Eni S.p. A. is an Italian multinational gas company headquartered in Rome. Considered one of the global supermajors, it has operations in 79 countries, is world's 11th largest industrial company with a market capitalization of 68 billion euros, as of August 14, 2013; the Italian government owns a 30.303% golden share in the company, 3.934% held through the state Treasury and 26.369% held through the Cassa Depositi e Prestiti. Another 2.012% of the shares are held by the People's Bank of China. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index; the name "ENI" was the acronym of "Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi". Through the years after its foundation however, it operated in a large number of fields including contracting, nuclear power, mining and plastics, refining/extraction and distribution machinery, hospitality industry and textile industry and news. Eni ranks among the top 100 on Fortune Global 500 list for largest companies by revenue. In 2016, the company holds a fall of 40 places from the previous year's 25th rank.
In terms of share capitalisation, Eni is ranked eighth in comparison with the principal companies operating in the same sector: Exxon, Chevron, Total, BP, ConocoPhillips, Anadarko and Marathon Oil. Eni was founded and established by law in 1953 from an existing company, created in 1926 with the aim to explore for oilfields and commercialize oil and derivatives. In March 1953, Enrico Mattei was nominated Eni's Chairman. Eni was an acronym for the company's full title Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi. After 1995, the meaning ceased to be relevant but the name was maintained. In 1952 Eni adopted its logo, a six-legged dog, an imaginary animal symbolizing the sum of a car's four wheels and the two legs of its driver. Starting in 1954, Eni acquired extensive exploration rights in North Africa, signing an agreement with the Egyptian government led by Nasser while providing an active and equal role for the crude producing countries through the establishment of joint ventures. In 1957 Eni pushed for a similar agreement, known as the "Mattei formula", to be signed with Persian Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the National Iranian Oil Company.
In 1960, during the Cold War period, Eni signed an agreement with the Soviet Union for the importation of Russian crude at low prices. On 27 October 1962, Enrico Mattei's airplane mysteriously exploded near Bascapè, on his way to Milan from Catania, his death was considered an accident, but it was confirmed to be a murder with the aim to protect and hide important economical and political interests in Italy and abroad, as it is stated in the records of the trial on the assassination of the journalist Mauro De Mauro, investigating on the death of Enrico Mattei. During the following years, Eni signed joint venture contracts with foreign companies to supply crude from Egypt to Iran and from Libya to Tunisia. In 1963, Eni acquired a majority stake in Italgas. In October 1973 after the Yom Kippur War and the OPEC embargo against the United States and the Netherlands by OPEC members and Arab countries, a serious his oil crisis occurred, causing Eni to consolidate its position in the international market by signing an agreement with Sonatrach, the Algerian state oil entity for natural gas supply.
In 1974 Eni signed an agreement with the Libyan government, followed by additional agreements with Egypt and Tunisia. During the mid-1970s, Eni planned a major infrastructure for transporting natural gas over long distances, by building a pipeline network of thousands of miles throughout Europe and the Mediterranean. After the inauguration of the Trans-Mediterranean Pipeline connecting Algeria to Sicily through Tunisia, Eni signs a new agreement with Libya for the exploitation of Boùri, the biggest oilfield in the centre of the Mediterranean, develops its international role within the oil industry. In 1992 Eni became a joint stock company by Law Decree, was listed to the Italian and New York Stock Exchange in 1995. From 1995 to 1998 Eni put four share offers successfully, as 70% of its capital assets were sold to private shareholders; as the price of oil collapsed in 1998 as other major companies Eni got to turn into a race through merges, international acquisitions, new explorations and the foundation of real super-companies.
Since 2000, Eni has been developing the Kashagan oilfield a major offshore discovery, along the Caspian Sea. In 2005 the Blue Stream pipeline projected to supply gas from southern Russia to Turkey was inaugurated as a joint venture between Eni and Gazprom. In 2007 Eni signed an agreement to conduct South Stream a feasibility study with Gazprom to import Russian gas into Europe across the Black Sea. Activist asset manager Knight Vinke, who owns 1% of the outstanding shares of the company, begun pressuring Eni's management to operate a spin-off of Eni's gas activities. In its opinion this would solve the undervaluation of the company and release up to 50 billion euros of hidden value. In 2010 Eni achieves key production milestone in Iraqi Zubair oil field. After getting a licence in 2006 for the exploration of an offshore area in the north of Mozambique, known as Area 4, Eni announced several major natural gas discoveries between 2011 and 2012 such as Mamba South, Mamba North, Mamba North East, Coral 1.
