Crash Bandicoot is a franchise of platform video games. The series was created by Andy Gavin and Jason Rubin during their tenure at Naughty Dog for Universal Interactive Studios and Sony Computer Entertainment; the series has appeared on multiple platforms and gone through various developers and spans numerous genres. The games are set on the fictitious Wumpa Islands, an archipelago situated to the south of Australia where humans and mutants animals co-exist, although other locations are common; the main games in the series are platformers, but several are spin-offs in different genres. The protagonist of the series is a mutant enhanced bandicoot named Crash, whose quiet life on the Wumpa Islands is interrupted by the games' main antagonist, Doctor Neo Cortex, who created Crash and wants him dead. In most games, Crash must defeat Cortex and foil his plans for world domination, but there have been instances when they were forced to work together. After presenting Way of the Warrior to Mark Cerny of Universal Interactive Studios, Naughty Dog was signed on to the company for three additional games.
In August 1994, Jason Rubin and Andy Gavin began their move from Boston, Massachusetts to Los Angeles, California. During the trip and Rubin decided to create a 3D action-platform game, taking inspiration from the 16-bit era's best, including Donkey Kong Country and Sonic; because the player would be forced to look at the character's rear, the game was jokingly code-named "Sonic's Ass Game". The basic technology for the game and the Crash Bandicoot series as a whole was created somewhere near Gary, Indiana; the rough game theory was designed by Colorado and David Siller, the creator of Aero the Acro-Bat and Maximo: Ghosts to Glory. Soon afterward and Rubin threw out their previous game design for Al O. Saurus and Dinestein, a side-scrolling video game based on time travel and scientists genetically merged with dinosaurs. After moving into the Universal Interactive Studios backlot and Rubin met with Mark Cerny, discussed the design of the game and made an agreement to go into production. In September 1994, Gavin and Rubin decided to develop their new game for the PlayStation, after which Rubin began character design.
In November 1994, Naughty Dog hired Dave Baggett, their first employee and a friend of Gavin's from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Together and Baggett created the development tool "Game Oriented Object LISP", which would be used to create the characters and gameplay of the game. In January 1995, Rubin became concerned about the programmer-to-artist ratio and hired Bob Rafei and Taylor Kurosaki as additional artists. Needing a lead character for the game, Naughty Dog recruited American Exitus artists Charles Zembillas and Joe Pearson and met with them weekly to create the characters and environments of the game creating a character named "Willy the Wombat"; the marketing director of Universal Interactive Studios insisted that the character be named "Wez", "Wuzzles" or "Wizzy the Wombat". On creating the levels for the game and Pearson first sketched each environment and creating additional individual elements later, they aimed for an organic, overgrown look to the game and worked to avoid straight lines and 90-degree corners.
A Naughty Dog artist sketched every single background object in the game. The artists were tasked with reducing the amount of geometry. Dark and light elements were juxtaposed to create separate geometry; the Naughty Dog artists would squint when sketching and playing the levels to make sure they could be played by light value alone. Correct use of color was an important goal for Naughty Dog's artists; the interior of Doctor Neo Cortex's castle was designed to reflect Cortex's twisted mind. After the main character's creation, the team went into three months of developing the game; the game first became functional in April 1995 and became playable in June 1995. The first 3 levels in the game were completed by August 1995. However, they were judged to be too difficult to appear so early in the game and were moved to the game's power plant area. Artist Charlotte Francis joined Naughty Dog at around this time. In September 1995, a videotape of Crash Bandicoot was shown to Sony Computer Entertainment behind closed doors.
