Baal-zephon or Baalzephon, properly Baʿal Zaphon or Ṣaphon, was the form of the Canaanite storm god Baʿal in his role as lord of Mount Zaphon. Because of the mountain's importance and location, it came to metonymously signify "north" in Hebrew, he was equated with the Greek god Zeus in his form Zeus Kasios and with the Roman Jupiter Casius. Because Baʿal Zaphon was considered a protector of maritime trade, sanctuaries were constructed in his honor around the Mediterranean by his Canaanite and Phoenician devotees. "Baal-zephon" thereby became a placename, most notably a location mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures' Book of Exodus as the location where the Israelites miraculously crossed the Red Sea during their exodus from Egypt. The name Baʿal Zaphon never appears in the mythological texts discovered at Ugarit. Instead, it occurs in guides to ritual and in letters, where it is used to differentiate this form of Baʿal from others such as Baʿal Ugarit; the earliest discovered depiction of the god—where he stands astride two mountains in a smiting posture—dates to the 18th century BC.
Other depictions show him bearing a scepter. As a protector of maritime trade, his temples received votive stone anchors; the treaty between Asarhaddon and King Baʿal of Tyre ranks Baʿal Zaphon third behind Baʿal Shamem and Baʿal Malage. In addition to his temple at Jebel Aqra and Ugarit, Baʿal Zaphon is known to have been worshipped at Tyre and Carthage and served as the chief god of the colony at Tahpanes. A 14th-century letter from the king of Ugarit to the Egyptian pharaoh places Baʿal Zaphon as equivalent to Amun. Temples to Zeus Kasios are attested in Egypt, Epidauros, Corfu and Spain, with the last mention occurring on Rome's German border in the 3rd century. 1st-millennium BC Assyrian texts mention Baʿal Zaphon as the name of the mountain itself. The books of Exodus and Numbers in the Hebrew Scriptures records that the Israelites were instructed by YHWH to camp across from a place named "Baʿal Zaphon" in order to appear trapped and thereby entice Pharaoh to pursue them: Speak unto the children of Israel, that they turn and encamp before Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Baalzephon: before it shall ye encamp by the sea.
For Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel, They are entangled in the land, the wilderness hath shut them in. And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and they did so. Gmirkin identified this as Arsinoe on the Gulf of Suez. A Ptolemaic-era geographical text at the Cairo Museum lists four border fortresses, the third being "Midgol and Baʿal Zaphon". In context, it appears to have been located on a route to the Red Sea coast on the canal from Pithom to a location near Arsinoe. According to Herodotus, at Ras Kouroun, a small mountain near the marshy Lake Bardawil, the "Serbonian Bog" of Herodotus, where Zeus' ancient opponent Typhon was "said to be hidden". Here, Greeks knew, Baal Sephon was worshipped Book of Exodus Baal "Zaphon", Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1999, pp. 927–928. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, Grand Rapids: Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2000, ISBN 978-0-8028-2400-4. Bromiley, Geoffrey W. ed. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Grand Rapids: Wm.
B Eerdmans Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8028-3781-3. Albright, William F. "Two Little Understood Amarna Letters from the Middle Jordan Valley", Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 89. Eissfeldt, O. Baal Zaphon, Zeus Kasios, und der Durchzug der Israeliten durchs Meer, Halle. Fox, Robin Lane, Travelling Heroes in the Epic Age of Homer, New York: Knopf. Gmirkin, Russell E. Berossus and Genesis and Exodus, T. & T. Clark, ISBN 978-0-567-02592-0. Liverani, Mario, Le lettere di el-Amarna 1. Le lettere dei "Piccoli Re", Brescia. Niehr, H. "Baal-zaphon", Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, pp. 152–154. Vita, Juan-Pablo, "Der biblische Ortsname Zaphon und die Amarnabriefe EA 273-274", Ugarit-Forschungen, No. 37, pp. 673–677. Jewish Encyclopedia: Baal-zephon
Bartholomew the Apostle
Bartholomew was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus from ancient Judea. He has been identified as Nathanael or Nathaniel, who appears in the Gospel of John when introduced to Jesus by Philip, although many modern commentators reject the identification of Nathanael with Bartholomew. According to the Synaxarium of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Bartholomew's martyrdom is commemorated on the first day of the Coptic calendar, which falls on September 11. Eastern Christianity honours him on June 11 and the Roman Catholic Church honours him on August 24; the Church of England and other Anglican and churches honor him on August 24. The Armenian Apostolic Church honours Saint Bartholomew along with Saint Thaddeus as its patron saints. Bartholomew English for Bar Talmai comes from the Aramaic: בר-תולמי bar-Tolmay native to Israel "son of Talmai" or "son of the furrows". Bartholomew is listed among the Twelve Apostles of Jesus in the three synoptic gospels: Matthew and Luke, appears as one of the witnesses of the Ascension.