In February 2014, ENI discovered oil at its DRC offshore block. Since 2012 Eni has been selling off refining and marketing assets it owned in eastern Europe in order to increase profitability. By 2013 Eni reduced its refining capacity by 13 percent. In May 2014 Eni agreed to sell
Ampol was a petrol company in Australia. It was first incorporated in 1936 in New South Wales to market petrol in its chain of service stations. In 1995, Ampol merged with Caltex to make Australian Petroleum Pty Ltd, which in 1997 became Caltex Australia Ltd and based in Singapore. Ampol, the Australian Motorists Petrol Company, was incorporated by Sir William Gaston Walkley in 1936 in New South Wales; this was in response to Australians' concerns about perceived inequitable petrol pricing, allegations of transfer pricing by foreign oil companies to limit their tax liabilities in Australia. Walkley, along with William Arthur O'Callaghan and George Hutchison, approached the NRMA and offered to help it form a company to market petrol. Whilst deciding not to sponsor an oil company, members of the NRMA's board sought investors. In early 1936, an advertisement was printed in the NRMA's periodical publicising the float of Ampol; the first delivery of oil was received at White Bay in December 1937 and, by 1939, Walkley had joined the board of Ampol as managing director.
During World War II, Walkley served on the Oil Advisory Committee and the board of Pool Petroleum Pty Ltd, both of which supervised the distribution of petrol. This brought him into contact with Sir George Wales, who owned Alba Petroleum Co. of Australia Ltd, which had a small market in South Australia and Tasmania. In 1945, Ampol purchased Alba Petroleum in an amicable takeover; the company listed on the Australian Securities Exchange in 1948 and, in 1949, it changed its name to Ampol Petroleum Ltd. In 1965, Ampol's Lytton oil refinery in Brisbane, Queensland came on stream. Pioneer International purchased a 20% stake in Ampol in 1979. In 1982, Ampol purchased the marketing and refining assets of Total Australia Limited and changed its name to Ampol Limited. In 1988, Pioneer International acquired full ownership of Ampol; the following year, Pioneer purchased Solo Oil Limited, the largest independent retailer and distributor in Australia at that time. In May 1995, Caltex and Ampol merged petroleum refining and marketing assets to form Australian Petroleum Pty Ltd which, in 1997, became Caltex Australia Ltd.
The Ampol brand remained in use for a number of years at some service stations in country areas where customer loyalty and strong brand-recognition are factors. Caltex Australia wanted to establish an overseas trading arm to enable the importation of gasoline into Australia; as Chevron Corporation operate the Caltex brand overseas in areas like Singapore, Caltex Australia opted to name their Singaporean business after their former Australian business, Ampol. History of Caltex/Ampol
Delek Group is an Israeli conglomerate and one of Israel's largest companies, majority owned by Yitzhak Tshuva a self-made multi-billionaire. Delek Group is involved in the energy and infrastructure, with investments in upstream and downstream energy, water desalination and power plants. Delek Group' subsidiaries are involved in insurance and financial services. Delek Group is listed on the Tel Aviv stock exchange under the ticker symbol, DLEKG, is a member of the TA-35 Index of leading Israeli companies, as of July 2012 two of the group's subsidiaries are listed on the TA-35 Index, Avner Oil Exploration LP and Delek Drilling LP; the group's USA operations, Delek US Holdings, Inc. are listed on the New York Stock Exchange. On June 22, 2015, The Delek Group agreed to sell a 52% controlling stake of Phoenix Holding company to the Chinese civilian-run conglomerate Fosun International. Delek, The Israel Fuel Corporation Ltd, was founded in 1951 In August 2007, Delek Benelux took over marketing activities for Chevron Global Energy Inc. in Benelux, including 869 fueling stations under the Texaco brand.
