Automotive industry in Australia
A substantial car industry was created in Australia in the 20th century through the opening of Australian plants by international manufacturers. The first major carmaker was Ford Australia and the first Australian-designed mass production car was manufactured by Holden in 1948. Australian manufacture of cars rose to a maximum of half a million in the 1970s and still exceeded 400,000 in 2004. Australia was best known for the production of ` large' sized passenger vehicles. By 2009 total production had fallen to around 175,000 and the Australian market was dominated by cars imported from Asia and Europe; as of 2015, Australian-designed cars were manufactured by General Motors subsidiary Holden, Ford Australia, while Toyota Australia manufactured local variants of its international models the Camry. However, the Ford Australia engine and vehicle plants closed in October 2016 and the Holden and Toyota Australia factories closed in late 2017. Both Ford and Holden's design and development facilities remain in operation and are expanding, leaving Australia as one of 13 countries with the capabilities to design and develop mass market cars from scratch.
Australian constructors were active at the beginning of both car and aircraft development and in some areas, ahead of their overseas counterparts. Due to the isolation of Australia, it was more practical for Australia to make their own cars; the Highland was one of the first types of automobiles to be offered for sale in Australia, firstly in 1894 as a primitive motorised tricycle two years as a four-wheeled, two-seater vehicle using bicycle components. The first true cars made in Australia were steam cars; the first of these steam cars, the Phaeton, was made in 1896 by Herbert Thomson and Edward Holmes of Armadale, Melbourne. It was exhibited in 1900 using the first pneumatic tyres made in Australia by Dunlop; the 5 horsepower single cylinder steam carriage, now in the Institute of Applied Sciences, was reliable and durable enough to take Thomson and a friend 493 miles from Bathurst to Melbourne at an average speed of 8.7 mp/h. In 1900 Bruno Hammer built a one off automobile in South Australia.
In 1901 Harley Tarrant produced the first Tarrant automobile, the first petrol-driven car built in Australia in a small workshop in Melbourne. Before that, Tarrant had been using the shop to build engines. Tarrant was joined in this endeavour by Howard Lewis; the car was powered by a rear-mounted 6 hp Benz engine. This car was followed by many improved designs, including the first enclosed car body made in Australia. Models included locally produced components including: engines and rear axles; the sole surviving Tarrant is on the chancery level. In 1903, the Australian Motoring Association was formed in New South Wales, South Australia and Victoria to protect the interests of motorists. In 1924, this was followed by the Australian Automobile Association. Tyre manufacture existed in Australia. However, the last tyre factory closed in April 2010. Source:, OICA Bustech has manufactured buses on the Gold Coast, Queensland since 1998. Denning Manufacturing has manufactured buses in Brisbane since 2004.
Iveco Australia is a subsidiary of CNH Industrial, it produces the Iveco PowerStar. It is known for being the only foreign semi truck maker that isn't producing an American branded Conventional semi truck. Kenworth Australia is a subsidiary of Paccar Inc, Kenworth Australia manufactures semi trucks for the Australian market, which includes the T4909SAR, C509, T359, T659, T909 and the K200. Founded in 1926, Australian Motor Industries began assembly operations in 1952, it produced a wide range of Standard, Mercedes-Benz cars, as well as variety of Rambler models from American Motors Corporation up to 1987. Assembly of Toyota automobiles began in 1963; the Japanese company took a controlling interest in AMI in 1968 and increased its investment until AMI renamed itself as AMI Toyota Ltd in 1985. British Leyland assembled and manufactured vehicles in Australia from 1950 to 1975. Chrysler departed the Australian car market in 1981 when it sold the remainder of its shareholding in Chrysler Australia Ltd to the Mitsubishi Motor Corporation of Japan.
The new owner renamed the company Mitsubishi Motors Australia and this company continues to operate today as one of Australia's major importers of road vehicles. However, local production of passenger vehicles was discontinued in March 2008. During the 1970s, Chrysler began working with Mitsubishi Motors Corporation after they acquired a 15 percent interest in the company in 1971, with the result that Chrysler Australia began building Mitsubishi-designed Chrysler-branded vehicles such as the Chrysler Valiant Galant and the Chrysler Sigma; the Tonsley Park plant was sold to Mitsubishi Motors Corporation and was run by Mitsubishi Motors Australia after Chrysler pulled out of Australian manufacturing in 1980. Production of the popular Sigma and Colt range of vehicles continued under the Mitsubishi name until the late-1980s, when production was switched to the Magna. Ford Australia is the Australian subsidiary of Ford Motor Company and was founded in Geelong in 1925 as an outpost of Ford Motor Company of Canada, Limited.
