Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located 30 kilometres south of the city of Mosul, 5 kilometres south of the village of Selamiyah, in the Nineveh plains in Upper Mesopotamia. It was a major Assyrian city between 1350 BC and 610 BC; the city is located in a strategic position 10 kilometres north of the point that the river Tigris meets its tributary the Great Zab. The city covered an area of 360 hectares; the ruins of the city were found within one kilometre of the modern-day Assyrian village of Noomanea in Nineveh Province, Iraq. The name Nimrud was recorded as the local name by Carsten Niebuhr in the mid-18th century. In the mid 19th century, biblical archaeologists proposed the Biblical name of Kalhu, based on a description of the travels of Nimrod in Genesis 10. Archaeological excavations at the site began in 1845, were conducted at intervals between and 1879, from 1949 onwards. Many important pieces were discovered, with most being moved to museums in Iraq and abroad. In 2013, the UK's Arts and Humanities Research Council funded the "Nimrud Project", directed by Eleanor Robson, whose aims were to write the history of the city in ancient and modern times, to identify and record the dispersal history of artefacts from Nimrud, distributed amongst at least 76 museums worldwide.
In 2015, the terrorist organization Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant announced its intention to destroy the site because of its "un-Islamic" Assyrian nature. In March 2015, the Iraqi government reported that ISIL had used bulldozers to destroy excavated remains of the city. Several videos released by ISIL showed the work in progress. In November 2016 Iraqi forces retook the site, visitors confirmed extensive destruction. Others have suggested; the Assyrian king Shalmaneser. However, the ancient city of Assur remained the capital of Assyria, as it had been since c. 3500 BC. The city gained fame when king Ashurnasirpal II of the Neo-Assyrian Empire made it his capital at the expense of Assur, he built a large palace and temples in the city, which had fallen into a degree of disrepair during the Bronze Age Collapse of the mid-11th to mid-10th centuries BC. Thousands of men worked to build an 8-kilometre-long wall surrounding a grand palace. There were many inscriptions carved into limestone including one that said: "The palace of cedar, juniper, mulberry, pistachio wood, tamarisk, for my royal dwelling and for my lordly pleasure for all time, I founded therein.
Beasts of the mountains and of the seas, of white limestone and alabaster I fashioned and set them up on its gates." The inscriptions described plunder stored at the palace: "Silver, lead and iron, the spoil of my hand from the lands which I had brought under my sway, in great quantities I took and placed therein. The inscriptions described great feasts he had to celebrate his conquests; however his victims were horrified by his conquests. The text said: "Many of the captives I have taken and burned in a fire. Many I took alive. I burned their young men and children to death." About a conquest in another vanquished city he wrote: "I flayed the nobles as many as rebelled. He wanted the city to become the luxuriant in the empire, he created a zoo and botanical gardens in the city which featured exotic animals and flowers he had brought back from his military campaigns. A grand opening ceremony with festivities and an opulent banquet in 879 BC is described in an inscribed stele discovered during archeological excavations.
By 800 BC Nimrud had grown to 75,000 inhabitants making it the largest city in the world. King Ashurnasirpal's son Shalmaneser III continued. At Nimrud he built a palace, it was twice the size and it covered an area of about 5 hectares and included more than 200 rooms. He built the monument known as the Great Ziggurat, an associated temple. Nimrud remained the capital of the Assyrian Empire during the reigns of Shamshi-Adad V, Adad-nirari III, Queen Semiramis, Adad-nirari III, Shalmaneser IV, Ashur-dan III, Ashur-nirari V, Tiglath-Pileser III and Shalmaneser V. Tiglath-Pileser III in particular, conducted major building works in the city, as well as introducing Eastern Aramaic as the lingua franca of the empire, whose dialects still endure among the Christian Assyrians of the region today. However, in 706 BC Sargon II moved the capital of the empire to Dur Sharrukin, after his death, Sennacherib moved it to Nineveh, it remained a major city and a royal residence until the city was destroyed during the fall of the Assyrian Empire at the hands of an alliance of former subject peoples, including the Babylonians, Medes, Persians and Cimmerians.