The same month, Delek Israel's Delek Pi-Glilot, a fuel storage and distribution company operating in Ashdod and Beersheba, won a Government Companies Authorities tender to run the fuel storage facilities in Ashdod. A few months in November, they announced the hiring of former police commissioner Moshe Karadi to run Delek Pi-Glilot, who had resigned following findings by the Zeiler Commission "that police had grossly mishandled the murder investigation in the Perinian affair." Gabi Last, former commissioner and commander of the Tel Aviv Central District, has been chairing Delek Group for several years. Delek Energy Delek Drilling LP Avner Oil & Gas Exploration LP Assets including holdings in: Yam Tethys Partnership, Tamar gas field, Leviathan gas field, Tanin gas field, Aphrodite gas field Delek Petroleum Ltd. Delek US Holdings, Inc. Delek Logistics Partners Delek US Delek Europe BV - 1,230 gas stations and 935 convenience stores Roadchef Delek Israel Fuel Corporation Ltd Israel’s second largest retail gas and lubricants supplier Independent Power Plants 360 desalinisation plants constructed in Israel, China, United States and Kazakhstan largest desalinisation plant in the world built in Israel Phoenix Holdings Ltd.
The Phoenix Insurance Company Ltd. Excellence Investments Ltd. Delek Automotive Systems Ltd. - largest car dealer in Israel, importer of Mazda and Ford vehicles Gadot Biochemical Ltd. Delek Real Estate Ltd. - a company that owned a total land area of 1.8 million m2, through its subsidiaries, Delek Berlon International Ltd. Delek Global Real Estate Ltd. and adding Dankner Investments Ltd. as Dankner Real Estate's construction arm in 2004. HOT Cable Communications Systems Ltd. Starbucks Israel The Republic Group, an insurer, was sold to AmTrust Financial Services for US$140 million on April 19, 2016. Tamar gas field Leviathan gas field Aphrodite gas field Delek website
Exxon Mobil Corporation, doing business as ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas. It is the largest direct descendant of John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company, was formed on November 30, 1999 by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. ExxonMobil's primary brands are Exxon, Mobil and ExxonMobil Chemical; the world's second largest company by revenue, ExxonMobil from 1996 to 2017 varied from the first to sixth largest publicly traded company by market capitalization. The company was ranked ninth globally in the Forbes Global 2000 list in 2016. ExxonMobil was the tenth most profitable company in the Fortune 500 in 2017; as of 2018, the company ranked second in the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. ExxonMobil is one of the largest of the world's Big Oil companies; as of 2007, it had daily production of 3.921 million BOE. In 2008, this was 3% of world production, less than several of the largest state-owned petroleum companies.
When ranked by oil and gas reserves, it is 14th in the world—with less than 1% of the total. ExxonMobil's reserves were 20 billion BOE at the end of 2016 and the 2007 rates of production were expected to last more than 14 years. With 37 oil refineries in 21 countries constituting a combined daily refining capacity of 6.3 million barrels, ExxonMobil is the largest refiner in the world, a title, associated with Standard Oil since its incorporation in 1870. ExxonMobil has been criticized for its slow response to cleanup efforts after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska considered to be one of the world's worst oil spills in terms of damage to the environment. ExxonMobil has a history of lobbying for climate change denial and against the scientific consensus that global warming is caused by the burning of fossil fuels; the company has been the target of accusations of improperly dealing with human rights issues, influence on American foreign policy, its impact on the future of nations. ExxonMobil was formed in 1999 by the merger of two major oil companies and Mobil.
Both Exxon and Mobil were descendants of Standard Oil, established by John D. Rockefeller and partners in 1870 as the Standard Oil Company of Ohio. In 1882, it together with its affiliated companies was incorporated as the Standard Oil Trust with Standard Oil Company of New Jersey and Standard Oil Company of New York as its largest companies; the Anglo-American Oil Company was established in the United Kingdom in 1888. In 1890, Standard Oil, together with local ship merchants in Bremen established Deutsch-Amerikanische Petroleum Gesellschaft. In 1891, a sale branch for the Netherlands and Belgium, American Petroleum Company, was established in Rotterdam. At the same year, a sale branch for Italy, Società Italo Americana pel Petrolio, was established in Venice; the Standard Oil Trust was dissolved under the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1892. In 1893, the Chinese and the whole Asian kerosene market was assigned to Standard Oil Company of New York in order to improve trade with the Asian counterparts.
