The Bible is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures. Varying parts of the Bible are considered to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans by Christians, Jews and Rastafarians. What is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups; the Hebrew Bible overlaps with the Christian Old Testament. The Christian New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be Jewish disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek. Among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about what should be included in the canon about the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect. Attitudes towards the Bible differ among Christian groups. Roman Catholics, high church Anglicans and Eastern Orthodox Christians stress the harmony and importance of the Bible and sacred tradition, while Protestant churches, including Evangelical Anglicans, focus on the idea of sola scriptura, or scripture alone.
This concept arose during the Protestant Reformation, many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only infallible source of Christian teaching. The Bible has been a massive influence on literature and history in the Western World, where the Gutenberg Bible was the first book printed using movable type. According to the March 2007 edition of Time, the Bible "has done more to shape literature, history and culture than any book written, its influence on world history is unparalleled, shows no signs of abating." With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, it is considered to be the most influential and best-selling book of all time. As of the 2000s, it sells 100 million copies annually; the English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the same word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin and from Koinē Greek: τὰ βιβλία, translit. Ta biblia "the books". Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra "holy book", while biblia in Greek and Late Latin is neuter plural, it came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun in medieval Latin, so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe.
Latin biblia sacra "holy books" translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια tà biblía tà ágia, "the holy books". The word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of "paper" or "scroll" and came to be used as the ordinary word for "book", it is the diminutive of βύβλος byblos, "Egyptian papyrus" so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece. The Greek ta biblia was "an expression. Christian use of the term can be traced to c. 223 CE. The biblical scholar F. F. Bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer to use the Greek phrase ta biblia to describe both the Old and New Testaments together. By the 2nd century BCE, Jewish groups began calling the books of the Bible the "scriptures" and they referred to them as "holy", or in Hebrew כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ, Christians now call the Old and New Testaments of the Christian Bible "The Holy Bible" or "the Holy Scriptures"; the Bible was divided into chapters in the 13th century by Stephen Langton and it was divided into verses in the 16th century by French printer Robert Estienne and is now cited by book and verse.
The division of the Hebrew Bible into verses is based on the sof passuk cantillation mark used by the 10th-century Masoretes to record the verse divisions used in earlier oral traditions. The oldest extant copy of a complete Bible is an early 4th-century parchment book preserved in the Vatican Library, it is known as the Codex Vaticanus; the oldest copy of the Tanakh in Hebrew and Aramaic dates from the 10th century CE. The oldest copy of a complete Latin Bible is the Codex Amiatinus. Professor John K. Riches, Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism at the University of Glasgow, says that "the biblical texts themselves are the result of a creative dialogue between ancient traditions and different communities through the ages", "the biblical texts were produced over a period in which the living conditions of the writers – political, cultural and ecological – varied enormously". Timothy H. Lim, a professor of Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Judaism at the University of Edinburgh, says that the Old Testament is "a collection of authoritative texts of divine origin that went through a human process of writing and editing."
He states that it is not a magical book, nor was it written by God and passed to mankind. Parallel to the solidification of the Hebrew canon, only the Torah first and the Tanakh began to be translated into Greek and expanded, now referred to as the Septuagint or the Greek Old Testament. In Christian Bibles, the New Testament Gospels were derived from oral traditions in the second half of the first century CE. Riches says that: Scholars have attempted to reconstruct something of the history of the oral traditions behind the Gospels, but the results have not been too encouraging; the period of transmission is short: less than 40 years passed between the death of Jesus and the writing of Mark's Gospel. This means that there was little time for oral trad
The Khabur River is the largest perennial tributary to the Euphrates in Syrian territory. Although the Khabur originates in Turkey, the karstic springs around Ra's al-'Ayn are the river's main source of water. Several important wadis join the Khabur north of Al-Hasakah, together creating what is known as the Khabur Triangle, or Upper Khabur area. From north to south, annual rainfall in the Khabur basin decreases from over 400 mm to less than 200 mm, making the river a vital water source for agriculture throughout history; the Khabur joins the Euphrates near the town of Busayrah. The course of the Khabur can be divided in two distinct zones: the Upper Khabur area or Khabur Triangle north of Al-Hasakah, the Middle and Lower Khabur between Al-Hasakah and Busayrah; the tributaries to the Khabur are listed from east to west. Most of these wadis only carry water for part of the year. Wadi Radd Wadi Khnezir Wadi Jarrah Jaghjagh River Wadi Khanzir Wadi Avedji The river was well noted by ancient writers, with various names used by various writers: Ptolemy and Pliny the Elder called it the Chaboras, Procopius called it the Chabura, Strabo and Ammianus Marcellinus called it the Aborrhas, Isidore of Charax called it the Aburas.