He is not mentioned by the name Bartholomew in the Gospel of John, nor are there any early acta, the earliest being written by a pseudepigraphical writer, Pseudo-Abdias, who assumed the identity of Abdias of Babylon and to whom is attributed the Saint-Thierry and Pseudo-Abdias manuscripts. In art Bartholomew is most depicted with a beard and curly hair at the time of his martyrdom. According to legends he was skinned alive and beheaded so is depicted holding his flayed skin or the curved flensing knife with which he was skinned. In the East, where Bartholomew's evangelical labours were expended, he was identified as Nathanael, in works by Abdisho bar Berika, the 14th century Nestorian metropolitan of Soba, Elias, the bishop of Damascus. Nathanael is mentioned only in the Gospel of John. In the Synoptic Gospels and Bartholomew are always mentioned together, while Nathanael is never mentioned. Giuseppe Simone Assemani remarks, "the Chaldeans confound Bartholomew with Nathaniel"; some Biblical scholars reject this identification, however.
Eusebius of Caesarea's Ecclesiastical History states that after the Ascension, Bartholomew went on a missionary tour to India, where he left behind a copy of the Gospel of Matthew. Other traditions record him as serving as a missionary in Ethiopia, Mesopotamia and Lycaonia. Popular traditions and legends say that Bartholomew preached the Gospel in India went to Greater Armenia. Two ancient testimonies exist about the mission of Saint Bartholomew in India; these are of Saint Jerome. Both of these refer to this tradition while speaking of the reported visit of Pantaenus to India in the 2nd century; the studies of Fr A. C. Perumalil SJ and Moraes hold that the Bombay region on the Konkan coast, a region which may have been known as the ancient city Kalyan, was the field of Saint Bartholomew's missionary activities. Another unofficial book entitled ` Martyrdom of Bartholomew' says. In these texts, two kings named Astriyagis were described. Circa AD 55 the king named Pulaimi ruled near Kalyan, who in Latin language is called Polyamus and king Aristakarman, who succeeded Pulaimi, might have a Latin name of Astriyais.
According to the texts, on king's command, the saint was killed by beheading. It is argued that the saint was removed of his skin alive, hanged upside down, he is believed to have been killed there on August 24, at the age of 50. Along with his fellow apostle Jude "Thaddeus", Bartholomew is reputed to have brought Christianity to Armenia in the 1st century. Thus, both saints are considered the patron saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church. One tradition has it. According to popular hagiography, the apostle was flayed beheaded. According to other accounts he was crucified upside down like St. Peter, he is said to have been martyred for having converted Polymius, the king of Armenia, to Christianity. Enraged by the monarch's conversion, fearing a Roman backlash, king Polymius's brother, prince Astyages, ordered Bartholomew's torture and execution, which Bartholomew courageously endured. However, there are no records of any Armenian King of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia with the name Polymius. Current scholarship indicates that Bartholomew more died in Kalyan in India, where there was an official named Polymius.
