Lead is a chemical element with atomic number 82 and symbol Pb. When freshly cut, it is bluish-white, it tarnishes to a dull gray upon exposure to air and it is a soft and heavy metal with a density exceeding that of most common materials. Lead has the second-highest atomic number of the stable elements. Lead is a relatively unreactive post-transition metal and its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature and tendency to form covalent bonds. Compounds of lead are found in the +2 oxidation state. Exceptions are mostly limited to organolead compounds, like the lighter members of the group, lead exhibits a tendency to bond to itself, it can form chains and polyhedral structures. Lead is easily extracted from its ores and was known to people in Western Asia. A principal ore of lead, often bears silver, Lead production declined after the fall of Rome and did not reach comparable levels again until the Industrial Revolution. Nowadays, global production of lead is about ten million tonnes annually, Lead has several properties that make it useful, high density, low melting point and relative inertness to oxidation.
In the late 19th century, lead was recognized as poisonous, Lead is a neurotoxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bones, damaging the nervous system and causing brain disorders and, in mammals, blood disorders. A lead atom has 82 electrons, arranged in a configuration of 4f145d106s26p2. The combined first and second ionization energies—the total energy required to remove the two 6p electrons—is close to that of tin, leads upper neighbor in group 14. This is unusual since ionization energies generally fall going down a group as an elements outer electrons become more distant from the nucleus, the similarity is caused by the lanthanide contraction—the decrease in element radii from lanthanum to lutetium, and the relatively small radii of the elements after hafnium. The contraction is due to shielding of the nucleus by the lanthanide 4f electrons. The combined first four ionization energies of lead exceed those of tin, for this reason lead, unlike tin, mostly forms compounds in which it has an oxidation state of +2, rather than +4.
Relativistic effects, which become particularly prominent at the bottom of the periodic table, as a result, the 6s electrons of lead become reluctant to participate in bonding, a phenomenon called the inert pair effect. A related outcome is that the distance between nearest atoms in crystalline lead is unusually long, the lighter group 14 elements form stable or metastable allotropes having the tetrahedrally coordinated and covalently bonded diamond cubic structure. The energy levels of their outer s- and p-orbitals are close enough to allow mixing into four hybrid sp3 orbitals
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the family of Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose, under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will tend to increase the dispersal of the seeds. The plant is a native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa. The greatest diversity of wild species is found in Mexico, followed by Australia. Cotton was independently domesticated in the Old and New Worlds, the fiber is most often spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. Current estimates for world production are about 25 million tonnes or 110 million bales annually, China is the worlds largest producer of cotton, but most of this is used domestically. The United States has been the largest exporter for many years, in the United States, cotton is usually measured in bales, which measure approximately 0.48 cubic meters and weigh 226.8 kilograms.
Cotton cultivation in the region is dated to the Indus Valley Civilization, the Indus cotton industry was well-developed and some methods used in cotton spinning and fabrication continued to be used until the industrialization of India. Between 2000 and 1000 BC cotton became widespread across much of India, for example, it has been found at the site of Hallus in Karnataka dating from around 1000 BC. Cotton fabrics discovered in a cave near Tehuacán, Mexico have been dated to around 5800 BC, the domestication of Gossypium hirsutum in Mexico is dated between 3400 and 2300 BC. Cotton was grown upriver, made into nets, and traded with fishing villages along the coast for supplies of fish. The Spanish who came to Mexico and Peru in the early 16th century found the people growing cotton and this may be a reference to tree cotton, Gossypium arboreum, which is a native of the Indian subcontinent. According to the Columbia Encyclopedia, Cotton has been spun, woven and it clothed the people of ancient India and China.