The Nineveh Province, in which the ruins of Nimrud lie, is still the major center of Iraq's indigenous Assyrian population to this day. Ruins of a located city named "Larissa" were described by Xenophon in his Anabasis in the 5th century BC. A similar locality was described
Carchemish spelled Karkemish, was an important ancient capital in the northern part of the region of Syria. At times during its history the city was independent, but it was part of the Mitanni and Neo-Assyrian Empires. Today it is on the frontier between Syria, it was the location of an important battle, about 605 BC, between the Babylonians and Egyptians, mentioned in the Bible. Modern neighbouring cities are Karkamış in Jarabulus in Syria. Carchemish is now an extensive set of ruins, located on the West bank of Euphrates River, about 60 kilometres southeast of Gaziantep, 100 kilometres northeast of Aleppo, Syria; the site is crossed by the Baghdad Railway. A Turkish military base has been built on the Carchemish acropolis and Inner Town, access to that part of the site is presently restricted. Most of the Outer Town lies in Syrian territory. Carchemish has always been well known to scholars because of several references to it in the Bible and in Egyptian and Assyrian texts. However, its location was identified only in 1876 by George Smith.
Carchemish had been identified, with the Classical city of Circesium, at the confluence of the Khabur River and the Euphrates. The site was excavated by the British Museum, between 1878 and 1881 through Consul Patrick Henderson and between 1911 and 1914 under the direction of D. G. Hogarth. In 1911 on the field there were D. G. Hogarth himself, R. C. Thompson, T. E. Lawrence, from 1912 to 1914 C. L. Woolley and T. E. Lawrence, while a last campaign took place in 1920 with C. L. Woolley and Philip Langstaffe Ord Guy. Excavations were interrupted in 1914 by World War I and ended in 1920 with the Turkish War of Independence; these expeditions uncovered substantial remains of the Assyrian and Neo-Hittite periods, including defensive structures, temples and numerous basalt statues and reliefs with Luwian hieroglyphic inscriptions. With the completion of mine clearing operations on the Turkish portion of the site, archaeological work was resumed in September 2011. Excavations in the Inner and Outer Towns were carried out by a joint Turco-Italian team from the Universities of Bologna and University of Istanbul under the direction of Prof. Dr. Nicolò Marchetti.
The second season, from August to November 2012, brought several new art findings and archaeological discoveries, the most remarkable of, Katuwa's Palace to the east of the Processional Entry. The third season, from May to October 2013, extended the exposure of Katuwa's palace, retrieving a cuneiform tablet with an exorcism in the name of the god Marduk, as well as the ruins of Lawrence's excavation house in the Inner Town, from which hundreds of fragments of sculptures and hieroglyphic inscriptions have been retrieved; the fourth season started in May 2014 and continued through October 2014: in Katuwa's palace several orthostats exquisitely carved with a procession of gazelle-bearers have been found, some of them in situ, next to a courtyard paved with squared slabs. In the Neo Assyrian period that courtyard was covered by a mosaic floor made of river pebbles forming squares alternating in black and white color. Lawrence's excavation house was excavated. During the fifth season, April to October 2015, more significant discoveries have been made in the palace area, both for Late Hittite sculptures, Neo Assyrian refurbishments, with tens of items—including two fragments of clay prysmatical cylinders inscribed with a unique cuneiform text by Sargon, intended for display, telling how he captured and reorganized the city of Karkemish—retrieved in a 14-m-deep well, sealed in 605 BC at the time of the Late Babyonian takeover.