While playing the game during development, Rubin realized that there were many empty areas in the game due to the PlayStation's inability to process numerous on-screen enemy characters at the same time. Additionally, players were solving the game's puzzles too fast. Rubin soon came up with the idea of a box and putting various symbols on the sides to create puzzles. Breaking these boxes would serve to fill in the boring parts of the levels and give the player additional puzzles; the first "crate" was placed in the game in January 1996, would become the primary gameplay element of the series. Willy the Wombat's destruction of the crates would lead him to be renamed "Crash Bandicoot". In March 1996, Sony agreed to publish Crash Bandicoot, which went into the alpha stage in April 1996. Crash Bandicoot was first shown at the Electronic Entertainment Expo in May 1996. Development of Cortex Strikes Back began in October 1996. For the game, Andy Gavin created a new engine and scripting language named "Game Oriented Object LISP 2", three times faster than the previous game's engine, could handle ten times the animation frames and twice the polygon count.
The jungle levels were to have featured ground fog
Gran Turismo 2
Gran Turismo 2 is a racing game for the Sony PlayStation. Gran Turismo 2 was developed by Polyphony Digital and published by Sony Computer Entertainment in 1999, it is the sequel to Gran Turismo. It was well-received publicly and critically, shipping 1.71 million copies in Japan, 20,000 in Southeast Asia, 3.96 million in North America, 3.68 million in Europe for a total of 9.37 million copies as of April 30, 2008, becoming a Sony Greatest Hits game. The title received an average of 93% in Metacritic's aggregate. Gran Turismo 2 is fundamentally based on the racing game genre; the player must maneuver an automobile to compete against artificially intelligent drivers on various race tracks. The game uses two different modes: Simulation Mode. In the arcade mode, the player can choose vehicles they wish to use, can enable damage. However, the simulation mode requires the player to earn driver's licenses, pay for vehicles, earn trophies in order to unlock new and returning courses. Gran Turismo 2 features 27 racing tracks, including rally tracks.
Compared with Gran Turismo, the gameplay and graphics are similar: the only real noticeable difference in vehicle dynamics was the brakes, which became much less to lock up and cause the vehicle to oversteer. The major changes are the vastly expanded number of cars and races in simulation mode. Other differences include that the player can race events separately, if he/she does not want to enter the whole tournament; the player is no longer able to "qualify" for each race entered. After the unexpected success of Gran Turismo, lead developer Kazunori Yamauchi planned to make Gran Turismo 2 "an better product". SCEA's marketing director had high hopes, stating "the overwhelming and continuing popularity of Gran Turismo positions Gran Turismo 2 to be one of the hottest titles available for the holidays and beyond". Jack Tretton had similar enthusiasm, expecting Gran Turismo 2 to "fly off the shelves faster than the original, continuing the momentum of this incredible franchise". Upon the game's release, players shortly found various glitches.
SCEA did not ignore the outcry, offered a replacement if any problems occurred. For example, the maximum attainable completion percentage was 98.2%. Another glitch was that no matter what if a player saves the game, cars can disappear from their garage. A third glitch was; this was most significant in the 30-lap Trial Mountain endurance race, where a 680 bhp Vector M12 LM edition may appear despite a 295 horsepower entry restriction making the race nearly impossible to win. The reason for the maximum completion percentage falling short is due to a planned drag racing mode, never implemented. At the time of its release, GT2 featured one of the largest lists of new and historic cars available in a single computer game, tallied at nearly 650 cars. GT2 contained 36 manufacturers, ranging from BMW, Peugeot to Venturi. In comparison, the original Gran Turismo and GT3 A-Spec had fewer than 200 each. For the first time in the series, manufacturers from France and Italy were added, in turn allowing for a global Gran Turismo championship.
Certain notable manufacturers, such as Ferrari and Porsche, were not featured since the required licenses could not be obtained. Ruf was added as an alternative to Porsche: Ruf is a separate manufacturer from Porsche under U. S. and German law. Certain cars, such as the Mercedes-Benz CLK GTR, were cut from the game due to licensing issues. Gran Turismo 2 was the first game of the series to feature the Vauxhall/Opel brands. In the NTSC-U and NTSC-J versions, the Opel brand was used, whilst the PAL version featured Vauxhall when the game is set to use English language, with Opel being available in other languages; this led to a loophole in which the player could complete the one-make races for both Opel and Vauxhall, giving a completion score of 100.91%. The opening song for the North American and PAL versions is "My Favourite Game" by The Cardigans; the PAL version has the Faithless Remix of the song. In some introductions of the North American releases, the song was cut such that it played differently after one minute.