At that time, Ford Canada was a separate company from Ford USA. Henry Ford had granted the manufacturing rights to Ford in British Empire countries to Canadian investors. Ford Australia has a performance car division, Ford Performance Vehicles, with the cars being
Ganja Auto Plant
Ganja Auto Plant, is an auto assembly plant situated in the Ganja city in Azerbaijan. The factory was founded in 1986 as KiAZ for a production of run of 30,000 "GAZelle" vans according to the project brief; the commissioning was intended to end in 1989 but following a decision of Ministers Cabinets of USSR the construction of the factory was interrupted and the technological project was given to Bryansk automobile plant. The 256 hectares of territory and 50 hectares of production territory stayed without utilization for 15 years. Construction of an automobile plant was considered by the government after Azerbaijan had obtained its independence. Since 1994 the giant and famous automobile companies of Italy, Japan and Germany have shown interest in the institution, but negotiations held with them ended without a deal. In December 2004 Ganja automobile plant restarted manufacturing and the first car built at the factory was sold. In 2008 the plant produced about 600 tractors. Construction of the plant began in 1986 under the name KiAZ.
The production capacity of the plant was designed to produce 30,000 cars. Construction of the plant for the project was supposed to end in 1989, but because of the collapse of the Soviet Union the construction and operation of the plant was postponed indefinitely. In December 2004 it opened as the Gyandzha Auto Plant and the first car that came out of their production line was presented that year. In the year 2008 the factory produced about 600 vehicles from tractors. Bus assembly launches in GA. In parallel, this plant serves as one example of Azeri government to show progress in diversifying its economy, always dependent on oil and gas, has been able to serve other purposes, in particular, to give political proaganda his government, but not to give any autosificiencia in its main weaknesses, such as the import of transport equipment other nations. Despite the efforts made in this plant by Russian plants, the production is still low, being just hundreds, where facility on the original idea could accommodate increased production.
Moldova and Russia investors have visited the plant in order to see the progress made and the production of their products in this factory. RUS Lada VAZ-1111 Oka RUS UAZ UAZ 31512 UAZ 31514 UAZ 31519 UAZ 39094 UAZ 396259 UAZ Hunter UAZ Simbir BLR MAZ trucks MAZ 551605-272 MAZ 555102-223 MAZ 631705-212 MAZ 642205-222 MAZ 642208-232 MAZ 953000-010 BLR MTZ Belarus tractors Belarus 80.1 Belarus 80.3 Belarus 82.1 Belarus 892 Belarus 1025 Belarus 1221 CHN Chang'an Automobile Group Vans & trucks Changan Van Ganca Changan Pick Up Truck Cars and trucks Tractors Azsamand Nakhchivan Automobile Plant Home Page Ganja Auto homepage
The Felber Autoroller T 400 was a three-wheeled microcar with a rear-mounted 398 cc Rotax two cylinder opposed twin, two stroke 15 metric horsepower engine. The cars had an unusual seating arrangement, with a small child-sized seat behind the driver on the left and a conventional passenger seat diagonally behind and to the right. A. Felber & Co were a well known manufacturer of motorcycle sidecars, based in Austria; the Autoroller was designed by Ernst Marold. From 1952 to 1953, about 400 units were built in two versions, all of which were painted light green using a standard paint used for machinery, cheaper than car paint. Early models had cycle-type mudguards that swivelled with the front wheels models had fixed wings; the owners had a active club. In 1954, at the wedding of Mr. Marold, a remarkable corso of Felbers accompanied the wedding limousine in front of the Karlskirche in the Viennese City centre. After the liberalisation of car imports into Austria in 1954, car manufacture proved uncompetitive and the company began the manufacture of industrial washing machines instead.