The sixth season, May to July 2016, saw a number of excavation areas opened near the border, due to the added security represented by the construction of the wall. Thus, in 2016 a complete stratigraphic record was obtained for peripheral areas adding to our understanding of urban development between LB II and the Achaemenid period. In the seventh season, from 7 May to 18 July 2017, the major breakthroughs were the beginning of the excavations on the north-western end of the acropolis and the discovery in the eastern Lower Palace area of a monumental building dating from the LB II. Among the finds, in addition to new sculpted complete artworks from the Iron Age, fragments of Imperial Hittite clay cuneiform tablets and c. 250 inscribed bullae should be mentioned. Conservation and presentation works have now been completed in view of the opening on 12 May 2018 of an archaeological park at the site, thanks to the support of Gaziantep Metropolitan Municipality. Financial support has been received by the three Universities mentioned above, by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
And the Sanko Holding, with the technical support of Şahinbey Municipality and Inta A.Ş. Archaeological investigations on the Syrian side have been conducted as part of the Land of Carchemish project: investigations of the Outer Town of Carchemish were undertaken in conjunction with the DGAM in Damascus and with the funding and sponsorship of the Council for British Research in the Levant and of the British Academy, under
Caleb, sometimes transliterated as Kaleb, is a figure who appears in the Hebrew Bible as a representative of the Tribe of Judah during the Israelites' journey to the Promised Land. A reference to him is found in the Quran, although his name is not mentioned. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, "since'Caleb' signifies dog, it has been thought that the dog was the totem of clan"; the New American Standard Exhaustive Concordance states that the name Kaleb is related to the word for "dog". The Bible was written down centuries before Hebrew diacritics were introduced, there is no certain knowledge of how the name was pronounced when the biblical text was written. In Hebrew, the name is pronounced or. Caleb, son of Jephunneh is not to be confused with great-grandson of Judah through Tamar; this other Caleb was the son of Hezron, his wife was Azubah. According to Numbers 13, the son of Jephunneh, was one of the twelve spies sent by Moses into Canaan, their task, over a period of 40 days, was to explore the Negev and surrounding area, to make an assessment of the geographical features of the land, the strength and numbers of the population, the agricultural potential and actual performance of the land, settlement patterns, forestry conditions.
Moses asked them to be courageous and to return with samples of local produce. In the Numbers 13 listing of the heads of each tribe, verse 6 reads "Of the tribe of Judah, Caleb the son of Jephunneh." Caleb's report balanced the appeal of the land and its fruits with the challenge of making a conquest. Verse 30 of chapter 13 reads "And Caleb stilled the people toward Moses, said:'We should go up at once, possess it. Caleb and Joshua said the people should go into the land. Caleb the spy is the son of Jephunneh. Jephunneh is called a Kenizzite; the Kenizzites are listed as one of the nations who lived in the land of Canaan, at the time that God covenanted with Abram to give that land to his descendants forever. However, Caleb is mentioned alongside the descendants of Judah recorded in 1 Chronicles 4: "And the sons of Caleb the son of Jephunneh: Iru and Naam. Numbers 13:6 lists Caleb as a tribal leader in Judah; the Kenizzites are considered an Edomite clan. In the aftermath of the conquest, Caleb asks Joshua to give him a mountain in property within the land of Judah, Joshua blesses him as a sign of God's blessing and approval, giving him Hebron.
Since Hebron itself was one of the Cities of Refuge to be ruled by the Levites, it is explained that Caleb was given the outskirts. Caleb promised his daughter Achsah in marriage to whoever would conquer the land of Debir from the giants; this was accomplished by Othniel Ben Kenaz, Caleb's nephew, who became Caleb's son-in-law as well. 1 Samuel 25:3 states that Nabal, the husband of Abigail before David, was "a Calebite". It is not stated whether this refers to one of the Calebs mentioned in the Bible, or another person bearing the same name. Traditional Jewish sources record a number of stories about Caleb which expand on the biblical account. One account records that Caleb wanted to bring produce from the land, but that the other spies discouraged him from doing so in order to avoid giving the Israelites a positive impression of Canaan, they only agreed to carry in samples of produce after Caleb brandished a sword and threatened to fight over the matter. A Midrash refers to Caleb being devoted to the Lord and to Moses, splitting from the other scouts to tour Hebron on his own and visit the graves of the Patriarchs.