It was described as a large river of Mesopotamia which rose in Mons Masius, about 40 miles from Nisibis, flowed into the Euphrates at Circesium. Procopius speaks of it as a river of importance, Ammianus states that Julian the Apostate crossed it “per navalem Aborae pontem.” Strabo describes it as near the town of Anthemusia. The river is fed by several smaller streams, the names of which are mentioned in the classical writers; these are, the Scirtus, the Cordes, the Mygdonius. Ptolemy mentions a town called Chabora, on the Euphrates, which he places near Nicephorion, which derives its name from the river, Theophylact Simocatta mentions Ἀβορέων φρούριον, which is, as the same place. Since the 1930s, numerous archaeological excavations and surveys have been carried out in the Khabur Valley, indicating that the region has been occupied since the Lower Palaeolithic period. Important sites that have been excavated include Tell Halaf, Tell Brak, Tell Leilan, Tell Mashnaqa, Tell Mozan and Tell Barri.
The region has given its name to a distinctive painted ware found in northern Mesopotamia and Syria in the early 2nd millennium BCE, called Khabur ware. The region of the Khabur River is associated with the rise of the Kingdom of the Mitanni that flourished c.1500-1300 BC. The Khabur River is mentioned in 1 Chronicles 5:26 in the Hebrew Bible: "Tiglath-Pileser... took the Reubenites, the Gadites and the half tribe of Manasseh into exile. He took them to Halah, Habor and the River Gozan, where they are to this day"; the identification of the Khabur with the Habor is not contested. The ancient city of Corsote, visited by Cyrus the Younger on his ill-fated expedition against the Persians as told by Xenophon, was located at the confluence of the Khabur River, known by them as the'Mascas', the Euphrates according to Robin Waterfield. Other authors have been circumspect upon the precise location of Corsote due to the changing names and courses of the rivers since that time; the Khabur river was sometimes identified with the Chebar or Kebar, the location of Tel Abib and setting of several important scenes of the Book of Ezekiel.
However, recent scholarship identifies the Chebar as the ka-ba-ru waterway mentioned among the 5th century BCE Murushu archives from Nippur, close to Nippur and the Shatt el-Nil, a silted up canal toward the east of Babylon. The Khabur River Project, begun in the 1960s, involved the construction of a series of dams and canals. Three dams were built in the Khabur Basin as part of a large irrigation scheme that includes the Tabqa Dam on the Euphrates; the section of the Khabur River within Tell Tamer Subdistrict are home to a self-governing Assyrian enclave. Two dams, Hasakah West and Hasakah East, have been constructed on tributaries to the Khabur between Ra's al-'Ayn and Al-Hasakah; the capacity of the reservoir of Hasakah West is 0.09 km3, is the southeastern end of the Assyrian enclave. The capacity of Hasakah East is 0.2 km3. A third dam, Hassakeh South, was constructed on the Khabur 25 km south of Al-Hasakah; the reservoir of this dam has a capacity of 0.7 km3. The Khabur Valley, which now has about four million acres of farmland, is Syria's main wheat-cultivation area.
The northeastern part is the center for Syria's oil production. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Chaboras". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray
Hadad, Haddad or Iškur was the storm and rain god in the Northwest Semitic and ancient Mesopotamian religions. He was attested in Ebla as "Hadda" in c. 2500 BCE. From the Levant, Hadad was introduced to Mesopotamia by the Amorites, where he became known as the Akkadian god Adad. Adad and Iškur are written with the logogram dIM—the same symbol used for the Hurrian god Teshub. Hadad was called "Pidar", "Rapiu", "Baal-Zephon", or simply Baʿal, but this title was used for other gods; the bull was the symbolic animal of Hadad. He appeared bearded holding a club and thunderbolt while wearing a bull-horned headdress. Hadad was equated with the Greek god Zeus. In Akkadian, Adad is known as Rammanu cognate with Aramaic: רעמא Raˁmā and Hebrew: רַעַם Raˁam, a byname of Hadad. Rammanu was incorrectly taken by many scholars to be an independent Akkadian god identified with Hadad. Though originating in northern Mesopotamia, Adad was identified by the same Sumerogram dIM that designated Iškur in the south, his worship became widespread in Mesopotamia after the First Babylonian dynasty.