In 1898, Standard Oil of New Jersey acquired controlling stake in Imperial Oil of Canada. In 1899, Standard Oil Company of New Jersey became the holding company for the Standard Oil Interests; the anti-monopoly proceedings against the Standard Oil were launched in 1898. The reputation of Standard Oil in the public eye suffered badly after publication of Ida M. Tarbell's classic exposé The History of the Standard Oil Co. in 1904, leading to a growing outcry for the government to take action against the company. By 1911, with public outcry at a climax, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that Standard Oil must be dissolved and split into 34 companies. Two of these companies were Jersey Standard, which became Exxon, Socony, which became Mobil. Over the next few decades, Jersey Standard and Socony grew significantly. John Duston Archbold was the first president of Jersey Standard. Archbold was followed by Walter C. Teagle in 1917, who made it the largest oil company in the world. In 1919, Jersey Standard acquired a 50 % share in Humble Refining Co. a Texas oil producer.
In 1920, it was listed on the New York Stock Exchange. In the following years it acquired or established Tropical Oil Company of Colombia, Standard Oil Company of Venezuela, Creole Petroleum Company of Venezuela. Henry Clay Folger was head of Socony until 1923; the growing automotive market inspired the product trademark Mobiloil, registered by Socony in 1920. After dissolution of Standard Oil, Socony had refining and marketing assets but no production activities. For this reason, Socony purchased a 45% interest in Magnolia Petroleum Co. a major refiner and pipeline transporter, in 1918. In 1925, Magnolia became wholly owned by Socony. In 1926, Socony purchased General Petroleum Corporation of California. In 1928, Socony joined the Turkish Petroleum Company. In 1931, Socony merged with Vacuum Oil Company, an industry pioneer dating back to 1866, to form Socony-Vacuum. In the Asia-Pacific region, Jersey Standard has established through its Dutch subsidiary an exploration and production company Nederlandsche Koloniale Petroleum Maatschappij in 1912.
In 1922, it found oil in Indonesia and in 1927, it built a refinery in Sumatra. It had oil production and refineries but no marketing network. Socony-V
Texaco, Inc. is an American oil subsidiary of Chevron Corporation. Its flagship product is its fuel "Texaco with Techron", it owns the Havoline motor oil brand. Texaco was an independent company until its refining operations merged into Chevron Corporation in 2001, at which time most of its station franchises were divested to the Shell Oil Company, it began as the Texas Fuel Company, founded in 1901 in Beaumont, Texas, by Joseph S. Cullinan, Thomas J. Donoghue, Walter Benona Sharp, Arnold Schlaet upon the discovery of oil at Spindletop; the Texas Fuel Company was not set up to produce crude oil. To accomplish this, Cullinan organized the Producers Oil Company in 1902 as a group of investors affiliated with The Texas Fuel Company. Men like John W. Gates invested in "certificates of interest" to an amount of ninety thousand dollars. Future restructuring would merge Producers Oil Company and The Texas Fuel Company as Texaco when the company needed additional funding which J. W. Gates provided in the amount of around $590,000.00 in return for company stock.
For many years, Texaco was the only company selling gasoline under the same brand name in all 50 US states, as well as Canada, making it the most national brand among its competitors. It was one of the Seven Sisters which dominated the global petroleum industry from the mid-1940s to the 1970s, its current logo features a white star in a red circle, leading to the long-running advertising jingles "You can trust your car to the man who wears the star" and "Star of the American Road." The company was headquartered in Harrison, New York, near White Plains, prior to the merger with Chevron. Texaco gasoline comes with Techron, an additive developed by Chevron, as of 2005, replacing the previous CleanSystem3; the Texaco brand is strong in the U. S. Latin America and West Africa, it has a presence in Europe as well. Texaco was founded in Beaumont, Texas as the Texas Fuel Company in 1902. In 1905, it established an operation in Antwerp, under the name Continental Petroleum Company, which it acquired control of in 1913.