The opening song for the Japanese version is "Moon Over the Castle". The game further increased the number of tracks on-disc by separating Arcade Mode and Simulation Mode onto two discs; this allowed for more space to place audio. The PAL version has a different soundtrack, has songs that the American version doesn't, such as "Illin' in Heaven" by Fatboy Slim; the American version has songs like "I Think I'm Paranoid" by Garbage, "Now is the Time" by The Crystal Method, whereas the PAL version did not. Gran Turismo 2 "critical acclaim", according to review aggregator Metacritic. GameSpot rated it 8.5 out of 10, recommending it to any gamer, car enthusiast or not, while IGN rated the game a 9.8/10. In Japan, Famitsu gave it a score of 34 out of 40. Gran Turismo 2 was a bestseller for two months in Japan, for two months in the UK, has sold 9.37 million copies worldwide. Official UK PlayStation Magazine listed the game as the 4th best of all time, it received a "Double Platinum" sales award from the Entertainment and Leisure Software Publishers Association, indicating sales of at least 600,000 copies in the United Kingdom.
Music of the Gran Turismo series Official website Gran Turismo 2 microsit
Final Fantasy VII
Final Fantasy VII is a 1997 role-playing video game developed by Square for the PlayStation console. It is the seventh main installment in the Final Fantasy series. Published in Japan by Square, it was released in other regions by Sony Computer Entertainment and became the first in the main series to see a PAL release; the game's story follows Cloud Strife, a mercenary who joins an eco-terrorist organization to stop a world-controlling megacorporation from using the planet's life essence as an energy source. Events send Cloud and his allies in pursuit of Sephiroth, a superhuman intent on destroying their planet. During the journey, Cloud builds close friendships with his party members, including Aerith Gainsborough, who holds the secret to saving their world. Development began in 1994 for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. After delays and technical difficulties from experimenting on several platforms, Square moved production to the PlayStation due to the advantages of the CD-ROM format.
Veteran Final Fantasy staff returned, including series creator and producer Hironobu Sakaguchi, director Yoshinori Kitase, composer Nobuo Uematsu. The title became the first in the series to use full motion video and 3D computer graphics, which featured 3D character models superimposed over 2D pre-rendered backgrounds. Although the gameplay systems remained unchanged from previous entries, Final Fantasy VII introduced more widespread science fiction elements and a more realistic presentation; the game had a staff of over 100, with a combined development and marketing budget of around US$80 million. Assisted by a large promotional campaign, Final Fantasy VII received widespread commercial and critical success and remains regarded as a landmark title and one of the greatest video games of all time; the title won numerous Game of the Year awards and was acknowledged for boosting the sales of the PlayStation and popularizing Japanese role-playing games worldwide. Critics praised its graphics, gameplay and story, although some criticism was directed towards its English localization.
Its success has led to enhanced ports on various platforms, a multimedia subseries called the Compilation of Final Fantasy VII and an upcoming high-definition remake for the PlayStation 4. The gameplay of Final Fantasy VII is comparable to earlier Final Fantasy titles and Japanese role-playing games; the game features three modes of play: the world map, the field, the battle screen. At its grandest scale, players explore the entire world of Final Fantasy VII on a 3D world map; the world map is littered with representations of areas for the player to enter, including towns and ruins. Natural barriers—such as mountains and bodies of water—block access by foot to some areas. Chocobos can be found in certain spots on the map, if caught, can be ridden to areas inaccessible by foot or vehicle. In field mode, the player navigates scaled versions of the areas represented on the world map. For the first time in the series, this mode is represented in three-dimensional space; the player can explore the environment, talk with characters, advance the story, initiate event games in this mode.