Hundreds of years before the Christian era, cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, in Iran, the history of cotton dates back to the Achaemenid era, there are few sources about the planting of cotton in pre-Islamic Iran. The planting of cotton was common in Merv and Pars of Iran, in Persian poets poems, especially Ferdowsis Shahname, there are references to cotton. Marco Polo refers to the products of Persia, including cotton. John Chardin, a French traveler of the 17th century who visited the Safavid Persia, during the Han dynasty, cotton was grown by Chinese peoples in the southern Chinese province of Yunnan. Mohamed Ali Pasha accepted the proposition and granted himself the monopoly on the sale and export of cotton in Egypt, and dictated cotton should be grown in preference to other crops
A cereal is any grass cultivated for the edible components of its grain, composed of the endosperm and bran. Cereal grains are grown in quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop and are therefore staple crops. Edible grains from plant families, such as buckwheat, quinoa. In their natural form, cereals are a source of vitamins, carbohydrates, oils. When refined by the removal of the bran and germ, the endosperm is mostly carbohydrate. In some developing nations, grain in the form of rice, millet, in developed nations, cereal consumption is moderate and varied but still substantial. The word cereal is derived from Ceres, the Roman goddess of harvest, agriculture allowed for the support of an increased population, leading to larger societies and eventually the development of cities. It created the need for organization of political power, as decisions had to be made regarding labor and harvest allocation and access rights to water. Agriculture bred immobility, as populations settled down for long periods of time, early Neolithic villages show evidence of the development of processing grain.
The Levant is the ancient home of the ancestors of wheat and peas, there is evidence of the cultivation of figs in the Jordan Valley as long as 11,300 years ago, and cereal production in Syria approximately 9,000 years ago. During the same period, farmers in China began to farm rice and millet, using man-made floods, fiber crops were domesticated as early as food crops, with China domesticating hemp, cotton being developed independently in Africa and South America, and Western Asia domesticating flax. The first cereal grains were domesticated by early primitive humans, about 8,000 years ago, they were domesticated by ancient farming communities in the Fertile Crescent region. Emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, and barley were three of the so-called Neolithic founder crops in the development of agriculture, around the same time and rices were starting to become domesticated in East Asia. Sorghum and millets were being domesticated in sub-Saharan West Africa, while each individual species has its own peculiarities, the cultivation of all cereal crops is similar.
Most are annual plants, consequently one planting yields one harvest, rye, oats and spelt are the cool-season cereals. These are hardy plants grow well in moderate weather and cease to grow in hot weather. The warm-season cereals are tender and prefer hot weather and rye are the hardiest cereals, able to overwinter in the subarctic and Siberia. Many cool-season cereals are grown in the tropics, some are only grown in cooler highlands, where it may be possible to grow multiple crops per year
Maize, known as corn, is a large grain plant first domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The six major types of corn are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, flour corn, the leafy stalk of the plant produces separate pollen and ovuliferous inflorescences or ears, which are fruits, yielding kernels or seeds. Maize kernels are used in cooking as a starch. Most historians believe maize was domesticated in the Tehuacan Valley of Mexico, recent research modified this view somewhat, scholars now indicate the adjacent Balsas River Valley of south-central Mexico as the center of domestication. The Olmec and Mayans cultivated maize in numerous varieties throughout Mesoamerica and its believed that beginning about 2500 BC, the crop spread through much of the Americas. The region developed a network based on surplus and varieties of maize crops. Nevertheless, recent data indicates that the spread of maize took place even earlier, according to Piperno, A large corpus of data indicates that it was dispersed into lower Central America by 7600 BP and had moved into the inter-Andean valleys of Colombia between 7000 and 6000 BP.
Since then, even earlier dates have been published, the study demonstrated that the oldest surviving maize types are those of the Mexican highlands. Later, maize spread from this region over the Americas along two major paths and this is consistent with a model based on the archaeological record suggesting that maize diversified in the highlands of Mexico before spreading to the lowlands. Before they were domesticated, maize plants only grew small,25 millimetres long corn cobs, Maize is the most widely grown grain crop throughout the Americas, with 361 million metric tons grown in the United States in 2014. Approximately 40% of the crop—130 million tons—is used for corn ethanol, genetically modified maize made up 85% of the maize planted in the United States in 2009. After the arrival of Europeans in 1492, Spanish settlers consumed maize and explorers and traders carried it back to Europe, Spanish settlers far preferred wheat bread to maize, cassava, or potatoes. Maize flour could not be substituted for wheat for bread, since in Christian belief only wheat could undergo transubstantiation.