The next year, Texaco moved to new offices in Houston on the corner of San Rusk. In 1928, Texaco became the first U. S. oil company to sell its gasoline nationwide under one single brand name in all 48 states. In 1931, Texaco purchased Indian Oil Company, based in Illinois; this expanded Texaco's refining and marketing base in the Midwest and gave Texaco the rights to Indian's Havoline motor oil, which became a Texaco product. The next year, Texaco introduced Fire Chief gasoline nationwide, a so-called "super-octane" motor fuel touted as meeting or exceeding government standards for gasoline for fire engines and other emergency vehicles, it was promoted through a radio program over NBC hosted by Ed Wynn, called the Texaco Fire Chief. In 1936, the Texas Corporation purchased the Barco oil concession in Colombia, formed a joint venture with Socony-Vacuum, now Mobil, to develop it. Over the next three years the company engaged in a challenging project to drill wells and build a pipeline to the coast across mountains and through uncharted swamps and jungles.
During this time, Texaco illegally supplied the fascist Gen. Franco faction in Spanish Civil War, despite a federal fine, with a total 3,500,000 barrels of oil. In 1936, marketing operations east of Suez were placed into a joint venture with Standard Oil Company of California – Socal under the brand name Caltex, in exchange for Socal placing its Bahrain refinery and Arabian oilfields into the venture; the next year, Texaco commissioned industrial designer Walter Dorwin Teague to develop a modern service station design. In 1938, Texaco introduced Sky Chief gasoline, a premium fuel developed from the ground up as a high-octane gasoline rather than just an ethylized regular product. In 1939, Texaco became one of the first oil companies to introduce a "Registered Rest Room" program to ensure that restroom facilities at all Texaco stations nationwide maintained a standard level of cleanliness to the motoring public. After the onset of World War II in 1939, Texaco's CEO, Torkild Rieber, an admirer of Hitler, hired pro-Nazi assistants who cabled Berlin "coded information about ships leaving New York for Britain and what their cargoes were."
This espionage enabled Hitler to destroy the ships. In 1940, Rieber was forced to resign when his connections with German Nazism, his illegal supply of oil to the fascist forces during the Spanish Civil War were made public by the Herald Tribune through information produced by British Security Coordination. Life Magazine portrayed Rieber's resignation as unfair, advocating that he only dined with Westrick, lent him a company car. During the war, Texaco ranked 93rd among United States corporations in the value of military production contracts. In 1947, Caltex expanded to include Texaco's European marketing operations; that same year, Texaco merged its British operation with Trinidad Leaseholds under the name Regent. In 1954, the company added the detergent additive Petrox to its "Sky Chief" gasoline, souped up with higher octane to meet the antiknock needs of new cars with high-compression engines; the next year, Texaco became the sole sponsor of The Huntley-Brinkley Report on NBC-TV. In 1959, the Texas Company changed its corporate name to Texaco, Inc. to better reflect the value of the Texaco brand name, which represented the biggest selling gasoline brand in the U.
S. and only marketer sel
Caltex is a petroleum brand name of Chevron Corporation used in more than 60 countries in the Asia-Pacific region, the Middle East, Southern Africa. Caltex began in 1936 as the California Texas Oil Company, a joint venture between the Texas Company and Standard Oil of California to market oil from newly gained concessions in Saudi Arabia, it was renamed Caltex Petroleum Corp. in 1968. The two parent companies merged in 2001 to form ChevronTexaco and Caltex remains one of its major international brand names. Caltex timeline: 1936 Chevron and Texaco form the Caltex Group to operate in Africa, the Middle East, Asia and New Zealand. 1940s Caltex aids allied war effort. 1947 Tankers purchased from surplus U. S wartime fleet. 1948 Caltex enters partnership with Japan's Nippon Oil Company 1949-66 Caltex builds or has interest in new refineries in 20 countries. 1967 European interests transferred to Texaco. 1968 Caltex enters Korean market. 1981-83 Acquisitions strengthen position in Hong Kong, the Philippines and Australia.