Event games are short minigames that use special control functions and are tied into the story. While in field mode, the player may find shops and inns. Shops provide an opportunity to buy and sell items that can aid Cloud and his party, such as weapons and accessories. If the characters rest at an inn, their hit points and mana points will be restored, along with any abnormalities contracted during battles. At random intervals on the world map and in field mode, at specific moments in the story, the game will enter the battle screen; this screen places the player characters on one side, the enemies on the other, employs an "Active Time Battle" system in which the characters exchange moves until one side is defeated. The damage dealt by either side is quantified on screen. Characters have many statistics; each character on the screen has a time gauge. The commands change as the game progresses, are dependent on the characters in the player's party and their equipment. Commands may include attacking with a weapon, casting magic, using items, summoning monsters, other actions that either damage the enemy or aid the player characters.
Final Fantasy VII features powerful, character-specific commands called Limit Breaks, which can be used only after a special gauge is charged by enemy attacks. After being attacked, characters may be afflicted by one or more abnormal "statuses", such as poison or paralysis; these statuses and their adverse effects can be removed by special abilities. When all the enemies are defeated, the battle ends and the player may be rewarded with money and experience points. If the player is defeated, it is game over and the game must be loaded to the last save point; when not in battle, the player can use the menu screen. On this screen, the player can review each character's status and statistics, use items and abilities, change equipment, save the game, manage orbs called Materia; the main method of customizing characters in Final Fantasy VII, Materia may be added to equipment to provide characters with new magic spells, monsters to summon, statistical upgrades, other benefits. Materia levels up with their own experience point system and can be combined to
Crash Bandicoot (video game)
Crash Bandicoot is a platform video game developed by Naughty Dog and published by Sony Computer Entertainment for the PlayStation. The game was released in North America in September 1996, in Europe in November 1996. Crash Bandicoot is the first installment in the Crash Bandicoot series, chronicling the creation of the title character at the hands of series antagonist Doctor Neo Cortex and henchman Doctor Nitrus Brio; the story follows Crash as he aims to prevent Brio and Cortex's plans for world domination, rescue his girlfriend Tawna, a female bandicoot evolved by Brio and Cortex. Crash Bandicoot received positive reviews from critics, who praised the game's graphics and unique visual style, but criticized its controls and lack of innovation as a platform game; the game went on to sell over 6 million units, making it the eighth best-selling PlayStation game of all time, the highest selling ranked on sales in the United States. A remastered version, included in the Crash Bandicoot N. Sane Trilogy collection, was released for the PlayStation 4 in June 2017, ported to other platforms in June 2018.
Crash Bandicoot is a platform game in which players control the titular protagonist, Crash, as he traverses several levels in sequence in order to progress. Crash is able to defeat enemies by either jumping on them or using a spinning attack that launches them. Crash will lose a life if he falls into a bottomless pit. Crash can protect himself by collecting Aku Aku masks, which protect Crash from a single hit from an enemy or obstacle. Crash can hold onto two masks at a time and, upon collecting a third mask, will gain temporary invincibility; the game ends when the player runs out of lives, with more lives earned by finding extra life items or by collecting 100 Wumpa Fruit. Scattered throughout each level are various types of crates, most of which contain items such as Wumpa Fruit and Aku Aku masks, which can be broken by jumping on or spinning into them. Other types of crate include checkpoint crates, which lets players resume their progress after losing a life, arrow crates which Crash can bounce on, explosive TNT crates that explode upon being broken, or following a timer that activates by jumping on them.
Certain crates, including steel platform crates, are invisible, requiring the player to hit an exclamation box to make them tangible. If the player clears a level with all crates broken without dying, they will earn a gem. Additional gems can be obtained through hidden levels or alternative routes, some gems are required to access new areas. Collecting all gems in the game allows the player to reach its true ending. If the player manages to collect enough bonus icons, they will be warped to a Bonus Stage which, upon completion, will allow the player to save their progress, either via memory card or password. In a southeast Australian archipelago, Doctor Neo Cortex and his assistant Doctor Nitrus Brio use a device called the Evolvo-Ray to mutate the various animals living on the islands into beasts with superhuman strength, they experiment on Crash, a peaceful bandicoot who Cortex intends to be the leader of his growing military of animal soldiers. Despite Brio's warnings, Cortex subjects Crash to the untested Cortex Vortex in an attempt to control him.