At another level, Spaniards worried that by eating indigenous foods, which they did not consider nutritious, that not only would they weaken, despite these worries, Spaniards did consume maize and archeological evidence from Florida sites indicate they cultivated it as well. Maize spread to the rest of the world because of its ability to grow in diverse climates and it was cultivated in Spain just a few decades after Columbuss voyages and spread to Italy, West Africa and elsewhere. The word maize derives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word for the plant and it is known by other names around the world. The word corn outside North America and New Zealand refers to any cereal crop, in the United States, Canada and New Zealand, corn primarily means maize, this usage started as a shortening of Indian corn. Indian corn primarily means maize, but can more specifically to multicolored flint corn used for decoration
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States, achieving statehood in 1821. With over six million residents, it is the eighteenth most populous state, the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia. The capitol is in Jefferson City on the Missouri River, the state is the twenty-first most extensive by area and is geographically diverse. The Northern Plains were once covered by glaciers, tallgrass prairie, in the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation. The Mississippi River forms the border of the state, eventually flowing into the swampy Missouri Bootheel. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years, the Mississippian culture built cities and mounds, before declining in the 1300s. When European explorers arrived in the 1600s they encountered the Osage, the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, and founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764, after a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.
Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory, many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland, Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch. The Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, as a border state, Missouris role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business, the state is divided into 114 counties and the independent city of St. Louis. Missouris culture blends elements from the Midwestern and Southern United States, the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, and St. Louis Blues, developed in Missouri. The well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, and lesser known St. Louis-style barbecue can be found across the state, St.
Louis is a major center of beer brewing, Anheuser-Busch is the largest producer in the world. Missouri wine is produced in the nearby Missouri Rhineland and Ozarks, Missouris alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the large cities popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, U. S. President Harry S. Truman is from Missouri. Other well known Missourians include Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, some of the largest companies based in the state include Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, and OReilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the Mother of the West and the Cave State, Missouris most famous nickname is the Show Me State, the state is named for the Missouri River, which was named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe
The Catskill Mountains, known as the Catskills, are a large area in the southeastern portion of the U. S. state of New York. They are located approximately 100 miles north-northwest of New York City and 40 miles southwest of Albany, the Catskills occupy much or all of five counties, with some areas falling into the boundaries of southwestern Albany, eastern Broome, northwestern Orange, and southern Otsego counties. Foothills are found in southeastern Chenango, southern Montgomery, northern Otsego, the Catskills are a mature dissected plateau, a once-flat region subsequently uplifted and eroded into sharp relief by watercourses. The Catskills form the end of, and highest-elevation portion of. Climatically, the Catskills lie within the Allegheny Highlands forests ecoregion, the regions many large resorts gave countless young stand-up comedians an opportunity to hone their craft. In addition, the Catskills have long been a haven for artists, nicolaes Visscher Is 1656 map of New Netherland located the Landt van Kats Kill at the mouth of Catskill creek.
While the meaning of the name and the namer are settled matters, exactly how, The most common, and easiest, explanation is that bobcats were seen near Catskill creek and the present-day village of Catskill, and the name followed from there. Mountain lions were known to have been in the area when the Dutch arrived in the 17th century and it was named for Dutch poet Jacob Cats, who was known for his real estate prowess, profiting from speculation in lands reclaimed from the sea. A ship named The Cat had gone up the Hudson shortly before the name was first used, in nautical slang of the era, cat could mean a piece of equipment, or a particular type of small vessel, called a catboat. It has suggested that it refers to lacrosse, which Dutch visitors had seen the Iroquois natives play. The Mohicans roamed the woods of New England during the 18th century, a Mohican tribe supposedly inhabited the area known as the Catskills today, led by a Mohican chief named Cat. The supposed Indian name for the range, was created by a white man in the mid-19th century to drum up business for a resort.