The 13th-century Saint Bartholomew Monastery was a prominent Armenian monastery constructed at the site of the martyrdom of Apostle Bartholomew in Vaspurakan, Greater Armenia. The 6th-century writer in Constantinople, Theodorus Lector, averred that in about 507, the Byzantine emperor Anastasius I Dicorus gave the body of Bartholomew to the city of Dura-Europos, which he had refounded; the existence of relics at Lipari, a small island off the coast of Sicily, in the part of Italy controlled from Constantinople, was explained by Gregory of Tours by his body having miraculously washed up there: a large piece of his skin and many bones that were kept in the Cathedral of St Bartholomew the Apostle, were translated to
Healing the blind near Jericho
Each of the three Synoptic Gospels tells of Jesus healing the blind near Jericho, as he passed through that town, shortly before his passion. The Gospel of Mark tells of the cure of a man named Bartimaeus healed by Jesus as he is leaving Jericho; the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke include different versions of this story. The earliest version is in the Gospel of Mark which tells of the cure of a blind beggar named Bartimaeus, he is one of the few recipients of healing. Theologian Oleg Molenko attributes this detail to the fact that these people had been saved and served the Church in their lifetime unlike those whose names evangelists did not disclose. For example, in another instance of a man, an invalid for 38 years who waited for the movement of the water in a pool in the Gospel of John and whose name remains unknown, Jesus cures that sick person and warns him about the consequences in case he reverts to doing things that brought him to the condition of infirmity of which he's now restored, as yet he might have had inclination towards sin.
Unlike him, healed Bartimaeus follows Jesus which led the evangelist Mark to include his name in the narrative. Bartimaeus teaches us a Jesus Prayer, "Jesus, Son of David, have mercy on me!", its result, an acquiring spiritual eyesight, the sign of, his restored ability to see. As Jesus is leaving Jericho with his followers, Bartimaeus calls out:'Son of David, have mercy on me!' and persists though the crowd tries to silence him. Jesus asks what he wants. Jesus tells him. Apart from telling a miracle story that shows the power of Jesus, the author of the Gospel uses this story to advance a theological purpose, it shows the proper way to respond to him - with faith. The beggar, on being called to Jesus, discards his cloak, symbolising the leaving behind of possessions, and the use of the title,'Son of David' - the only occasion on which this is used in the Gospel of Mark - serves to identify Jesus as the Messiah. The Gospel of Matthew has two unnamed blind men, sitting by the roadside. 20:29-34 A version of the same story is told earlier in the narrative, when Jesus is preaching in Galilee.
On this occasion, he asks the blind men if they believe he can cure them, when they assure them they do, he commends their faith and touches their eyes, restoring their sight. He warns them to tell nobody of this; the Gospel of Luke 18:35-43 handles the story in a different way. Vernon K. Robbins emphasizes that the healing of Bartimaeus is the last of Jesus’ healings in Mark, links Jesus’ earlier teaching about the suffering and death of the Son of Man with his Son of David activity in Jerusalem; the story blends the Markan emphasis on the disciples’'blindness' - their inability to understand the nature of Jesus’ messiahship - with the necessity of following Jesus into Jerusalem, where his suffering and death make him recognizable to Gentiles as Son of God. Paula Fredriksen, who believes that titles such as "Son of David" were applied to Jesus only after the crucifixion and resurrection, argued that Mark and Matthew placed that healing with the proclamation "Son of David!" just before "Jesus' departure for Jerusalem, the long-foreshadowed site of his sufferings."
The title "Son of David" is a messianic name. Thus, Bartimaeus' exclamation was, according to Mark, the first public acknowledgement of the Christ, after St. Peter's private confession at Mark 8:27–30; the naming of Bartimaeus is unusual in several respects: the fact that a name is given at all, the strange Semitic-Greek hybrid, with an explicit translation "Son of Timaeus." Some scholars see this as confirmation of a reference to a historical person. Life of Jesus in the New Testament Ministry of Jesus Parables of Jesus The Blind Man of Bethsaida Paula Fredriksen, From Jesus to Christ, ISBN 0-300-08457-9 Vernon K. Robbins, Jesus the Teacher: A Socio-Rhetorical Interpretation of Mark 2009, ISBN 978-0-8006-2595-5 Additional images of Bartimaeus
The Bible is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures. Varying parts of the Bible are considered to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans by Christians, Jews and Rastafarians. What is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups; the Hebrew Bible overlaps with the Christian Old Testament. The Christian New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be Jewish disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek. Among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about what should be included in the canon about the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect. Attitudes towards the Bible differ among Christian groups. Roman Catholics, high church Anglicans and Eastern Orthodox Christians stress the harmony and importance of the Bible and sacred tradition, while Protestant churches, including Evangelical Anglicans, focus on the idea of sola scriptura, or scripture alone.