A text dating from the reign of Ur-Ninurta characterizes Adad/Iškur as both threatening in his stormy rage and life-giving and benevolent. The form Iškur appears in the list of gods found at Shuruppak but was of far less importance partly because storms and rain were scarce in Sumer and agriculture there depended on irrigation instead; the gods Enlil and Ninurta had storm god features that decreased Iškur's distinctiveness. He sometimes appears as the other of the two; when Enki distributed the destinies, he made Iškur inspector of the cosmos. In one litany, Iškur is proclaimed again and again as "great radiant bull, your name is heaven" and called son of Anu, lord of Karkara. In other texts Adad/Iškur is sometimes son of the moon god Nanna/Sin by Ningal and brother of Utu/Shamash and Inanna/Ishtar. Iškur is sometimes described as the son of Enlil; the bull was portrayed as Adad/Iškur's sacred animal starting in the Old Babylonian period. Adad/Iškur's consort was Shala, a goddess of grain, sometimes associated with the god Dagānu.
She was called Gubarra in the earliest texts. The fire god Gibil is sometimes the son of Shala, he is identified with the Anatolian storm-god Teshub, whom the Mitannians designated with the same Sumerogram dIM. Adad/Iškur is identified with the god Amurru, the god of the Amorites; the Babylonian center of Adad/Iškur's cult was Karkara in the south, his chief temple being É. Kar.kar.a. Dur.ku. In Assyria, Adad was developed along with his warrior aspect. During the Middle Assyrian Empire, from the reign of Tiglath-Pileser I, Adad had a double sanctuary in Assur which he shared with Anu. Anu is associated with Adad in invocations; the name Adad and various alternate forms and bynames are found in the names of the Assyrian kings. Adad/Iškur presents two aspects in the hymns and votive inscriptions. On the one hand he is the god who, through bringing on the rain in due season, causes the land to become fertile, and, on the other hand, the storms that he sends out bring havoc and destruction, he is pictured on monuments and cylinder seals with the lightning and the thunderbolt, in the hymns the sombre aspects of the god on the whole predominate.
His association with the sun-god, due to the natural combination of the two deities who alternate in the control of nature, leads to imbuing him with some of the traits belonging to a solar deity. According to Alberto Green, descriptions of Adad starting in the Kassite period and in the region of Mari emphasize his destructive, stormy character and his role as a fearsome warrior deity, in contrast to Iškur's more peaceful and pastoral character. Shamash and Adad became in combination the gods of oracles and of divination in general. Whether the will of the gods is determined through the inspection of the liver of the sacrificial animal, through observing the action of oil bubbles in a basin of water or through the observation of the movements of the heavenly bodies, it is Shamash and Adad who, in the ritual connected with divination, are invariably invoked. In the annals and votive inscriptions of the kings, when oracles are referred to, Shamash and Adad are always named as the gods addressed, their ordinary designation in such instances is bele biri.
In religious texts, Ba‘al/Hadad is the lord of the sky who governs the rain and thus the germination of plants with the power to determine fertility. He is the protector of growth to the agricultural people of the region; the absence of Ba‘al causes dry spells, starvation and chaos. Refers to the mountain of the west wind; the Biblical reference occurs at a time when Yahweh has provided a strong east wind to push back the waters of the Red or Erythrian Sea, so that the children of Israel might cross over. In the Ugaritic texts El, the supreme god of the pantheon, resides on Mount Lel and it is there that the assembly of the gods meet; that is the mythical cosmic mountain. The Ba‘al cycle is fragmentary and leaves much u
Habakkuk, active around 612 BC, was a prophet whose oracles and prayer are recorded in the Book of Habakkuk, the eighth of the collected twelve minor prophets in the Hebrew Bible. He is revered by Jews and Muslims. All the information we have about Habakkuk is drawn from the book of the Bible bearing his name, with no biographical details provided other than his title, "the prophet". Outside the Bible, he is mentioned over the centuries in the form of Christian and Rabbinic tradition, but these are dismissed by modern scholars as speculative and apocryphal. Nothing is known about Habakkuk, aside from what few facts are stated within the book of the Bible bearing his name, or those inferences that may be drawn from that book, his name appears in the Bible only in Habakkuk 1:1 and 3:1, with no biographical details provided other than his title "the prophet." The origin of his name is uncertain. For every other prophet, more information is given, such as the name of the prophet's hometown, his occupation, or information concerning his parentage or tribe.