The company moved into the sale and distribution of cars from Heinkel, Trojan and Reliant. About twelve rolling chassis were delivered to specialist coachbuilding company Hofmann & Moldrich in Vienna who built upon them an egg shaped body out of 0.8mm aluminium plate called Möve 101. The only known remaining car is in the car museum in Aspang in Lower-Austria. Two surviving Felbers are to be seen in the RRR microcar museum in Eggenburg, Austria. A third one is under restoration in Serbia near to one in Bavaria. List of microcars by country of origin G. N. Georgano, G. N.. Complete Encyclopedia of Motorcars. London: Ebury Press. ISBN 0-85223-234-9. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Vokins, Stephen. Weird Cars. Sparkford: Haynes Publishing. P. 41. ISBN 1-84425-098-9. Finnish Micro-car Association, Photographs of the two Felber Autoroller at the Nordkapp rally in 1999 RRRollipop schauen, Photograph of the museums display of Felber Autorollers
Gurgel Motores was a Brazilian automobile manufacturer, named after its founder João do Amaral Gurgel. The company was founded in 1969 and first specialized in off-road vehicles. Early models were fiberglass bodies installed on Volkswagen Beetle chassis and machinery, but VW bodies and chassis were replaced by a unique solution made of Plasteel, which consists of fiberglass and steel joined together, a system patented by Gurgel. Gurgel introduced Brazil's first domestically designed and manufactured car, the BR-800; the Ipanema was the first car produced by Gurgel. The next model was the first commercial success of the brand: the Xavante: production started in 1973, being the first car of Gurgel developed using the Plasteel system, proved resistant under corrosive environments and very mechanically strong, deforming temporarily but not smashing under pressure or shocks. Xavante had a feature called Selectraction, a system where two individual hand-brakes were installed next to the driver, for each one of the rear wheels.
In a situation of low-traction environment, it could be used to stop a free-spinning wheel and move the power to the other one, allowing the driver to restore traction to the ground and to move along. There was a more sophisticated version of X-10 called X-12, the biggest commercial success of the brand. In 1974, the Itaipu was a pioneer project of an electric vehicle, developed to be a strict urban car for short distances. However, due to the limited technology of the batteries of that time - they were too heavy and had low capacity - the project was halted. Still, in 1980 another electric vehicle was conceived, called Itaipu E400: it was a van, still designed for urban travels, but making a better autonomy and still a remarkable mileage; the same body was listed in brochures as available with a petrol engine, as the "G-800". In 1979, the X-15 was released, being a van which could carry 7 passengers, or 2 passengers plus 500 kg of load. A derived model, the G-15L, could carry 1 ton of load, having 70L of gasoline capacity, which could be extended to 140L, with an additional tank.
At that time, business was going quite well: Gurgel was the first exporter in special vehicles, the second in production and amount, in 1977 and 1978. In 1981, the XEF model was developed, having only three front seats, an unusual solution at the time; the car was an urban model, for the luggage. In 1984, the Carajás model was introduced: it presented the same Selectraction system as Xavante and X-12, but had some special qualities, such as the TTS, used to transfer the power from the engine, on the front of the vehicle, to the transmission, on the rear; the system gave a good weight balance for the system, but presented some collateral effects, such as the need for a slower shift change, due to the inertia of the TTS. A small and national car was the goal for João Gurgel for a long time. On September 7 of 1987, a day Gurgel himself called "the day of the Brazilian technological independence", the project CENA was presented; the first minicar of the brand was designed to be the cheaper and more economic car offered in the market.
For this project, a tax benefit was granted, reducing the IPI to 5%, aiming at increasing competitiveness with big automakers. The car presented a big step in the national technology development: the engine, named Gurgel Enertron, was designed and developed by Gurgel, low cost: it was a bi-cylindrical engine with 650 cc and 800 cc options, equipped with electronic ignition control, using a system with two coils and no distributor, it had a good mileage, making 14 km/L on urban traffic, could achieve 19 km/L on the road, on constant speed without any electronic fuel injection. The engine was similar to the VW Beetle boxer engine sharing some internal parts with it, but had many improvements: a sealed water-cooled system, better compression ratio and a different ignition system. Unlike the VW boxer, it could be taken to near 6000 rpm without any valve float; the first model based on the original project was the BR-800, available only with the 800 cc engine option, generating 32 PS of power. It was a direct implementation of the project, with minor improvements.
