protection for vehicle components, but would offer poor occupant safety. Bumpers are being designed to mitigate injury to pedestrians struck by cars, such as through the use of bumper covers made of flexible materials. Front bumpers have been lowered and made of softer materials, such as foams and crushable plastics, to reduce the severity of impact on legs. For passenger cars, the height and placement of bumpers is specified under both US and EU regulations. Bumpers do not protect against moderate speed collisions, because during emergency braking, suspension changes the pitch of each vehicle, so bumpers can bypass each other when the vehicles collide. Preventing override and underride can be accomplished by tall bumper surfaces. Active suspension is another solution to keeping the vehicle level.
Bumper height from the roadway surface is important in engaging other protective systems. Airbag deployment sensors do not trigger until contact with an obstruction, it is important that front bumpers be the first parts of a vehicle to make contact in the event of a frontal collision, to leave sufficient time to inflate the protective cushions. Energy-absorbing crush zones are ineffective if they are physically bypassed. Underride collisions, in which a smaller vehicle such as a passenger sedan slides under a larger vehicle such as a tractor-trailer result in severe injuries or fatalities; the platform bed of a typical tractor-trailer is at the head height of seated adults in a typical passenger car, can cause severe head trauma in a moderate-speed collision. Around 500 people are killed this way in the United States annually. Following the 1967 death of actress Jayne Mansfield in an auto/truck accident, the US government agency NHTSA recommended requiring a rear underride guard known as a "Man
Vehicle audio is equipment installed in a car or other vehicle to provide in-car entertainment and information for the vehicle occupants. Until the 1950s it consisted of a simple AM radio. Additions since have included FM radio, 8-Track tape players, cassette players, CD players, DVD players, Blu-ray players, navigation systems, Bluetooth telephone integration, smartphone controllers like CarPlay and Android Auto. Once controlled from the dashboard with a few buttons, they can now be controlled by steering wheel controls and voice commands. Implemented for listening to music and radio, vehicle audio is now part of car telematics, telecommunication, in-vehicle security, handsfree calling and remote diagnostics systems; the same loudspeakers may be used to minimize road and engine noise with active noise control, or they may be used to augment engine sounds, for instance making a smaller engine sound bigger. In 1904, well before commercially viable technology for mobile radio was in place, American inventor and self-described "Father of Radio" Lee de Forest did some demonstration around a car radio at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis.
Around 1920, vacuum tube technology had matured to the point where the availability of radio receivers made radio broadcasting viable. A technical challenge was that the vacuum tubes in the radio receivers required 50 to 250 volt direct current but car batteries ran at 6V. Voltage was stepped up with a vibrator that provided a pulsating DC which could be converted to a higher voltage with a transformer and filtered to create higher-voltage DC. In 1924, Kelly's Motors in NSW, installed its first car radio. In 1930, the American Galvin Manufacturing Corporation marketed a Motorola branded radio receiver for $130, it was expensive: the contemporary Ford Model A cost $540. A Plymouth sedan, "wired for Philco Transistone radio without extra cost," is advertised in Ladies' Home Journal in 1931. In 1932 in Germany the Blaupunkt AS 5 medium wave and longwave radio was marketed for 465 Reichsmark, about one third of the price of a small car; because it took nearly 10 litres of space, it could not be located near the driver, was operated via a steering wheel remote control.
In 1933 Crossley Motors offer a factory fitted car radio. By the late 1930s, push button AM radios were considered a standard feature. In 1946 there were an estimated 9 million AM car radios in use. An FM receiver was offered by Blaupunkt in 1952. In 1953, Becker introduced the AM/FM Becker Mexico with a Variometer tuner a station-search or scan function. In April 1955, the Chrysler Corporation had announced that it was offering a Mopar model 914HR branded Philco all transistor car radio, as a $150 option for its 1956 Chrysler and Imperial car models. Chrysler Corporation had decided to discontinue its all transistor car radio option at the end of 1956, due to it being too expensive, replaced it with a cheaper hybrid car radio for its new 1957 car models. In 1963 Becker introduced a tubeless solid state radio, with no vacuum tubes. In 1964 Philips launched the Compact Cassette, in 1965 Ford and Motorola jointly introduced the 8-track tape in-car tape player. In subsequent years cassettes supplanted the 8-track, improved with longer play times, better tape quality, auto-reverse, Dolby noise reduction.