While in Canaan with the spies, Caleb's voice was so loud that he succeeded in saving the other spies by frightening giants away from them. Caleb is alluded to in the 5th Surah of the Quran; the two men alluded to here are Caleb and Joshua: 20 And when Moses said to his people: O my people, remember the favour of Allah to you when He raised prophets among you and made you kings and gave you what He gave not to any other of the nations. 21 O my people, enter the Holy Land which Allah has ordained for you and turn not your backs, for you will turn back losers. 22 They said: O Moses, therein are a powerful people, we shall not enter it until they go out from it. 23 Two men of those who feared, on whom Allah had bestowed a favour, said: Enter upon them by the gate, for when you enter it you will be victorious. 24 They said: O Moses, we will never enter it so long as they are in it. 25 He said: My Lord, I have control of none but my own self and my brother. 26 He said: It will be forbidden to them for forty years -- they will wander about in the land.
So grieve not for the transgressing people. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Caleb". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press; the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1908
Cecrops was a mythical king of Attica which derived from him its name Cecropia, having borne the name of Acte or Actice. He was the founder and the first king of Athens itself though preceded in the region by the earth-born king Actaeus of Attica. Cecrops was a culture hero, teaching the Athenians marriage and writing, ceremonial burial; the name of Cecrops was not of Greek origin according to Strabo, or it might mean'tail-face': it was said that, born from the earth itself and was accordingly called a γηγενής, described as having his top half shaped like a man and the bottom half in serpent or fish-tail form. Hence he was called διφυής or of two natures. Diodorus rationalized that his double form was because of his double citizenship and barbarian; some ancients referred the epithet διφυής to marriage. Cecrops married Aglaurus, the daughter of Actaeus, former king of the region of Attica, whom he succeeded to the throne, it is disputed. Erysichthon predeceased him, he was succeeded by Cranaus, said to have been one of the wealthiest citizens of Athens at that time.
Cecrops was the father of three daughters: Herse and Aglaurus. To them was given a box or jar containing the infant Erichthonius to guard unseen, they looked, terrified by the two serpents Athena had set within to guard the child, they fled in terror and leapt from the Acropolis to their deaths. Some accounts say. Cecrops was represented in the Attic legends as the author of the first elements of civilized life such as marriage, the political division of Attica into twelve communities, as the introducer of a new mode of worship, he was said to have been the first who deified Zeus, ordained sacrifices to be offered to him as the supreme Deity. Cecrops was affirmed to have been the first who built altars and statues of the gods, offered sacrifices, instituted marriage among the Athenians, before his time, it seems, lived promiscuously. Pausanias tells us that he forbade the sacrificing of any living creatures to the gods, as well as any sort of other offering, only allowing cakes formed into the shape of an ox with horns, called by the Athenians Pelanous, which signifies an ox.
He is said to have taught his subjects the art of navigation. Some make him the founder of the areopagus; the Acropolis was known as the Cecropia in his honor. The Athenians are said to have called themselves Cecropidæ, during the reigns of the five following kings, in his honor. During his reign which lasted for 50 years, the gods resolved to take possession of cities in which each of them should receive his own peculiar worship. Athena became the patron goddess of the city of Athens in a competition with Poseidon as judged by Cecrops; the two raced ferociously towards the Acropolis and it was a close race. Poseidon was the first that came to Attica and struck the acropolis with his trident and thereby created a salt sea, known in times by the name of the Erechthean well, from its being enclosed in the temple of Erechtheus. After him came Athena who having called on Cecrops to witness her act of taking possession, she planted an olive tree on the hill of the acropolis which continued to be shewn in the Pandrosium down to the latest times.
But when the two strove for possession of the country, Zeus parted them and appointed arbiters, not, as some have affirmed and Cranaus, nor yet Erysichthon, but the twelve gods. And in accordance with their verdict the country was adjudged to Athena, because Cecrops bore witness that she had been the first to plant the olive. Athena, called the city Athens after herself, Poseidon in hot anger flooded the Thriasian plain and laid Attica under the sea. A rationalistic explanation of the fable was propounded by the eminent Roman antiquary Varro. According to him, the olive-tree appeared in Attica, at the same time there was an eruption of water in another part of the country. So king Cecrops sent to inquire of Apollo at Delphi; the oracle answered that the olive and the water were the symbols of Athena and Poseidon and that the people of Attica were free to choose which of these deities they would worship. Accordingly, the question was submitted to a general assembly of the citizenesses. All the men voted for the god, all the women voted for the goddess.