The Vortex rejects Crash. After Crash leaps out a window and falls to the ocean below, Cortex prepares a female bandicoot named Tawna for experimentation. Having grown attached to Tawna during their time in captivity, Crash resolves to rescue her and defeat Cortex. From the beach of N. Sanity Island, Crash traverses through the islands and faces off against such adversaries as the local tribe leader Papu Papu, the deranged kangaroo Ripper Roo, the muscular Koala Kong, the gangster Pinstripe Potoroo. Within Cortex's castle, Crash is confronted by Brio inside his laboratory. Brio uses chemicals to mutate himself into a monster. While Crash defeats Brio, the castle laboratory catches on fire during the struggle. Crash escapes to Cortex's airship. Cortex attacks him with a plasma gun, but Crash deflects his own projectiles against him and sends Cortex falling out of the sky. Tawna embraces Crash as the two escape the burning castle on Cortex's airship. Before presenting Way of the Warrior to Mark Cerny of Universal Interactive Studios, Naughty Dog was signed on to the company for three additional games.
In August 1994, Jason Rubin and Andy Gavin began their move from Boston, Massachusetts to Los Angeles, California. Before leaving and Rubin hired Dave Baggett, their first employee and a friend of Gavin's from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. During the trip and Rubin studied arcade games intensely and noticed that racing and shooting games had begun making a transition into full 3D rendering. Sensing opportunity, they turned to their favorite video game genre, the character-based action-platform game, asked themselves what a three-dimensional version of such a game would be like; because the player would be forced to look at the character's rear, the hypothetical game was jokingly called "Sonic's Ass Game". The basic technology for the game and the Crash Bandicoot series as a whole was created somewhere near Gary, Indiana; the rough game theory was designed near Colorado. Soon afterward and Rubin threw out their previous game design for Al O. Saurus and Dinestein, a side-scrolling video game based on time travel and scientists genetically merged with dinosaurs.
In August 1994, Naughty Dog moved into their new Universal City, California offices and met with Mark Cerny. The group unanimously liked the "Sonic's Ass Game
Gran Turismo (series)
Gran Turismo, abbreviated GT, is a series of racing simulation video games developed by Polyphony Digital. Developed for PlayStation systems, Gran Turismo games are intended to emulate the appearance and performance of a large selection of vehicles, nearly all of which are licensed reproductions of real-world automobiles. Since the franchise's debut in December 1997, over 80 million units have been sold worldwide for the PlayStation, PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, PlayStation Portable, making it the highest selling video game franchise under the PlayStation brand. Gran Turismo can trace back its origins to 1992, when Kazunori Yamauchi set out with a group of seven to develop the original Gran Turismo, which took five years to complete; the Gran Turismo series is produced by Kazunori Yamauchi. The appeal of the Gran Turismo series is due to its graphics, a large number of licensed vehicles, attention to vehicle detail, accurate driving physics emulation, the ability to tune performance, hence the subtitle "The Real Driving Simulator", incorporated to the franchise's iconography since the fourth game.
Handling of the vehicles is modeled on real-life driving impressions, tuning is based on principles of physics, the sound of the vehicle's engine is based on recordings of the actual vehicles. The game has been a flagship for the PlayStation console's graphics capabilities, is used to demonstrate the system's potential. Although Gran Turismo has an arcade mode, most gameplay derives from its simulation mode. Players start with a certain number of credits 10,000, which are used to purchase vehicles from several manufacturer-specific shops, or from used car dealers, tune their car at the appropriate parts store for best performance. Certain events are open only to particular types of vehicles. In order to enter and progress through more difficult races, a license-testing system has been implemented, which guides players through skill development. Players may apply prize money won in events to upgrade their existing car or buy a new one, collecting a garage of vehicles. Since Gran Turismo 5 Prologue launched on the PlayStation 3, an online aspect of the gameplay has started to evolve.