It, persists today as the name of a school district, the locals preferred to call the range the Blue Mountains, to harmonize with Vermonts Green Mountains and New Hampshires White Mountains. It was only after Washington Irvings stories that Catskills won out over Blue Mountains, at the eastern end of the range, the mountains begin quite dramatically with the Catskill Escarpment rising up suddenly from the Hudson Valley. The western boundary is far less certain, as the mountains decline in height. The Poconos, to the immediate southwest in Pennsylvania, are technically a continuation of the Catskills under a different name, the Catskills contain more than 30 peaks above 3,500 feet and parts of six important rivers. The Catskill Mountain 3500 Club is an organization whose members have climbed all the peaks in the Catskills over 3,500 feet, the highest mountain, Slide Mountain in Ulster County, has an elevation of 4,180 feet. The history of the Catskill Mountains is a story come full circle, from erosion and uplift
It is typically defined as an 11-state region consisting of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. Although many possible causes for the high stroke incidence have been investigated, the stroke belt is typically defined to include the states of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. In 1980 these eleven states had age-adjusted stroke mortality rates more than 10% above the national average, some investigators consider North Florida to be a part of the stroke belt, based on a stroke mortality rate higher than several states included in the region. East Texas is characterized as a stroke belt, similar high stroke rates were observed in the Mississippi Delta region as well. Analysis by the CDC of U. S, Stroke death rates for states ranged from a high of 169 per 100,000 in South Carolina to a low of 89 per 100,000 in New York. Another researcher noted that, Stroke by itself is a contributor to cognitive impairment.
Other researchers have made similar observations, in 2011, CDC researchers mapped the occurrence of diabetes in the U. S. by county, finding that highest prevalence of diabetes is in a diabetes belt that has extensive overlap with the stroke belt. The causes of the incidence of stroke in the stroke belt region have not been determined. Numerous possible contributing factors have been identified, including hypertension, low status, cultural lifestyle, quality of healthcare facilities, smoking. In the early 1990s it was hypothesized that selenium deficiency in the soils of the coastal plain might be a causative factor, the subsequent recognition of high stroke incidence in areas with different soil characteristics led researchers to reject this hypothesis. Some observers have assumed that more stroke belt residents suffer from untreated hypertension, researchers have found that residents of the southern United States are as likely to be aware of hypertension and receiving treatment as residents of other U. S. regions.
Regional differences in standards of care have been suggested as a contributing factor. S. Glymour et al. suggested that the higher incidence in the stroke belt is related to experiences or exposures in childhood. Diets high in fried and high-fat foods, which are prevalent in the region, are thought to contribute to higher risk. The same geographical area has a higher national average incidence of lung cancer. In 2004, the Stroke Belt Elimination Initiative of the U. S, the term stroke belt is modeled after similar terms used for U. S. regions such as snowbelt and Sun Belt, which extend the analogy to the belt as an article of clothing
Religions have sacred histories and narratives, which may be preserved in sacred scriptures, and symbols and holy places, that aim mostly to give a meaning to life. Religions may contain symbolic stories, which are said by followers to be true, that have the side purpose of explaining the origin of life. Traditionally, faith, in addition to reason, has considered a source of religious beliefs. There are an estimated 10,000 distinct religions worldwide, about 84% of the worlds population is affiliated with one of the five largest religions, namely Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism or forms of folk religion. With the onset of the modernisation of and the revolution in the western world. The religiously unaffiliated demographic include those who do not identify with any religion, atheists. While the religiously unaffiliated have grown globally, many of the religiously unaffiliated still have various religious beliefs, about 16% of the worlds population is religiously unaffiliated. The study of religion encompasses a variety of academic disciplines, including theology, comparative religion.