Chagrined at the loss of the election, the male candidate flooded the country with the water of the sea, to appease his wrath it was decided to deprive women of the vote and to forbid children to bear their mother's names for the future. The Athenians said that the contest between Poseidon and Athena took place on the second of the month Boedromion, hence they omitted that day from the calendar; the name of Cecrops occurs in other parts of Greece where there existed a town of the name of Athenae, such as in Boeotia, where he is said to have founded the ancient towns of Athenae and Eleusis on the river Triton, where he had a heroum at Haliartus. Tradition there called him a son of Pandion. In Euboea, which had a town Athenae, Cecrops was called a son of Erechtheus and Praxithea, a grandson of Pandion. Fro
Kechries is a village in the municipality of Corinth in Corinthia in Greece, part of the community of Xylokeriza. Population 238, it takes its name from the ancient port town Kenchreai or Cenchreae, situated at the same location. Kechries is situated near a broad bay at the western end of the Saronic Gulf, called Kechries Bay; this coastline forms the easternmost point of the Corinth Fault. The area has felt the impact of seismic activity, which has led to the moderate subsidence of the coastline since ancient times. Kechries is a small village with a church; the number of permanent residents of Kechries is small, many houses there are used seasonally by owners who reside elsewhere. The Oneia Mountains lie to the south, where a major stone quarry is located, the village is surrounded by fertile land dedicated to the cultivation of olive, the vine, fruit trees. Kechries is located about 8 kilometres southeast of modern Corinth and 4 kilometres southwest of Isthmia, at the eastern end of the Corinth Canal.
Other nearby villages are Loutra Elenis and Kyras Vrysi. In ancient times, Kenchreai was one of the two ports of the inland city-state of Corinth. While Kenchreai served the eastern trade routes via the Saronic Gulf, Lechaion on the Corinthian Gulf served the trade routes leading west to Italy and the rest of Europe. Situated on the eastern side of the Isthmus of Corinth, Kenchreai sat at a natural crossroads for ships arriving from the east and overland traffic heading north and south between central Greece and the Peloponnese; the origin of Kenchreai is unknown, but it must have been inhabited from early times in prehistory, on account of the deep natural harbor, favorable for landing ships. The area is endowed with abundant water sources, a massive bedrock of oolitic limestone that excellent building stone, several defensible positions with good viewpoints; the name of the site seems to derive from the ancient Greek word for millet, the area's capacity for agricultural production is still evident.
The earliest textual sources for Kenchreai, an epitaph of the Late Archaic period and references in historical and geographical writings of the Classical to Hellenistic eras, reveal that there was a permanent settlement and a fortified naval station. Few archaeological remains survive from this early settlement, but it seems to have been located westward from the modern coast, along the prominent ridge that borders the modern village to the north. Kenchreai flourished during the Roman Empire, when the settlement was focused around the crescent-shaped harbor enclosed by massive concrete breakwaters and protected by sea-walls; the local community was small but prosperous, it was distinguished by its social and religious diversity. Ancient literature and inscriptions from the site attest to the presence of cults of Aphrodite, Asklepios, Poseidon and Pan. Christianity arrived at Kenchreai early in the religion's history. According to Acts 18:18, the Apostle Paul stopped at Kenchreai during his second missionary journey, where he had his hair cut to fulfil a vow a Nazirite vow.
Paul mentions a woman named Phoebe in the local assembly in his epistle to the Romans. Archaeological evidence indicates that trade with other Mediterranean regions continued into the 7th Century CE. A ecclesiastical tradition recorded the existence of a bishop at Kenchreai, but the veracity of these accounts is hard to establish; the ancient harbor was excavated in 1962-1969 by a team sponsored by the American School of Classical Studies under the general direction of Robert Scranton. Excavations have uncovered several buildings that attest to the commercial vitality of the port throughout the Roman Empire and into the 7th century, when maritime activity and local habitation diminished; the most impressive buildings located at the north and south ends of the harbor include blocks of rooms near the waterfront. Most distinctive among the many discoveries was over a hundred panels in glass opus sectile found in their original packing crates and awaiting installation in a possible sanctuary of Isis whose great annual festival is the scene of the climax of Apuleius' novel "Metamorphosis" which tells the story of a man turned into a donkey and back again.