GT5 Prologue has enabled users to race online with up to 16 players on track at once. Gran Turismo 4 for the PlayStation 2 was the first online-enabled Gran Turismo game but the online aspect of the game did not make it past beta stage. According to Yamauchi, the cars in the first two games were made from 300 polygons, while those in Gran Turismo 3 and 4 were made up of 4,000 polygons, the "premium cars" in Gran Turismo 5 were made up of 500,000. With the release of Gran Turismo Sport, it became the first game focusing on online-only racing, whereas offline is limited. However, unlike its two predecessors, Gran Turismo Sport became the first game to provide post-release content including cars and tracks, along with offline events at no charge, as well as bug fixes; the Gran Turismo series is represented by seven primary releases, two for the PlayStation, two for the PlayStation 2, two for the PlayStation 3, one for the PlayStation 4. The series is represented by many other "abbreviated" releases on the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation 3.
Polyphony Digital has collaborated with peripherals manufacturer Logitech and auto parts maker Sparco to design official driving simulator kits for the Gran Turismo franchise. The most recent product designation is Driving Force GT. Two other racing wheels are compatible with Gran Turismo. In 2009, radio-control model car company HPI Racing released an official RC car tie-in: the HPI E10 RTR Ford GT LM Race Car Spec II designed by Gran Turismo, a pre-built licensed radio-control car kit built to look like the cover car for the Gran Turismo 4 game. Plans for future releases include releasing more kits to replicate other Gran Turismo cover cars. In 2009, a cafe opened at the Twin Ring Motegi racetrack. In acknowledgment of the Mount Panorama Circuit’s inclusion in Gran Turismo 6, the City of Bathurst in Australia unveiled a new street called ‘Gran Turismo Drive’ in December 2013. Mayor of Bathurst, Cr Gary Rush said “Driving a lap of our world famous motor racing circuit is a life changing experience for those who have the chance, the Bathurst Regional Council is excited about opening up the Mount Panorama experience through the launch of Gran Turismo 6.”Also in 2013, series creator Kazunori Yamauchi had a street named in honor of him in the city of Ronda.
Named “Paseo de Kazunori Yamauchi,” the street snakes around the Parador de Ronda. According to Ronda's city mayor Maria de la Paz Fernandez Lobato, "There is no doubt that his work has a huge cultural resonance with people today, he has driven the racing game genre to new levels of realism and his creations are as much art as technology. Ronda’s association with Gran Turismo is a reflection that our ancient city is a modern, vibrant place to live and much part of the 21st century.” The sixth annual Gran Turismo Awards was held at the SEMA show in Nevada. The exhibitors were given a chance to have their car featured in a future version of Gran Turismo as a drivable vehicle, with Gran Turismo creator and series producer Kazunori Yamauchi judging the five finalists to award the "Best in Show" prize; the awards ceremony was held at The Joint, located inside the Hard Rock Hotel and Casino and was hosted by experienced Formula D driver, Tanner Foust. Following the ceremony, Hip-hop star Ludacris and special guests Tommy Lee and Dave Navarro treated the guests to a special li
Glossary of video game terms
This is a glossary of video game terms which lists the general terms as used in Wikipedia articles related to video games and its industry. 1-up An object that gives the player an extra life in games where the player has a limited number of chances to complete a game or level. It can be used to mean beating someone else at something by a small amount. 100% To collect all collectibles within a game, either indicated within games as a percentage counter or determined by player community consensus. 1CC Abbreviation of "one credit clear". The act of completing an arcade game without using more than one credit, although it can be applied to any console or PC game that uses some form of continues; the term "1LC" or "no miss clear" are used instead when completing a game without losing a life as well. This can be further extended into a "no damage clear" or "no damage completion" in games where the player-character has a health gauge; some arcade games offer special ending sequences or challenges when the player achieves a 1CC.