This concept arose during the Protestant Reformation, many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only infallible source of Christian teaching. The Bible has been a massive influence on literature and history in the Western World, where the Gutenberg Bible was the first book printed using movable type. According to the March 2007 edition of Time, the Bible "has done more to shape literature, history and culture than any book written, its influence on world history is unparalleled, shows no signs of abating." With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, it is considered to be the most influential and best-selling book of all time. As of the 2000s, it sells 100 million copies annually; the English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the same word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin and from Koinē Greek: τὰ βιβλία, translit. Ta biblia "the books". Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra "holy book", while biblia in Greek and Late Latin is neuter plural, it came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun in medieval Latin, so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe.
Latin biblia sacra "holy books" translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια tà biblía tà ágia, "the holy books". The word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of "paper" or "scroll" and came to be used as the ordinary word for "book", it is the diminutive of βύβλος byblos, "Egyptian papyrus" so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece. The Greek ta biblia was "an expression. Christian use of the term can be traced to c. 223 CE. The biblical scholar F. F. Bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer to use the Greek phrase ta biblia to describe both the Old and New Testaments together. By the 2nd century BCE, Jewish groups began calling the books of the Bible the "scriptures" and they referred to them as "holy", or in Hebrew כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ, Christians now call the Old and New Testaments of the Christian Bible "The Holy Bible" or "the Holy Scriptures"; the Bible was divided into chapters in the 13th century by Stephen Langton and it was divided into verses in the 16th century by French printer Robert Estienne and is now cited by book and verse.
The division of the Hebrew Bible into verses is based on the sof passuk cantillation mark used by the 10th-century Masoretes to record the verse divisions used in earlier oral traditions. The oldest extant copy of a complete Bible is an early 4th-century parchment book preserved in the Vatican Library, it is known as the Codex Vaticanus; the oldest copy of the Tanakh in Hebrew and Aramaic dates from the 10th century CE. The oldest copy of a complete Latin Bible is the Codex Amiatinus. Professor John K. Riches, Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism at the University of Glasgow, says that "the biblical texts themselves are the result of a creative dialogue between ancient traditions and different communities through the ages", "the biblical texts were produced over a period in which the living conditions of the writers – political, cultural and ecological – varied enormously". Timothy H. Lim, a professor of Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Judaism at the University of Edinburgh, says that the Old Testament is "a collection of authoritative texts of divine origin that went through a human process of writing and editing."
He states that it is not a magical book, nor was it written by God and passed to mankind. Parallel to the solidification of the Hebrew canon, only the Torah first and the Tanakh began to be translated into Greek and expanded, now referred to as the Septuagint or the Greek Old Testament. In Christian Bibles, the New Testament Gospels were derived from oral traditions in the second half of the first century CE. Riches says that: Scholars have attempted to reconstruct something of the history of the oral traditions behind the Gospels, but the results have not been too encouraging; the period of transmission is short: less than 40 years passed between the death of Jesus and the writing of Mark's Gospel. This means that there was little time for oral trad
Barak was a ruler of Ancient Israel. As military commander in the biblical Book of Judges, with Deborah, from the Tribe of Ephraim, the prophet and fourth Judge of pre-monarchic Israel, defeated the Canaanite armies led by Sisera; the son of Abinoam from Kedesh in Naphtali, Barak's mother was from the Tribe of Benjamin. His story is told in the Book of Judges, Chapters 4 and 5; the story of the Hebrews' defeat of the Canaanites led by Sisera, under the prophetic leadership of Deborah and the military leadership of Barak, is related in prose and repeated in poetry. Chapter 4 makes the chief enemy Jabin, king of Hazor, though a prominent part is played by his commander-in-chief, Sisera of Harosheth-ha-goiim. Deborah summoned Barak, the son of Abinoam, from his home at Kedesh in Naphtali, ordered him, in the name of YHWH, to take ten thousand men to Mount Tabor, he agreed to on condition. Here he was attacked, as Deborah had expected, by Sisera, whose forces were put to flight, the greater part of them were slain by Barak's army.