The Chicago team published six volumes about the architecture, glass panels, coins and furniture pieces from the excavations. Material from the excavations is stored in the Archaeological Museum of Isthmia, where some of it is on display; the American Excavations at Kenchreai are now directed by Joseph L. Rife, whose team has begun to re-evaluate the discoveries in the 1960s and to complete their study and publication. Since 2002, survey and excavation jointly sponsored by the American School and the Greek Ministry of Culture has explored the area north of the harbor on the low coastal ridge called Koutsongila; these investigations concentrated on a vast cemetery of Early Roman chamber tombs and Roman to Early Byzantine cist graves, an opulent residential quarter facing seaward, other large structures overlooking the harbor. The bountiful artifacts and structures found both at the harbor and on Koutsongila reveal
Chemosh was the god of the Moabites. He is most notably attested in the Hebrew Bible; the etymology of "Chemosh" is unknown. He is known from Ebla as Kamish. While he is most associated with the Moabites, according to Judges 11:23-24 he seems to have been the national deity of the Ammonites as well. According to the Hebrew Bible, the worship of this god, "the abomination of Moab," was introduced at Jerusalem by Solomon, but was abolished by Josiah. On the Moabite stone, Mesha ascribed his victories over the king of Israel to this god, "and Chemosh drove him out from before me." According to Morris Jastrow, Jr. and George Aaron Barton in the Jewish Encyclopedia,The national god of the Moabites. He permitted them to become the vassals of Israel. A king in the days of Sennacherib was called "Chemoshnadab". Chemosh was a god associated with the Semitic mother-goddess Ashtar. Peake wrongly holds that Ashtar-Chemosh was a deity distinct from Chemosh, while Moore and Bäthgen regard "Ashtar" in this name as equivalent to "Astarte," who they believe was worshipped in the temple of Chemosh.
"Ashtar" is more masculine here, as in South Arabia, another name for Chemosh, the compound "Ashtar-Chemosh" being formed like "Yhwh-Elohim" or "Yhwh-Sebaoth." Whatever differences of conception may have attached to the god at different shrines, there is no adequate reason for doubting the substantial identity of the gods to whom these various names were applied. Hosea ix. 10 is proof that at some period the impure cult of the Semitic goddess was practised at Baal-peor. Chemosh, was in general a deity of the same nature as Baal. On critical occasions a human sacrifice was considered necessary to secure his favor, when deliverance came, a sanctuary might be built to him. An ancient poem, twice quoted in the Old Testament, regards the Moabites as the children of Chemosh, calls them "the people of Chemosh"; the name of the father of Mesha, Chemosh-melek, indicates the possibility that Chemosh and Malik were one and the same deity. Book of Judges 11:24 has been thought by some to be a proof of this, since it speaks of Chemosh as the god of the Ammonites, while Moloch is elsewhere their god.
Solomon is said to have built a sanctuary to Chemosh on the Mount of Olives, maintained till the reform of Josiah. This movement by Solomon was no doubt to some extent a political one, but it made the worship of Chemosh a part of the religious life of Israel for nearly 400 years. John Milton, "Paradise Lost", Book I Next CHEMOS, th' obscene dread of MOABS Sons, From AROER to NEBO, the wild Of Southmost ABARIM. PEOR his other Name, when he entic'd ISRAEL in SITTIM on their march from NILE To do him wanton rites, which cost them woe, yet thence his lustful Orgies he enlarg'd Even to that Hill of scandal, by the Grove Of MOLOCH homicide, lust hard by hate. Harry Turtledove's short alternate history story "Occupation Duty" features a society where Chemoshism survived to the present day, the popular image of Chemosh has metamorphosed into something akin to Yahweh; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Isidore. "article name needed". The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls
Capernaum was a fishing village established during the time of the Hasmoneans, located on the northern shore of the Sea of Galilee. It had a population of about 1,500. Archaeological excavations have revealed two ancient synagogues built one over the other. A house turned into a church by the Byzantines is said to be the home of Saint Peter; the village was inhabited continuously from the 2nd century BC to the 11th century AD, when it was abandoned sometime before the Crusader conquest. This includes the re-establishment of the village during the Early Islamic period soon after the 749 earthquake. Kfar Naḥūm, the original name of the small town, means "Nahum's village" in Hebrew, but there is no connection with the prophet named Nahum. In the writings of Josephus, the name is rendered in Greek as Kαφαρναούμ Kapharnaoúm and Κεφαρνωκόν, Kepharnōkón. In the Midrash Rabba the name appears in Kǝfar Naḥūm. In Arabic, it is called Talḥūm, it is assumed that this refers to the ruin of Ḥūm; the word capharnaum, meaning a place with a "disorderly accumulation of objects", is derived from the town's name.