They were popular throughout the'80s. While the CD had been on the market since 1982, it was in 1984 that Pioneer introduced the CDX-1, the world's first car CD player, it was known for its improved sound quality, instant track skipping and the formats increased durability over cassette tapes. Due to the ability that allowed drivers and passengers to change up to 10 CD's at a time, car CD changers started to gain popularity in the late 80s and continuing throughout the 90s. Stock and aftermarket compact disc players began appearing in the late 1980s, competing with the cassette; the first car with an OEM CD player was the 1987 Lincoln Town Car, the last new cars in the American market to be factory-equipped with a cassette deck in the dashboard was the 2010 Lexus SC430, the Ford Crown Victoria. From 1974 to 2005 the Autofahrer-Rundfunk-Informationssystem was used by the German ARD network. Developed jointly by the Institut für Rundfunktechnik and Blaupunkt, it indicated the presence of traffic announcements through manipulation of the 57kHz subcarrier of the station's FM signal.
ARI was replaced by the Radio Data System. In the 2010s new ways to play music came into competition with the CD and FM radio such as internet radio, satellite radio, USB and Bluetooth, in-dash slots for memory card, and the automobile head unit became important as a housing for front and backup dashcams and operating systems with multiple functions, such as Android Auto, CarPlay and MirrorLink. Latest models are coming equipped with features like Bluetooth technology along with HDMI port for better connectivity. Screen size varies from 5-inch to 7-inch for the double Din car stereos; the automobile sound system may be part of an active noise control system which reduces engine and road noise for the driver and passengers. One or more microphones are used to pick up sound from various places on the vehicle the engine compartment, underside or exhaust pipes, these signals are handled by a digital signal processor sent to the loudspeakers in such a way that the processed signal reduces or cancels out the outside noise heard inside the car.
An early system focused only on engine noise was developed by Lotus and licensed for the 1992 Nissan Bluebird models sold in Japan. Lotus teamed with Harman in 2009 to develop a more complete noise reduction system, including road noise, tire no
A roof rack is a set of bars secured to the roof of a motor car. It is used to carry bulky items such as luggage, canoes, skis, or various carriers and containers, they allow users of an automobile to transport objects on the roof of the vehicle without reducing interior space for occupants, or the cargo area volume limits such as in the typical car's trunk design. These include car top weatherproof containers, some designed for specific cargo such as skis or luggage. There is a long history of the use of their designs; until the late 1970s all regular passenger automobiles had rain gutters. These gutters are formed by the welded flange on the left and right sides of the car's metal roof panel; this made attaching an accessory or aftermarket roof rack a simple process. The first mass production cars without any visible rain gutters were the 1975 AMC Pacer and Chevrolet Monza. Other vehicles were introduced on the market with hidden rain gutters during the 1980s, by 1990, vehicles with external rain gutters were becoming rare.
Roof rack suppliers developed new products designed to securely attach to various types of automobile roofs. The most common components of a roof rack system are: towers, fitting pieces and gear mounts. Automobile roof racks are split into different types, depending on the vehicle roof: Rain Gutter - older roof racks were mounted directly to the gutter surrounding the roof line. Bare Roof - many modern vehicles, which do not have gutters, can have a roof rack installed by attaching hooks to the top of the door frames. Fixed Point - some automobiles have fittings for proprietary racks which mate with reinforced lugs in the roof, or have pre-threaded screwholes. Side Rails - vehicles with factory-installed rails, which may be flush against the roof or raised off of the roof, running front-to-back on the roof Factory Bars - other vehicles have a factory-installed permanent roof rack. There are many factors in the use of roof racks; some of these include: their weight and strength, the profile for loading and unloading, as well as any available accessories.