Because Barak would not go to battle without Deborah, the honor of victory did not go to him, but rather to "a woman". Most authorities believe this passage refers to Jael's killing of Sisera in her tent following the battle, while others believe this refers to Deborah herself. In the battle at Mount Tabor, a cloudburst occurred, causing the river to flood, thus limiting the maneuverability of the Canaanite chariots. Sisera fled, seeking refuge in the tent of Jael. Jael gave a drink of milk to Sisera, who fell asleep from weariness killed him by pounding a tent peg through his head; when Barak arrived, she showed him Sisera, dead in her tent. Barak ברק means lightning in Hebrew. Barcas, the surname of the famous Hamilcar Barca, is the Punic equivalent of the name; the Epistle to the Hebrews 11:32-34 praises Barak's faith which gave him victory
"High place", or "high places", in a biblical context always means "place of worship". This rendering has etymological justification, as appears from the poetical use of the plural in such expressions as to ride, or stalk, or stand on the "high places" of the earth, the sea, the clouds, from the corresponding usage in Assyrian; the development of the religious significance of the word took place not in Israel but among the Canaanites, from whom the Israelites, in taking possession of the holy places of the land adopted the name. Many towns and villages in ancient Israel had their own places of sacrifice called bamot, it has been suggested that the plural of the word referred to places of sacred prostitution and of pagan worship. From the Hebrew Bible and from existing remains a good idea may be formed of the appearance of such a place of worship, it was on the hill above the town, as at Ramah. Around these places the religion of the ancient Israelite centred; the building of YHWH's singular Temple at Jerusalem, which had an exclusive right to offer sacrifices, did not stop the bamot sacrifices until Kings Hezekiah and Josiah proscribed them.
The prophets of the 8th century BC assail the popular religion as corrupt and licentious, as fostering the monstrous delusion that immoral men can buy the favour of God by worship. Hosea stigmatizes the whole cultus as pure heathenism—Canaanite Baal-worship adopted by apostate Israel; the fundamental law in Deuteronomy 12:1–32 prohibits sacrifice at every place except the temple in Jerusalem. In the prophets of the 7th and 6th centuries BC, the word bamot connotes "seat of heathenish or idolatrous worship"; the reaction that followed the death of Josiah restored the old altars of Yahweh. The rule of the Law of Moses that sacrifice can be offered to Yahweh only at the Temple in Jerusalem was never established in fact; the Jewish military colonists in Elephantine in the 5th century BC had their altar of Yahweh beside the highway. In Jewish synagogues, the "High Place" is the elevated platform, it traditionally had its origin from the platform erected in the Temple in Jerusalem at which the king would read the Torah during the Hakhel ceremony every seven years at the Feast of Tabernacles.
The bimah is located in the center of Orthodox synagogues, in the front of Reform synagogues. In the Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches the High Place is the name used for the location of the cathedra, set in the center of the apse of a church's sanctuary, behind the Holy Table. In larger churches there may be a literal elevation, but there is not room for this in smaller churches; the cathedra is surrounded on both sides by the synthronos, a set of other seats or benches for the use of the priests. Every Orthodox church and Eastern Catholic church has such a High Place if it is not a cathedral; the term High Place refers to the central portion of the Holy Table, where the antimension and Gospel Book are kept. The only other objects that are permitted to occupy this place on the altar are the chalice and discos for the ce
Beelzebub or Beelzebul is a name derived from a Philistine god worshipped in Ekron, adopted by some Abrahamic religions as a major demon. The name Beelzebub is associated with the Canaanite god Baal. In theological sources, predominantly Christian, Beelzebub is sometimes another name for the Devil, similar to Satan, he is known in demonology as one of the seven princes of Hell. The Dictionnaire Infernal describes Beelzebub as a being capable of flying, known as the "Lord of the Flyers", or the "Lord of the Flies"; the source for the name Beelzebub is in 2 Kings 1:2–3, 6, 16, written Ba'al Zəbûb, referring to a deity worshipped by the Philistines. The Hebrews called him Prince of Demons; the title Ba'al, meaning "Lord" in Ugaritic, was used in conjunction with a descriptive name of a specific god. Opinions differ on. In one understanding, Ba'al Zəbûb is translated as "lord of the flies", it was long ago suggested that there was a relationship between the Philistine god, cults of flies—referring to a view of them as pests, feasting on excrement—appearing in the Hellenic world, such as Zeus Apomyios or Myiagros.