Theories of religion offer various explanations for the origins and workings of religion, Religion is derived from the Latin religiō, the ultimate origins of which are obscure. One possible interpretation traced to Cicero, connects lego read, i. e. re with lego in the sense of choose, go over again or consider carefully. The medieval usage alternates with order in designating bonded communities like those of monastic orders, we hear of the religion of the Golden Fleece, of a knight of the religion of Avys. In the ancient and medieval world, the etymological Latin root religio was understood as a virtue of worship, never as doctrine, practice. In the Quran, the Arabic word din is often translated as religion in modern translations and it was in the 19th century that the terms Buddhism, Hinduism and Confucianism first emerged. Max Müller characterized many other cultures around the world, including Egypt, what is called ancient religion today, they would have only called law. Some languages have words that can be translated as religion, but they may use them in a different way.
For example, the Sanskrit word dharma, sometimes translated as religion, throughout classical South Asia, the study of law consisted of concepts such as penance through piety and ceremonial as well as practical traditions. Medieval Japan at first had a union between imperial law and universal or Buddha law, but these became independent sources of power. There is no equivalent of religion in Hebrew, and Judaism does not distinguish clearly between religious, racial, or ethnic identities
The business cycle or economic cycle is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product around its long-term growth trend. The length of a cycle is the period of time containing a single boom. These fluctuations typically involve shifts over time periods of relatively rapid economic growth, and periods of relative stagnation or decline. Business cycles are usually measured by considering the rate of real gross domestic product. Despite the often-applied term cycles, these fluctuations in economic activity do not exhibit uniform or predictable periodicity, the common or popular usage boom-and-bust cycle refers to fluctuations in which the expansion is rapid and the contraction severe. Prior to that point classical economics had either denied the existence of cycles, blamed them on external factors, notably war. Sismondi found vindication in the Panic of 1825, which was the first unarguably international economic crisis and they advocated government intervention and socialism, respectively, as the solution.
He devoted hundreds of pages of Das Kapital to crises, in Progress and Poverty, Henry George focused on lands role in crises – particularly land speculation – and proposed a single tax on land as a solution. In 1860 French economist Clement Juglar first identified economic cycles 7 to 11 years long, interest in the different typologies of cycles has waned since the development of modern macroeconomics, which gives little support to the idea of regular periodic cycles. There were great increases in productivity, industrial production and real per capita product throughout the period from 1870 to 1890 that included the Long Depression, there were significant increases in productivity in the years leading up to the Great Depression. Both the Long and Great Depressions were characterized by overcapacity and market saturation, the effect of technological progress can be seen by the purchasing power of an average hours work, which has grown from $3 in 1900 to $22 in 1990, measured in 2010 dollars.
There were similar increases in wages during the 19th century. See Financial crisis, 19th century for listing and details, the first of these crises not associated with a war was the Panic of 1825. Business cycles in OECD countries after World War II were generally more restrained than the business cycles. This was particularly true during the Golden Age of Capitalism, in this period, the economic cycle – at least the problem of depressions – was twice declared dead. The first declaration was in the late 1960s, when the Phillips curve was seen as being able to steer the economy, this was followed by stagflation in the 1970s, which discredited the theory. The second declaration was in the early 2000s, following the stability, notably, in 2003, Robert Lucas, in his presidential address to the American Economic Association, declared that the central problem of depression-prevention been solved, for all practical purposes. Unfortunately, this was followed by the 2008–2012 global recession, various regions have experienced prolonged depressions, most dramatically the economic crisis in former Eastern Bloc countries following the end of the Soviet Union in 1991
The same effect occurs over bodies of salt water, when it is termed ocean-effect or bay-effect snow. The effect is enhanced when the air mass is uplifted by the orographic influence of higher elevations on the downwind shores. This uplifting can produce narrow but very intense bands of precipitation, the areas affected by lake-effect snow are called snowbelts. A lake-effect blizzard is the blizzard-like conditions resulting from lake-effect snow, if the air temperature is low enough to keep the precipitation frozen, it falls as lake-effect snow. For lake-effect rain or snow to form, the air moving across the lake must be significantly cooler than the surface air. Specifically, the air temperature at an altitude where the air pressure is 850 millibars should be 13 °C lower than the temperature of the air at the surface. Lake-effect occurring when the air at 850 millibars is much colder than the surface can produce thundersnow, snow showers accompanied by lightning. A temperature difference of 13 °C between the temperature and the height in the atmosphere provides for absolute instability and allows vigorous heat.