Roof racks increase air resistance and in the US, roof racks increased overall fuel consumption by 1%. Due increased wind resistance, roof racks may add sound on the highway; when installing roof racks, it is important to load the bars properly, in accordance with the owner's manual. When driving on road, one needs to load the allowed weight minus the weight of the roof rack kit. If one plans using the roof racks for off-road drive, the allowed weight should be divided by 2, this will be the amount, allowed to carry on the roof racks in such driving conditions. Truck bed rack is a derivation of a roof rack designed to be installed over the bed of a pickup truck; the construction of a bed rack features tall tubes that allow to the rack platform to be higher above the bed surface and leave space for cargo inside of the bed. Pickup truck racks form a long cargo platform, they are used in constructions and recreation as a base for various work and recreational gear such as ladders, surf boards, etc
A voltage regulator is a system designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. A voltage regulator may include negative feedback, it may use electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more DC voltages. Electronic voltage regulators are found in devices such as computer power supplies where they stabilize the DC voltages used by the processor and other elements. In automobile alternators and central power station generator plants, voltage regulators control the output of the plant. In an electric power distribution system, voltage regulators may be installed at a substation or along distribution lines so that all customers receive steady voltage independent of how much power is drawn from the line. A simple voltage/current regulator can be made from a resistor in series with a diode. Due to the logarithmic shape of diode V-I curves, the voltage across the diode changes only due to changes in current drawn or changes in the input; when precise voltage control and efficiency are not important, this design may be fine.
Since the forward voltage of a diode is small, this kind of voltage regulator is only suitable for low voltage regulated output. When higher voltage output is needed, a zener diode or series of zener diodes may be employed. Zener diode regulators make use of the zener diode's fixed reverse voltage, which can be quite large. Feedback voltage regulators operate by comparing the actual output voltage to some fixed reference voltage. Any difference is amplified and used to control the regulation element in such a way as to reduce the voltage error; this forms a negative feedback control loop. There will be a trade-off between stability and the speed of the response to changes. If the output voltage is too low, the regulation element is commanded, up to a point, to produce a higher output voltage–by dropping less of the input voltage, or to draw input current for longer periods. However, many regulators have over-current protection, so that they will stop sourcing current if the output current is too high, some regulators may shut down if the input voltage is outside a given range.
In electromechanical regulators, voltage regulation is accomplished by coiling the sensing wire to make an electromagnet. The magnetic field produced by the current attracts a moving ferrous core held back under spring tension or gravitational pull; as voltage increases, so does the current, strengthening the magnetic field produced by the coil and pulling the core towards the field. The magnet is physically connected to a mechanical power switch, which opens as the magnet moves into the field; as voltage decreases, so does the current, releasing spring tension or the weight of the core and causing it to retract. This allows the power to flow once more. If the mechanical regulator design is sensitive to small voltage fluctuations, the motion of the solenoid core can be used to move a selector switch across a range of resistances or transformer windings to step the output voltage up or down, or to rotate the position of a moving-coil AC regulator. Early automobile generators and alternators had a mechanical voltage regulator using one, two, or three relays and various resistors to stabilize the generator's output at more than 6 or 12 V, independent of the engine's rpm or the varying load on the vehicle's electrical system.
The relay employed pulse width modulation to regulate the output of the generator, controlling the field current reaching the generator and in this way controlling the output voltage producing back into the generator and attempting to run it as a motor. The rectifier diodes in an alternator automatically perform this function so that a specific relay is not required. More modern designs now use solid state technology to perform the same function that the relays perform in electromechanical regulators. Electromechanical regulators are used for mains voltage stabilisation — see AC voltage stabilizers below. Generators, as used in power stations or in standby power systems, will have automatic voltage regulators to stabilize their voltages as the load on the generators changes; the first automatic voltage regulators for generators were electromechanical systems, but a modern AVR uses solid-state devices. An AVR is a feedback control system that measures the output voltage of the generator, compares that output to a set point, generates an error signal, used to adjust the excitation of the generator.
As the excitation current in the field winding of the generator increases, its terminal voltage will increase. The AVR will control current by using power electronic devices. Where a generator is connected in parallel with other sources such as an electrical transmission grid, changing the excitation has more of an effect on the reactive power produced by the generator than on its terminal voltage, set by the connected power system. Where multiple generators are connected in parallel, the AVR system will have circuits to ensure all generat
A hubcap, wheel cover or wheel trim is a decorative disk on an automobile wheel that covers at least a central portion of the wheel, called the hub. An automobile hubcap is used to cover the wheel hub and the wheel fasteners to reduce the accumulation of dirt and moisture, it has the function of decorating the car. A "hubcap" is technically the small cover over the center of the wheel, while a "wheel cover" is a decorative metal or plastic disk that snaps or bolts onto and covers the entire face of the wheel. Cars with stamped steel wheels use a full wheel cover that conceals the entire wheel. Cars with alloy wheels or styled steel wheels use smaller hubcaps, sometimes called center caps. Alternatively, wheel cover refers to an accessory covering an external rear-mounted spare tire found on some off-road vehicles. Hubcaps were first used on the Newton Reaction Carriage in 1680; the first hubcaps were more known as dust or grease caps. These caps threaded onto the center hub on steel, or wire wheel.