For Habakkuk, there is no reliable account of any of these. Although his home is not identified, scholars conclude that Habakkuk lived in Jerusalem at the time he wrote his prophecy. Further analysis has provided an approximate date for his prophecy and possibilities concerning his activities and background. Beyond the Bible, considerable conjecture has been put forward over the centuries in the form of Christian and Rabbinic tradition, but such accounts are dismissed by modern scholars as speculative and apocryphal; because the book of Habakkuk consists of five oracles about the Chaldeans, the Chaldean rise to power is dated circa 612 BC, it is assumed he was active about that time, making him an early contemporary of Jeremiah and Zephaniah. Jewish sources, however, do not group him with those two prophets, who are placed together, so it is possible that he was earlier than the pair; because the final chapter of his book is a song, it is sometimes assumed that he was a member of the tribe of Levi, which served as musicians in Solomon's Temple.
The name Habakkuk, or Habacuc, appears in the Hebrew Bible only in Habakkuk 1:1 and 3:1. In the Masoretic Text, it is written in Hebrew: חֲבַקּוּק; this name does not occur elsewhere. The Septuagint transcribes his name into Greek as Ἀμβακοὺμ, the Vulgate transcribes it into Latin as Abacuc; the etymology of the name is not clear, its form has no parallel in Hebrew. The name is related to the Akkadian khabbaququ, the name of a fragrant plant, or the Hebrew root חבק, meaning "embrace". Habakkuk appears in Bel and the Dragon, part of the deuterocanonical Additions to Daniel. Verses 33–39 state that Habakkuk is in Judea. After proclaiming that he is unaware of both the den and Babylon, the angel transports Habakkuk to the lion's den. Habakkuk gives Daniel the food to sustain him, is taken back to "his own place". Habakkuk is mentioned in Lives of the Prophets, which notes his time in Babylon. According to the Zohar Habakkuk is the boy born to the Shunamite woman through Elisha's blessing: And he said, About this season, according to the time of life, thou shalt embrace a son.
And she said, Nay, my lord, man of God, do not lie unto thine handmaid. The only work attributed to Habakkuk is the short book of the Bible; the book of Habbakuk consists of a song of praise to God. The style of the book has been praised by many scholars, suggesting that its author was a man of great literary talent; the entire book follows the structure of a chiasmus in which parallelism of thought is used to bracket sections of the text. Habakkuk is unusual among the prophets in that he questions the working of God. In the first part of the first chapter, the Prophet sees the injustice among his people and asks why God does not take action: "O LORD, how long shall I cry for help, you will not hear? Or cry to you “Violence!” and you will not save?". The final resting place of Habakkuk has been claimed at multiple locations; the fifth-century Christian historian Sozomen claimed that the relics of Habakkuk were found at Cela, when God revealed their location to Zebennus, bishop of Eleutheropolis, in a dream.
One location in Israel and one in Iran lay claim to being the burial site of the prophet. The burial place of Habakkuk is identified by Jewish tradition as a hillside in the Upper Galilee region of northern Israel, close to the villages Kadarim and Hukok, about six miles southwest of Safed and twelve miles north of Mount Tabor. A small stone building, erected during the 20th century, protects the tomb. Tradition dating as early as the 12th century AD holds that Habakkuk's tomb is at this location, but the tomb may be of a local sheikh of Yaquq, a name related to the biblical place named "Hukkok", whose pronunciation and spelling in Hebrew are close to "Habakkuk". Archaeological findings in this location include several burial places dated to the Second Temple period. A mausoleum southeast of the city of Tuyserkan in the west of Iran is believed to be Habakkuk's burial place, it is protected by Iran's Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization. The Organization's guide to the Hamadan Province states that Habakkuk was believed to be a guardian to Solomon's Temple, that he was captured by the Babylonians and remained in their prison for some years.
After being freed by Cyrus the Great, he went to Ecbatana and remaine
Ai was a Canaanite city. According to the Book of Joshua in the Hebrew Bible, it was conquered by the Israelites on their second attempt; the ruins of the city are popularly thought to be in the modern-day archeological site Et-Tell. According to Genesis, Abraham built an altar between Ai. In the Book of Joshua, chapters 7 and 8, the Israelites attempt to conquer Ai on two occasions; the first, in Joshua 7, fails. The biblical account portrays the failure as being due to a prior sin of Achan, for which he is stoned to death by the Israelites. On the second attempt, in Joshua 8, identified by the narrative as the leader of the Israelites, receives instruction from God. God tells them to set up an ambush and Joshua does what God says. An ambush is arranged at the rear of the city on the western side. Joshua is with a group of soldiers that approach the city from the front so the men of Ai, thinking they will have another easy victory, chase Joshua and the fighting men from the entrance of the city to lead the men of Ai away from the city.