1v1 Abbreviation of 1 versus 1, which means two players battling against each other. This term is synonymous with the term PvP. See player versus player. 2D graphics Graphic rendering technique in a two-dimensional perspective using sprites. 2.5D graphics Graphic rendering technique of three-dimensional objects set in a two-dimensional plane of movement. 3D graphics Graphic rendering technique featuring three-dimensional objects. 4X A genre of strategic video games, short for "explore, expand and exterminate". 8-bit A descriptor for hardware or software that arose during the third generation of video game consoles, targeting 8-bit computer architecture. 16-bit A descriptor for hardware or software that arose during the fourth generation of video game consoles, targeting 16-bit computer architecture. 32-bit A descriptor for hardware or software that arose during the fifth generation of video game consoles, targeting 32-bit computer architecture. 64-bit A descriptor for hardware or software that arose during the fifth generation of video game consoles, targeting 64-bit computer architecture.
AAA Also triple A. A high-budget game with a large development team, or game studios that make them. AAA games are multiplatform, have multimillion-dollar budgets, expect to sell millions of copies. Abandonware The idea of a game being forgotten about or abandoned by its developers for any number of reasons, including copyright issues. Act Sometimes used to refer to individual levels or groups of levels that make up a larger world or storyline. Action game A game genre emphasizing hand -- eye coordination and reflexes, it includes fighting games and platformers. Action point A subunit of a player's turn. For example, a game may allow an action to occur only so long as the player has sufficient'action points' to complete the action. Action role-playing game A genre of role-playing video game where battle actions are performed in real-time instead of a turn-based mechanic. Actions per minute The total number of actions the player can perform in a minute. Most professional-level players train with an emphasis on high APM in addition to raw skill.
Adds Commonly used in role-playing video game and MMORPGs where the boss calls in for reinforcements to help them take down the party members. Adventure game A game genre which emphasizes puzzle-solving. AFK Away from keyboard. Said through a chat function in online multiplayer games when a player intends to be temporarily unavailable; the term BRB from texting is used, although whether these two terms are interchangeable varies from person to person. Aggro An abbreviation of'aggravation' or'aggression'.'Causing aggro' in a video game means to attract hostile attention from NPCs to attack the player-character.'Managing aggro' involves keeping aggressive NPCs from overwhelming the player or party. The term may be facetiously used in reference to irritated bystanders. See hate. Aimbot A first-person shooter cheat. In most cases, the aiming reticle locks on to a target within the player's line of sight and the player only has to pull the trigger. Aimbots are one of the most popular cheats in multiplayer FPS, used since 1996's Quake.
Compare to the feature auto-aim. Aiming down sights Also aim down sights. Refers to the common alternate method of firing a gun in a first-person shooter game activated by the right mouse button; the real-life analogue is when a person raises a rifle up and places the stock just inside the shoulder area, leans their head down so they can see in a straight line along the top of the rifle, through both of the iron sights or a scope, if equipped. In most games this increases accuracy, but can limit vision, situational awareness and require a small amount of time to change the weapon position. Alpha release An incomplete version of a game. Alpha versions are released early in the development process to test a game's most critical functionality and prototype design concepts. Compare with beta release. Always-on DRM A type of digital rights management that requires a connection to the Internet while playing the game. Analog stick Also control thumbstick. A small variation of a joystick placed on a game controller to allow a player more fluent 2-dimensional input than is possible with a D-pad.
Animatic A animated storyboard with sound effects used during early game development. Animation priority A
Sony Interactive Entertainment
Sony Interactive Entertainment LLC is a multinational video game and digital entertainment company, a wholly owned subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the central hub for the American businesses under the Japanese conglomerate Sony Corporation. The company was founded in Tokyo and established on November 16, 1993, as Sony Computer Entertainment, to handle Sony's venture into video game development through its PlayStation brand. Since the successful launch of the original PlayStation console in 1994, the company has been developing the PlayStation lineup of home video game consoles and accessories. Expanding into North America and other countries, the company became Sony's main resource for research and development in video games and interactive entertainment. In April 2016, SCE and Sony Network Entertainment International was restructured and reorganized into Sony Interactive Entertainment, carrying over the operations and primary objectives from both companies; the same year, SIE moved its headquarters from Tokyo to California.