1982 Caltex corporate headquarters move to Texas. 1985 Representative office opened in China. 1990s Caltex moves into promising markets such as India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia and Lebanon. 1996 Caltex introduces new retail identity. 1998 Caltex relocates corporate center to Singapore. 1998 Caltex reorganizes along functional business lines. 1999 Caltex changes name to Caltex Corporation. Caltex Petroleum Australia Pty. Ltd. until March 2015, Caltex was owned 50 percent by Chevron, 50 percent by Australian shareholders. In March 2015, Chevron sold down its 50% holding to Australian shareholders. Julian Segal has been the CEO of Caltex Australia since July 2009. Caltex took over the Australian companies Golden Fleece in 1981 and Ampol in 1995. On 27 May 2009 Caltex announced a proposal to acquire 302 Mobil and Mobil Quix service stations in Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide, subject to approval of the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission; the ACCC subsequently opposed the takeover on the grounds that the acquisition could result in diminished competition.
Caltex subsequently abandoned the acquisition, with Mobil entering into an agreement to sell the same sites to 7-Eleven Australia. Caltex operates the largest oil company retail network in Australia, however the supermarkets Woolworths and Coles have a larger market share than any of the oil companies operating in Australia; as of August 2012, Caltex operates two petroleum refineries in Australia: one at Kurnell in Sydney, New South Wales, one at Lytton in Brisbane, Queensland. The Kurnell Refinery ceased operations in 2014, part of the existing infrastructure such as wharfs and tanks will be converted to a fuel importation terminal. Petrol Regular Unleaded Bio E10 Unleaded Bio E-Flex Vortex 95 Vortex 98 Most sites stock all of these products, however Bio E10 Unleaded is the least common and Regular Unleaded the most common. Bio E-Flex is stocked in 30 sites on the eastern seaboard. Diesel Diesel New Generation Diesel Vortex Diesel Each site only sells at least one of these 3 products. Autogas Autogas is available at selected sites.
Caltex sells Delo and Revtex brands of motor oil. Caltex branded. Star Mart: A large store containing a bakery and hot food as well as convenience items and an ATM, with toilets located inside and open 24 hours. In 2009, the New Zealand operations were sold off and rebranded as Fix stores, which in turn were rebranded as Night'n' Day from 2017. Star Shop: A smaller store with just convenience items and packaged foods and limited operating hours. Woolworths: Sites that accept a varying but basic four cents per litre discount offer from Woolworths. Shops are branded as Woolworths. Most are the same as a Star Mart. In 2003 Caltex Australia entered into a joint venture agreement with large supermarket retailer Woolworths Limited. Shortly after in 2004, a similar fuel discount offer was launched by rival Coles Group. Woolworths' existing "Plus Petrol" service stations received Caltex branding and Caltex service stations received Woolworths branding—the joint venture outlets became Caltex Woolworths. However, this was the case only with certain Caltex service stations close to Woolworths supermarkets and many remain unassociated with the fuel discount offer.
During the 1980s and early 1990s, Caltex was the naming rights sponsor of Endeavour Field, the home ground of the Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks, on the road to its Kurnell Refinery. From 1987 until 1993, Caltex was the title sponsor of Colin Bond Racing. From 2000 until 2007, it was title sponsor of Stone Brothers Racing with Russell Ingall winning the 2005 championship. In 2016 and 2017, Caltex was title sponsor of the Triple Eight Race Engineering car of Craig Lowndes, having been an associate sponsor of the team; as of March 2016, Caltex is the naming rights sponsor of the Socceroos and will be involved in a broader partnership with the men's and women's national teams. Caltex has been operating in New Zealand since 1936. On 1 June 2016, Chevron New Zealand, which operated the Caltex brand in New Zealand, was acquired by Z Energy Ltd. Z Energy, a New Zealand owned company, operates the Caltex network in New Zealand using the brand under licence from Chevron Int
Royal Dutch Shell
Royal Dutch Shell plc known as Shell, is a British-Dutch oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom. It is one of the six oil and gas "supermajors" and the fifth-largest company in the world measured by 2018 revenues. Shell was first in the 2013 Fortune Global 500 list of the world's largest companies. Shell is vertically integrated and is active in every area of the oil and gas industry, including exploration and production, transport and marketing, power generation and trading, it has renewable energy activities, including in biofuels, energy-kite systems, hydrogen. Shell has operations in over 70 countries, produces around 3.7 million barrels of oil equivalent per day and has 44,000 service stations worldwide. As of 31 December 2014, Shell had total proved reserves of 13.7 billion barrels of oil equivalent. Shell Oil Company, its principal subsidiary in the United States, is one of its largest businesses. Shell holds 50% of Raízen, a joint venture with Cosan, the third-largest Brazil-based energy company by revenues and a major producer of ethanol.