This is confirmed by the Ugaritic text which shows Baal expelling flies which are the cause of a person's sickness. According to Francesco Saracino this series of elements may be inconclusive as evidence, but the fact that in relationship to Baal Zebub, the two constituent terms are here linked, joined by a function, typical of some divinities attested in the Mediterranean world, is a strong argument in favor of the authenticity of the name of the god of Ekron, of his possible therapeutic activities, which are implicit in 2 Kings 1:2–3, etc. Alternatively, the deity's actual name could have been Ba'al Zəbûl, "lord of the dwelling", Ba'al Zebub was a derogatory pun used by the Israelites. In regard to the god of Ekron, the belief that zebub may be the original affix to Baal and that it is a substitute for an original zbl which, after the discoveries of Ras Shamra, has been connected with the title of "prince" attributed to Baal in mythological texts. Ba'al Zebub was used in Hebrew as a pun with Ba'al Zebul, where Zebul meant "of the manor", in a derogatory manner Ba'al Zebub was used to offend the enemies of the Israelites.
The Septuagint renders the name as Baal muian. However Symmachus the Ebionite may have reflected a tradition of its offensive ancient name when he rendered it as Beelzeboul. In the Testament of Solomon, Beelzebul appears as prince of the demons and says that he was a leading heavenly angel, associated with the star Hesperus. Beelzebul here is synonymous with Lucifer. Beelzebul claims to cause destruction through tyrants, to cause demons to be worshipped among men, to excite priests to lust, to cause jealousies in cities and murders, to bring on war; the Testament of Solomon is an Old Testament pseudepigraphical work, purportedly written by King Solomon, in which Solomon describes particular demons whom he enslaved to help build the temple, with substantial Christian interpolations. In Mark 3:22, the scribes accuse Jesus of driving out demons by the power of Beelzebul, prince of demons, the name appearing in the expanded version in Matthew 12:24,27 and Luke 11:15, 18–19; the name occurs in Matthew 10:25.
Jesus knew their thoughts and said to them, "Every kingdom divided against itself will be ruined, every city or household divided against itself will not stand. If Satan drives out Satan, he is divided against himself. How can his kingdom stand? And if I drive out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your people drive them out? So they will be your judges, but if I drive out demons by the Spirit of God the kingdom of God has come upon you." —Matthew 12:25-28 It is unknown whether Symmachus was correct in identifying these names, because we otherwise know nothing about either of them. Zeboul might derive from a slurred pronunciation of zebûb. In any case, the form Beelzebub was substituted for Beelzeboul in the Syriac translation and Latin Vulgate translation of the gospels, this substitution was repeated in the King James Version of the Bible, the resulting form Beelzeboul being unknown to Western European and descendant cultures until some more recent translations restored it. Beelzebub is identified in the New Testament as the devil, "prince of the demons".
Biblical scholar Thomas Kelly Cheyne suggested that it might be a derogatory corruption of Ba'al Zəbûl, "Lord of the High Place" or "High Lord". In Arabic translations, the name is rendered as Baʿlzabūl. Texts of the Acts of Pilate vary; the name is used by Hades as a secondary name for the Devil, but it may vary with each translation of the text. Beelzebub is described as placed high in Hell's hierarchy. According to the stories of the 16th-century occultist Johann Weyer, Beelzebub led a successful revolt against the Devil, is the chief lieutenant of Lucifer, the Emperor of Hell, presides over the Order of the Fly; the 17th-century exorcist Sebastien Michaelis, in his Admirable History, placed Beelzebub among the three most prominent fallen angels, the other two being Lucifer and Leviathan, whereas two 18th-century work