Like other vehicles from the brand, the car had a body made using the Plasteel system, weighing only 650 kg and measuring 3.19 meters, still being the smallest car produced in Brazil. It was first sold in 1988 in a system where the buyer had to acquire shares from Gurgel in order to buy the car; the car cost about US$5,000, but the buyer had to buy 750 shares for another US$5,000 in order to get a car, making it more expensive than a US$7,000 Chevrolet Chevette, the cheapest car in the Brazilian market. This system lasted until 1990. In this same year, the federal government changed the rules to give the same reduction of the IPI to all cars below 1000 cc, thus enabling Gurgel's competitors to develop one-litre models of existing cars. In 1992, in a response to the market, the Supermini model was created: it had a better finish, more power, a lot of improvement in the body, including a more robust suspension, a better system for the windows and a real lid for the trunk; when president Fernando Collor went to office in March, 1990, he soon opened the Brazilian market to foreign products.
Considering the high import taxes, national industry from the time suffered from the new external competition, things weren't different for Gurgel. The Carajás, Brazil's best selling SUV, was taken out of prod
Marcopolo S. A. is a Brazilian bus and coach manufacturer founded on 6 August 1949 in the southern Brazilian city of Caxias do Sul, state of Rio Grande do Sul. The company manufactures the bodies for a whole range of coaches, e.g. microbus and touring coach. Marcopolo produces over half of the bus bodies made in Brazil and exports its coaches to more than 60 countries. Marcopolo has four plants in Brazil and plants in Argentina, Colombia, India and South Africa, in addition to the technology that will be transferred to China. In 2008, it announced a joint-venture with Tata Motors to enter the Indian market. Marcopolo closed its plant in Portugal in September 2009 because of the economic recession; the fleet of buses which were shipped to Barbados to add the Barbados Transport Board's bus fleet were the 40 Mercedes-Benz Marcopolo Torino GV buses in November, 1996, along with 4 of the 40 Mercedes-Benz Marcopolo Torino GV learner buses in November, 1996. Marcopolo was founded as Nicola & Cia Ltd, a company having 8 partners and 15 employees.
The production was handmade. In 1953, Marcopolo starts the production of the first steel structures. Marcopolo Ciferal - was focused on defunct brand. Volare - dedicated to the development and commercialization of the V5, V6, V8, W8, W9 models of the School bus, Tourism/Freight, Easy Access and Mobile Unit sectors. Neobus Tata Marcopolo Bus SUPERPOLO S. A. MVC - which started its activities operating in the automotive industry and broadened its operations, introducing its plastic products to the light industry and infra-structure markets, etc. Moneo - the financial service unit of Marcopolo. Volgren - is an Australian bodywork company owned by Marcopolo. Coach Ideale 770 Allegro Andare Class Viaggio series Paradiso series MultegoCity bus Viale series Torino BoxerMidibus Ideale 600 Senior Temple only in Colombia from SUPERPOLO S. A. Minibus Fratello Listo only in Colombia from SUPERPOLO S. A. Vicino Ayats Busscar Daewoo Bus Irizar Tata Hispano LP Jaya Noge Plaxton Setra Neoplan Van Hool VDL Bova VDL Berkhof VDL Jonckheere Marcopolo S.
A. website Marcopolo website Buses Volare en Chile Representante Comercial Marcopolo S. A. website
Magna Steyr AG & Co KG is an automobile manufacturer based in Graz, where its primary manufacturing plant is located. It is a subsidiary of Canadian-based Magna International and was part of the Steyr-Daimler-Puch conglomerate. Magna Steyr engineers and assembles automobiles for other companies on a contractual basis. In 2002, the company absorbed Daimler AG's Eurostar vehicle assembly facility. With an annual production capacity of 200,000 vehicles as of 2018, it is the largest contract manufacturer for automobiles worldwide; the company has several manufacturing sites, with its main car production in Graz in Austria. Magna Steyr developed Mercedes-Benz's "4Matic" four-wheel drive system, assembles all E-Class 4Matic models; the company undertook substantial development on the BMW X3 and manufactured all original X3s, the Aston Martin Rapide. The company developed several cars on behalf of manufacturers such as the Audi TT, Fiat Bravo and Peugeot RCZ. Magna Steyr AG & Co KG was founded in 2001 after Magna International Inc. acquired a majority shareholding in Steyr-Daimler-Puch AG three years earlier.