These were made from the beginning of car manufacturing to 1932. Pre-1915 hubcaps were all made of brass, nickel-plated; the 1920s hubcaps were aluminum. Grease caps of the wire wheel brands such as Houk, Frayer, Buffalo, Phelps, Rudge Whitworth and Stewart are some of the hardest to find; when a customer went to buy the wire wheels, the make of the vehicle would be stamped in the center. During 1927 and 1928, the first snap-on center caps were being made on the wire wheels. After 1932, most every car had a snap-on style center cap on the middle of their wire, steel, or wood wheels. Wire wheel center caps in the 1930s had a spring-loaded retention clip system, used on many hubcaps and center caps on every style of car and truck to the present day. Steel wheels in the 1930s had retention clips mounted to the wheel that snapped into a lip in the back of the cap. Wood wheels were a special option; the caps on these had a large chrome base that mushroomed up to another smaller chrome base that would have the emblem on the face.
The "stem" up to the second base was painted black to make it look as if the top base was floating. These caps were made of brass, steel, or aluminum. During the mid-1930s the first full wheel covers were introduced to fit over the entire wheel, except for a small portion of the rim closest to the rubber tire. Cord and Hudson were the early adopters. Cord made a plain chrome wheel cover that had holes in the side; the Hudson wheel cover was flat with a lip half way to the middle and the center would say "Hudson", "Hudson Eight", or "Terraplane". This configuration differs from the "knock-off" spinners found on some racing cars and cars equipped with true wire wheels. While the knock-off spinner resembles an early hubcap, its threads retain the wheel itself, in lieu of lug nuts; when pressed steel wheels became common by the 1940s, these were painted the same color as the car body. Hubcaps expanded in size to cover the lug nuts. An option on some cars was a chrome-plated trim ring that clipped onto the outer rim of the wheel, in addition to the center hubcap.
The full wheel cover became popular. These became decorative in styles and were made from chrome-plated or stainless steel. Basic automobiles came standard with simple and inexpensive hubcaps were called "poverty caps" or "dog dish caps" due to their size and shape. Various optional full wheel covers of various designs were optional or were standard equipment on higher trim models. Metal hubcaps not only help protect lug nuts from corrosion, but offer an audible warning should a wheel nut work their way off. During the 1960s and 1970s, automakers offered stainless steel spoke full wheel covers that simulated the look of traditional, more costly, wire spoke wheels. Specialty wheels of magnesium or aluminum alloy had come onto the market, wheel covers were a cheap means of imitating their styling. Plastic wheel covers became mainstream in the 1980s; the first domestic automobile to use a full plastic wheel cover was the Chevy Monza that featured a "wind blade" design and came in several colors. Plastic has now replaced steel as the primary material for manufacturing hubcaps and trims, where steel wheels are still used, the wheels are now painted black so the wheel is less visible through cutouts in the wheel trim.
On modern automobiles, full-wheel hubcaps are most seen on budget models and base trim levels, while upscale and performance-oriented models use alloy wheels. Modern aluminum alloy wheels use small removable center caps, similar in size to the earliest hubcaps. A hubcap will bear the trademark or symbol of the maker of the automobile or the maker of the hubcap. Early hubcaps were chrome-plated, many had decorative, non-functional spokes. Hubcaps were immortalized in the Art Deco styling near the top of one rung of setbacks incorporates a band of hubcaps on the Chrysler Building in midtown Manhattan. Part of the lore of hubcaps is that on bad roads they have a tendency of falling off due to hitting a bump. Center caps, fall off less than older full wheel covers, which were quite heavy. In some parts of the U. S. and in Mexico there are automotive garages whose walls were decorated with various hubcaps that had fallen off in the vicinity. This problem persists today in spite of the many different retention systems that have been engineered.