Sony Interactive Entertainment handles the research and development and sales of both hardware and software for the PlayStation video game systems. SIE is a developer and publisher of video game titles, operates several subsidiaries in Sony's largest markets: North America and Asia. By August 2018, the company had sold more than 525 million PlayStation consoles worldwide. Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc. was jointly established by Sony and its subsidiary Sony Music Entertainment Japan in 1993 to handle the company's ventures into the video game industry. The original PlayStation console was released on December 1994, in Japan; the company's North American operations, Sony Computer Entertainment of America, were established in May 1995 as a division of Sony Electronic Publishing. Located in Foster City, the North American office was headed by Steve Race. In the months prior to the release of the PlayStation in Western markets, the operations were restructured: All video game marketing from Sony Imagesoft was folded into SCEA in July 1995, with most affected employees transferred from Santa Monica to Foster City.
On August 7, 1995, Race unexpectedly resigned and was named CEO of Spectrum HoloByte three days later. He was replaced by Sony Electronics veteran Martin Homlish; this proved to be the beginning of a run of exceptional managerial turnover, with SCEA going through four presidents in a single year. The PS console was released in the United States on September 9, 1995; as part of a worldwide restructuring at the beginning of 1997, SCEA and Sony Computer Entertainment Europe were both re-established as wholly owned subsidiaries of SCEI. The launch of the second PS console, the PlayStation 2 was released in Japan on March 4, 2000, the U. S. on October 26, 2000. On July 1, 2002, chairman of SCEI, Shigeo Maruyama, was replaced by Tamotsu Iba as chairman. Jack Tretton and Phil Harrison were promoted to senior vice presidents of SCE; the PlayStation Portable was SCEI's first foray into the small handheld console market. Its development was first announced during SCE's E3 conference in 2003, it was unveiled during their E3 conference on May 11, 2004.
The system was released in Japan on December 12, 2004, in North America on March 24, 2005, in Europe and Australia on September 1, 2005. On September 14, 2005, SCEI formed Sony Computer Entertainment Worldwide Studios, a single internal entity to oversee all wholly owned development studios within SCEI, it became responsible for the creative and strategic direction of development and production of all computer entertainment software by all SCEI-owned studios—all software is produced for the PS family of consoles. Shuhei Yoshida was named as President of SCE WWS on May 16, 2008, replacing Kazuo Hirai, serving interim after Harrison left the company in early 2008. On December 8, 2005, video game developer Guerrilla Games, developers of the Killzone series, was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS. On January 24, 2006, video game developer Zipper Interactive, developers of the Socom series, was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS. In March 2006, Sony announced the online network for its forthcoming PlayStation 3 system at the 2006 PlayStation Business Briefing meeting in Tokyo, tentatively named "PlayStation Network Platform" and called just PlayStation Network.
Sony stated that the service would always be connected and include multiplayer support. The launch date for the PS3 was announced by Hirai at the pre-Electronic Entertainment Expo conference held at the Sony Pictures Studios in Los Angeles, California, on May 8, 2006; the PS3 was released in Japan on November 11, 2006, the U. S. date was November 17, 2006. The PSN was launched in November 2006. On November 30, 2006, president of SCEI, Ken Kutaragi, was appointed as chairman of SCEI, while Hirai president of SCEA, was promoted to president of SCEI. On April 26, 2007, Ken Kutaragi resigned from his position as chairman of SCEI and group CEO, passing on his duties to the appointed president of SCE, Hirai. On September 20, 2007, video game developers Evolution Studios and Bigbig Studios, creators of the MotorStorm series, were acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS. On April 15, 2009, David Reeves, president and CEO of SCE Europe, announced his forthcoming resignation from his post.
He had joined the company in 1995 and was appointed as chairman of SCEE in 2003, president in 2005. His role of president and CEO of SCEE would be taken over by Andrew House, who joined Sony Corporation in 1990; the PSP Go was released on October 1