During the second quarter of 2015, the Magna Steyr battery pack business was sold to Samsung SDI for $120 million. Mercedes-Benz G-Class 1979–present BMW 5 Series 2017–present Jaguar E-Pace 2017–present Jaguar I-Pace 2018–present BMW Z4 2018-present Toyota Supra 2019–presentIn March 2017 Magna Steyr started to produce the new BMW 5 Series sedan. In early December 2016 Magna International announced it will build the new Jaguar I-Pace, the company’s first battery electric vehicle. Jaguar said Magna Steyr will assemble its E-Pace crossover, starting in 2017. Magna Steyr confirmed the deal following Jaguar's announcement. Production for the I-Pace started in early 2018. Voiturette Alpenwagen Puch 500/650/700c/126 Haflinger Pinzgauer Volkswagen Transporter T3 4x4 Volkswagen Golf Country Audi V8L Jeep Grand Cherokee ZG, WG Mercedes-Benz E-Class W210 Mercedes-Benz M-Class W163 Chrysler PT Cruiser FY & FZ Mercedes-Benz E-Class W211 Saab 9-3 Convertible BMW X3 Chrysler 300C Jeep Grand Cherokee WH Jeep Commander XH Chrysler Voyager Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG Peugeot RCZ Aston Martin Rapide Mini Paceman Mini Countryman Mercedes-Benz SLK vario-roof assembly – over 500,000 produced since 1996 Opel Astra TwinTop convertible roof assembly – 2005–2010 Porsche had announced in June 2008 that the Boxster and Cayman models would be manufactured by Magna Steyr from 2012, but this contract was cancelled in December 2009 and transferred to Karmann, a German car assembly company, taken over by Porsche's parent company, Volkswagen.
Magna Steyr created the MILA brand for its research. Several concept cars have been shown at motor shows; the showcar was presented at the IAA in Frankfurt in 2005 as a one-seater sportscar. The first prototype of the CNG-powered vehicle was built in 2006. Mila 2, the two-seater version, followed. Presented at the Geneva Motor Show 2007, the Mila Future is a sculpture with four roof options: coupé, landaulet and roadster; the Alpin was a small, lightweight off-road vehicle for four passengers in a 3+1 seat arrangement announced at the 2008 Geneva Motor Show. It was based on a low-cost production concept, it was 1703 mm wide and 1750 mm high, with a 3-cylinder 1.0 L engine in two versions. The petrol version was much lighter, with a weight of 906 kg; the Mila EV was a plug-in electric vehicle concept based on a modular lightweight platform, displayed at the 2009 Geneva Motor Show. At the Geneva Motor Show 2011, the fifth Mila concept car was presented: Mila Aerolight, a compact four-seater, powered by CNG.
The sixth concept car in the Mila family, the Mila Coupic, combines three vehicle concepts in one: a SUV coupé which can be transformed into a pick-up or a convertible. It was presented at the Geneva Motor Show 2012. MIla Blue is a natural-gas powered lightweight concept vehicle with emissions of CO2 of less than 49 g/km; the car achieves a weight saving of 300 kg compared to typical current A-segment vehicles powered by CNG. MILA Plus combines a sophisticated, lightweight construction with an intelligent, alternative-drive solution to produce maximum performance as well as eco-friendliness. With an all-electric range of 75 km and a vehicle weight of 1,520 kg, MILA Plus achieves reduced CO2 emissions of 32g/km; the vehicle features advanced technologies and flexible manufacturing processes, with a focus on eco-friendliness. It was introduced to the public at the 2015 Geneva Motor Show. Karmann in Germany Bertone and Pininfarina in Italy Heuliez in France Valmet Automotive in Finland Official website Magna Steyr plant profile at Autoindex.org
Steyr-Daimler-Puch was a large manufacturing conglomerate based in Steyr, broken up in stages between 1987 and 2001. The component parts and operations continued to exist under new names; the company known as Josef und Franz Werndl and Company was founded in 1864 as a rifle manufacturer. It grew during the First World War, by the end of which it employed 14,000 people; the company began producing bicycles in 1894, Steyr automobiles after 1918. In September 1917 Steyr recruited Hans Ledwinka, now remembered as one of the great automobile engineers of the twentieth century, but relatively unknown, to the position of "Chefkonstrukteur", to lead the creation of their automobile manufacturing business The first Steyr car, the six cylinder Type II "12/40" appeared in 1920, it was well-built, if a little cumbersome. The small but luxurious 1.5 L six Type XII of the late twenties won international motor press acclaim. The company changed its name to Steyr-Werke AG in 1926. In 1934, Steyr merged with Austro-Daimler-Puch to form Steyr-Daimler-Puch.