Hubcaps use either clip-on retention, where
A windscreen wiper or windshield wiper is a device used to remove rain, snow and debris from a vehicle's front window. All motor vehicles, including cars, buses, train locomotives, watercraft with a cabin—and some aircraft—are equipped with one or more such wipers, which are a legal requirement. A wiper consists of a metal arm; the arm is powered by a motor an electric motor, although pneumatic power is used for some vehicles. The blade is swung back and forth over the glass, pushing water, other precipitation, or any other impediments to visibility, from its surface. On vehicles made after 1969, the speed is adjustable, with several continuous speeds, one or more intermittent settings. Most personal automobiles use two synchronized radial-type arms, while many commercial vehicles use one or more pantograph arms. On some vehicles, a windscreen/windshield washer system is used to improve and expand the function of the wiper to dry or icy conditions; this system sprays water, or an antifreeze window washer fluid, at the windscreen using several well-positioned nozzles.
This system helps remove dirt or dust from the windscreen when it is used in concert with the wiper blades. When antifreeze washer fluid is used, it can help the wipers remove ice. For these types of winter conditions, some vehicles have additional heaters aimed at the windows, or embedded heating wire in the glass. Less miniature wipers are installed on headlights to ensure that they function optimally. One of the earliest recorded patents for the windscreen wiper is by George J. Capewell of Hartford Connecticut, filed on August 6, 1896, his invention was for an automated, wiper for "cars and such land-vehicles". Other early designs for the windscreen wiper are credited to Polish concert pianist Józef Hofmann, Mills Munitions, Birmingham who claimed to have been the first to patent windscreen wipers in England. At least three inventors patented windscreen cleaning devices at around the same time in 1903. In April 1911, a patent for windscreen wipers was registered by Sloan & Lloyd Barnes, patent agents of Liverpool, for Gladstone Adams of Whitley Bay.
American inventor Mary Anderson is popularly credited with devising the first operational windscreen wiper in 1903. In Anderson's patent, she called her invention a "window cleaning device" for electric cars and other vehicles. Operated via a lever from inside a vehicle, her version of windscreen wipers resembles the windscreen wiper found on many early car models. Anderson had a model of her design manufactured filed a patent on June 18, 1903, issued to her by the US Patent Office on November 10, 1903. A similar device is recorded 3 months prior to Anderson's patent, with Robert A Douglass filing a patent for a "locomotive-cab-window cleaner" on 12 March 1903. Irish born inventor James Henry Apjohn patented an "Apparatus for Cleaning Carriage, Motor Car and other Windows", stated to use either brushes or wipers and could be either motor driven or hand driven; the brushes or wipers were intended to clean either both up and down or in just one direction on a vertical window. Apjohn's invention had a priority date in the UK of 9 October 1903.
John R. Oishei formed the Tri-Continental Corporation in 1917; this company introduced the first windscreen wiper, Rain Rubber, for the slotted, two-piece windscreens found on many of the automobiles of the time. Today Trico Products is one of the world's largest manufacturers of windscreen wipers. Bosch has the world's biggest windscreen wiper factory in Tienen, which produces 350,000 wiper blades every day; the first automatic electric wiper arms were patented in 1917 by Charlotte Bridgwood. Inventor William M. Folberth and his brother, applied for a patent for an automatic windscreen wiper apparatus in 1919, granted in 1922, it was the first automatic mechanism to be developed by an American, but the original invention is attributed by others to Hawaiian, Ormand Wall. Trico settled a patent dispute with Folberth and purchased Folberth's Cleveland company, the Folberth Auto Specialty Co; the new vacuum-powered system became standard equipment on automobiles, the vacuum principle was in use until about 1960.
In the late 1950s, a feature common on modern vehicles first appeared, operating the wipers automatically for two or three passes when the windscreen washer button was pressed, making it unnecessary to manually turn the wipers on as well. Today, an electronic timer is used, but a small vacuum cylinder mechanically linked to a switch provided the delay as the vacuum leaked off; the inventor of intermittent wipers might have been Raymond Anderson, who, in 1923, proposed an electro-mechanical design.. In 1958, Oishei et al. filed a patent application describing not only electro-mechanical, but thermal and hydraulic designs.. In 1961, John Amos, an engineer for the UK automotive engineering company Lucas Industries, filed the first patent application in the UK for a solid-state electronic design.. In 1963, another form of intermittent wiper was invented by Robert Kearns, an engineering professor at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan. Kearns's design was intended to mimic the function of the human eye, which blinks only once every few seconds.
In 1963, Kearns built his first intermittent wiper system using off-the-shelf electronic