The distance that an air mass travels over a body of water is called fetch, because most lakes are irregular in shape, different angular degrees of travel will yield different distances, typically a fetch of at least 100 km is required to produce lake effect precipitation. Generally, the larger the fetch the more precipitation that will be produced, larger fetches provide the boundary layer with more time to become saturated with water vapor and for heat energy to move from the water to the air. If directional shear between the surface and the height in the atmosphere at which the pressure measures 700 mb is greater than 60 degrees. If the directional shear between the body of water and the height at which the pressure measures 700 mb is between 30 and 60 degrees, weak lake-effect bands are possible. In environments where the shear is less than 30 degrees, speed shear is less critical, but should be relatively uniform. However, assuming the surface to 700 mb winds are uniform, an overall velocity will work to transport moisture quicker from the water. A lower upstream relative humidity will make it difficult and time consuming for lake effect condensation, clouds.
The opposite is true if the moisture has a high relative humidity, allowing lake effect condensation and precipitation to form more readily. Any large body of water upwind will impact lake-effect precipitation to the lee of a lake by adding moisture or pre-existing lake-effect bands. Upwind lakes do not always lead to an increase of precipitation downwind, vorticity advection aloft and large upscale ascent help increase mixing and the convective depth, while cold air advection lowers the temperature and increases instability
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Its origins are usually traced back to English Methodism, the Moravian Church, and German Lutheran Pietism. While all these phenomena contributed greatly, John Wesley and other early Methodists were at the root of sparking this new movement during the First Great Awakening, Evangelicals are found across many Protestant branches, as well as in various denominations not subsumed to a specific branch. Among leaders and major figures of the Evangelical Protestant movement were John Wesley, George Whitefield, Jonathan Edwards, Billy Graham, Harold John Ockenga, John Stott and Martyn Lloyd-Jones. The movement gained momentum during the 18th and 19th centuries with the Great Awakenings in the United Kingdom. The Americas and Asia are home to the majority of Evangelicals, United States has the largest concentration of Evangelicals in the world, its community forms a quarter of the population, is politically important and based mostly in the Bible Belt. In the United Kingdom, Evangelicals are mostly represented in the Methodist Church, Baptist communities, Evangelicalism, a major part of popular Protestantism, is among the most dynamic religious movements in the contemporary world, alongside resurgent Islam.
While on the rise globally, the world is particularly influenced by its spread. The first published use of evangelical in English came in 1531 when William Tyndale wrote He exhorteth them to proceed constantly in the evangelical truth. One year Sir Thomas More produced the earliest recorded use in reference to a theological distinction when he spoke of Tyndale his evangelical brother Barns, during the Reformation, Protestant theologians embraced the label as referring to gospel truth. Martin Luther referred to the evangelische Kirche to distinguish Protestants from Catholics in the Roman Catholic Church, into the 21st century, evangelical has continued in use as a synonym for Protestant in continental Europe, and elsewhere. This usage is reflected in the names of Protestant denominations such as the Evangelical Church in Germany, the term may occur outside any religious context to characterize a generic missionary, reforming, or redeeming impulse or purpose. For example, the Times Literary Supplement refers to the rise, one influential definition of Evangelicalism has been proposed by historian David Bebbington.
Conversionism, or belief in the necessity of being again, has been a constant theme of Evangelicalism since its beginnings. To Evangelicals, the message of the gospel is justification by faith in Christ and repentance, or turning away. Conversion differentiates the Christian from the non-Christian, and the change in life it leads to is marked by both a rejection of sin and a corresponding personal holiness of life. A conversion experience can be emotional, including grief and sorrow for sin followed by great relief at receiving forgiveness, the stress on conversion is further differentiated from other forms of Protestantism by the belief that an assurance of salvation will accompany conversion. Among Evangelicals, individuals have testified to both sudden and gradual conversions, biblicism is reverence for the Bible and a high regard for biblical authority. All Evangelicals believe in inspiration, though they disagree over how this inspiration should be defined