The range produced in these years consisted of modern designs, sporting or complete unit construction bodies in streamlined livery, from the one-litre Steyr 50 to the 2.3 L Steyr 220 "six". During World War II, when Austria was part of the Third Reich, Steyr-Daimler-Puch's Generaldirektor Georg Meindl became one of the first German industrialists to suggest the use of slave labour from concentration camps to boost manpower at Steyr; the request was approved and prisoners were brought by guarded train from the Mauthausen-Gusen camp complex at Gusen 30 km distant. On 5 January 1942, Meindl wrote a letter to SS Gruppenführer Ernst Kaltenbrunner recommending a new'satellite' prison camp be constructed to house prisoners nearer the Steyr factory complex, explaining how this would reduce the time and loss of prisoners in transit to and from work while reducing security and transport overhead costs; this was approved and prisoners were used for facilities construction, to supplant manufacturing labor.
This practice heretofore was not common at other larger German companies, though others followed suit including Mercedes-Benz and MAN. The vehicle range was for military use, including the Steyr RSO Raupenschlepper Ost with an air-cooled 3.5 L V8 engine designed by Ferdinand Porsche, who worked for the company at that time. War-time production there included small arms, assault rifles, machine guns, aircraft engines. After the war, Steyr-Daimler-Puch built Diesel engined trucks and buses and heavy tractors and resumed passenger car production. First, Steyr assembled the FIAT 1100E put their own engine in a Fiat 1400, renaming the car the "Steyr 2000". From 1957 through to the early 1970s it produced the tiny Puch 500 under license from FIAT, again with an engine of Austrian design. Most prominent, was its range of off-road cars, from the two-cylinder Haflinger and the 4 x 4 or 6 x 6 Pinzgauer, the Fiat Panda 4x4 to the Mercedes-Puch G. SDP was the initial designer and manufacturer of these utility vehicles.
The Haflinger was produced from 1959–1974, the Pinzgauer from 1971–2000, the Puch G from 1979. The company's Puch division produced a line of motorcycles and motor scooters marketed in the United States through Sears Roebuck including the Puch 250 SGS, delivered in a cardboard crate box to the customer's home; the Austro-Daimler branch built heavy trucks for the imperial Austrian army. The main Steyr civil agricultural tractor production started in 1947. After the war Steyr-Daimler-Puch resumed manufacturing bicycles and mopeds establishing distributors in several countries to manage their sales. Steyr made bicycles for sale for other retailers, most notably Sears. In the mid 1970s "Steyr-Daimler-Puch America" was incorporated in Connecticut to manage importation and distribution of bicycles and mopeds. Puch Austro-Daimler bicycles remained in production at Graz in Austria until the motorcycle and bicycle fabrication portions of the company there were sold in the mid 1987 to Piaggio & C. S.p. A. of Italy.
Because of their extreme durability and toughness Steyr products won many enthusiastic friends around the world. In 1987, Steyr-Daimler-Puch AG began selling portions of its different production lines to form separate companies, which included Steyr Nutzfahrzeuge AG for truck manufacturing, Steyr Bus GmbH for bus manufacturing, Steyr-Daimler-Puch Fahrzeugtechnik AG and the EUROSTAR joint venture in Graz-Liebenau for assembly of automobiles and, in 1990, Steyr Tractor. Other production lines were spun off or sold outright to form independent companies, including Puch's motorcycle division going to Piaggio and Steyr Mannlicher producing weapons. In 1990, the diesel engine division was spun off into Steyr Motorentechnik GmbH, which in 2001 became an independent company, renaming itself Steyr Motors GmbH. Steyr Landmaschinentechnik AG was sold to Case Corporation in 1996 and renamed Case Steyr Landmaschinentechnik. Automobile production remained with Steyr-Daimler-Puch Fahrzeugtechnik until Magna International acquired a majority holding, in 1998, in 2001–2002 SFT was absorbed by Magna, becoming Magna Steyr.
In 1998, the production of military vehicles was sold to an Austrian investor company, which named it Steyr-Daimler-Puch Spezialfahrzeug GmbH. In 2003, SSF was sold to the U. S. co