Shell was formed in 1907 through the amalgamation of the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company of the Netherlands and the "Shell" Transport and Trading Company of the United Kingdom. Until its unification in 2005 the firm operated as a dual-listed company, whereby the British and Dutch companies maintained their legal existence but operated as a single-unit partnership for business purposes. Shell first entered the chemicals industry in 1929. In 1970 Shell acquired the mining company Billiton, which it subsequently sold in 1994 and now forms part of BHP Billiton. In recent decades gas exploration and production has become an important part of Shell's business. Shell acquired BG Group in 2016. Shell is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, it had a market capitalisation of £185 billion at the close of trading on 30 December 2016, by far the largest of any company listed on the London Stock Exchange and among the highest of any company in the world. It has secondary listings on the New York Stock Exchange.
As of January 2013, Shell's largest shareholder was Capital Research Global Investors with 9.85% ahead of BlackRock in second with 6.89%. The Royal Dutch Shell Group was created in April 1907 through the amalgamation of two rival companies: the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company of the Netherlands and the Shell Transport and Trading Company Limited of the United Kingdom, it was a move driven by the need to compete globally with Standard Oil. The Royal Dutch Petroleum Company was a Dutch company founded in 1890 to develop an oilfield in Pangkalan Brandan, North Sumatra, led by August Kessler, Hugo Loudon, Henri Deterding; the "Shell" Transport and Trading Company was a British company, founded in 1897 by Marcus Samuel, 1st Viscount Bearsted, his brother Samuel Samuel. Their father had owned an antique company in Houndsditch, which expanded in 1833 to import and sell seashells, after which the company "Shell" took its name. For various reasons, the new firm operated as a dual-listed company, whereby the merging companies maintained their legal existence, but operated as a single-unit partnership for business purposes.
The terms of the merger gave 60 percent ownership of the new group to the Dutch arm and 40 percent to the British. National patriotic sensibilities would not permit a full-scale merger or takeover of either of the two companies; the Dutch company, Koninklijke Nederlandsche Petroleum Maatschappij at The Hague, was in charge of production and manufacture. The British Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Company was based in London, to direct the transport and storage of the products. During the First World War, Shell was the main supplier of fuel to the British Expeditionary Force, it was the sole supplier of aviation fuel and supplied 80 percent of the British Army's TNT. It volunteered all of its shipping to the British Admiralty; the German invasion of Romania in 1916 saw. In 1919, Shell took control of the Mexican Eagle Petroleum Company and in 1921 formed Shell-Mex Limited which marketed products under the "Shell" and "Eagle" brands in the United Kingdom. In 1929, Shell Chemicals was founded. By the end of the 1920s, Shell was the world's leading oil company, producing 11 percent of the world's crude oil supply and owning 10 percent of its tanker tonnage.
Shell Mex House was completed in 1931, was the head office for Shell's marketing activity worldwide. In 1932 in response to the difficult economic conditions of the times, Shell-Mex merged its UK marketing operations with those of British Petroleum to create Shell-Mex and BP, a company that traded until the brands separated in 1975. Royal Dutch Company ranked 79th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts; the 1930s saw. After the invasion of the Netherlands by Germany in 1940, the head office of the Dutch companies was moved to Curacao. In 1945 Shell's Danish headquarters in Copenhagen, at the time being used by the Gestapo, was bombed by Royal Air Force Mosquitoes in Operation Carthage. Around 1952, Shell was the first company to use a computer in the Netherlands; the computer, a Ferranti Mark 1*, was assembled and used at the Shell laboratory in Amste