The town is cited in all four gospels where it was reported to have been the hometown of the tax collector Matthew, located not far from Bethsaida, the hometown of the apostles Simon Peter, Andrew and John. Some readers take Mark 2:1 as evidence that Jesus may have owned a home in the town, but it is more that he stayed in the house of one of his followers here, he spent time teaching and healing there. One Sabbath, Jesus taught in the synagogue in Capernaum and healed a man, possessed by an unclean spirit; this story is notable as the only one, common between the gospels of Mark and Luke, but not contained in the Gospel of Matthew. Afterward, Jesus healed Simon Peter's mother-in-law of a fever. According to Luke 7:1–10 and Matthew 8:5, this is the place where Jesus healed the servant of a Roman centurion who had asked for his help. Capernaum is the location of the healing of the paralytic lowered by friends through the roof to reach Jesus, as reported in Mark 2:1–12 and Luke 5:17–26; some traditional biblical commentators assume that in Matthew 9:1-7 "his own city" means Capernaum, because of the details that are common to the three synoptic gospels.
But the writers of the Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary suggest that, alternatively, it could refer to Nazareth. According to the Synoptic Gospels, Jesus selected this town as the center of his public ministry in Galilee after he left the small mountainous hamlet of Nazareth, he formally cursed Capernaum, along with Bethsaida and Chorazin, saying "you will be thrown down to Hades!" because of their lack of faith in him as the Messiah. Archaeological evidence demonstrates that the town was established in the 2nd century BC during the Hasmonean period, when a number of new fishing villages sprung up around the lake; the site extended along the northwestern shore of the lake. The cemetery zone is found 200 meters north of the synagogue, which places it beyond the inhabited area of the town, it extended 3 kilometers to Tabgha, an area which appears to have been used for agricultural purposes, judging by the many oil and grain mills which were discovered in the excavation. Fishing was a source of income.
No sources have been found for the belief that Capernaum was involved in the bloody Jewish revolts against the Romans, the First Jewish-Roman War or Bar Kokhba's revolt, although there is reason to believe that Josephus, one of the Jewish generals during the earlier revolt, was taken to Capernaum after a fall from his horse in nearby Bethsaida. Josephus referred to Capernaum as a fertile spring, he stayed the night there after bruising his wrist in a riding accident. During the first Jewish revolt of 66–70 Capernaum was spared as it didn't have to be occupied by force by the Romans; as early as 530 CE, Capernaum was mentioned in the writings of Theodosius the archdeacon who said that it was situated, as one goes northward from Tiberius, two miles from Tabga and six miles short of Bethsaida along the same route. In 1838, American explorer Edward Robinson discovered the ruins of ancient Capernaum. In 1866, British Captain Charles William Wilson identified the remains of the synagogue, in 1894, Franciscan Friar Giuseppe Baldi of Naples, the Custodian of the Holy Land, was able to recover a good part of the ruins from the Bedouins.
The Franciscans raised a fence to protect the ruins from frequent vandalism, planted palms and eucalyptus trees brought from Australia to create a small oasis for pilgrims. They built a small harbor; these labors were directed by Franciscan Virgilio Corbo. The most important excavations began in 1905 under the direction of Germans Heinrich Kohl and Carl Watzinger, they were continued by Franciscans Fathers Vendelin von Gaudenzio Orfali. The excavations resulted in the discovery of two public buildings, the synagogue, an octagonal church. In