The fighting men to the rear enter the city and set it on fire. When the city is captured, 12,000 men and women are killed, it is razed to the ground; the king is hanged on a tree until the evening. His body is placed at the city gates and stones are placed on top of his body; the Israelites burn Ai and "made it a permanent heap of ruins." God told them they could take the livestock as plunder and they did so. Edward Robinson, who identified many biblical sites in the Levant on the basis of local place names and basic topography, suggested that Et-Tell or Khirbet Haijah were on philological grounds. A further point in its favour is the fact that the Hebrew name Ai means more or less the same as the modern Arabic name et-Tell. Albright's identification has been accepted by the majority of the archaeological community, today et-Tell is believed to be one and the same as the biblical Ai. Up through the 1920s a "positivist" reading of the archeology to date was prevalent -- a belief that archeology would prove, was proving, the historicity of the Exodus and Conquest narratives that dated the Exodus in 1440 BC and Joshua's conquest of Canaan around 1400 BC.
And accordingly, on the basis of excavations in the 1920s the American scholar William Foxwell Albright believed that Et-Tell was Ai. However, excavations at Et-Tell in the 1930s found that there was a fortified city there during the Early Bronze Age, between 3100 and 2400 BCE, after which it was destroyed and abandoned; these findings, along with excavations at Bethel, posed problems for the dating that Albright and others had proposed, some scholars including Martin Noth began proposing that the Conquest had never happened but instead was an etiological myth. Archeologists found that the Iron Age I village appeared with no evidence of initial conquest, the Iron I settlers seem to have peacefully built their village on the forsaken mound, without meeting resistance. There are five main hypotheses about how to explain the biblical story surrounding Ai in light of archaeological evidence; the first is that the story was created on. The second is that there were people of Bethel inhabiting Ai during the time of the biblical story and they were the ones who were invaded.
In a third, Albright combined these two theories to present a hypothesis that the story of the Conquest of Bethel, only a mile and a half away from Ai, was transferred to Ai in order to explain the city and why it was in ruins. Support for this can be found in the Bible, the assumption being that the Bible does not mention the actual capture of Bethel, but might speak of it in memory in Judges 1:22–26. Fourth, Callaway has proposed that the city somehow angered the Egyptians, so they destroyed it as punishment; the fifth is that Joshua's Ai is not to a different location entirely. Most archaeologists support the identification of Ai with et-Tell. Koert van Bekkum writes that "Et-Tell, identified by most scholars with the city of Ai, was not settled between the Early Bronze and Iron Age I. Bryant Wood has proposed Khirbet el-Maqatir, but this has not gained wide acceptance. After fourteen seasons of archaeological excavation, Dr Scott Stripling, provost at The Bible Seminary in Katy and archaeological director for the Associates for Biblical Research, believes to have found proof in favour of Khirbet el-Maqatir being biblical Ai.
He starts from the presumption of a 15th-, not the consensual 13th-century Israelite conquest, sees a nearby wadi as the hiding place of the Israelite troops before the ambush, has unearthed a city gate, which together fit the topography of the conquest as described in the Bible. Battle of Jericho Early Israelite campaigns Tel Hazor Battle of Gibeah for similar tactics Archaeology of Israel Easton's Bible Dictionary
Hadassah Women's Zionist Organization of America
Hadassah, the Women's Zionist Organization of America is an American Jewish volunteer women's organization. Founded in 1912 by Henrietta Szold, it is one of the largest international Jewish organizations, with 330,000 members in the United States. Hadassah fundraises for community programs and health initiatives in Israel, including the Hadassah Medical Center, a leading research hospital in Israel renowned for its inclusion of and treatment for all religions and races in Jerusalem. In the US, the organization advocates on behalf of women's rights, religious autonomy and US-Israel diplomacy. In Israel, Hadassah supports health education and research, women's initiatives and programs for underprivileged youth. In 2012, Hadassah opened the Sarah Wetsman Davidson Hospital Tower, a 500 bed-facility with 20 operating theaters, as well as five below-ground floors for protection from terrorist attacks. In 2014, National President Marcie Natan was named one of The Jerusalem Post's "Top 50 Most Influential Jews."
At a meeting at Temple Emanu-El in New York City on February 24, 1912, Henrietta Szold together with other Zionist women, proposed to the Daughters of Zion study circle that they expand their purpose and embrace proactive work to help meet the health needs of Palestine's people. The goal was to promote the Zionist ideal through education, public health initiatives, the training of nurses in what was the Palestine region of the Ottoman Empire; because the meeting was held around the time of Purim, the women called themselves "The Hadassah chapter of the Daughters of Zion," adopting the Hebrew name of Queen Esther. Henrietta Szold became the first president. Within a year, Hadassah had five growing chapters in New York, Cleveland and Boston, its charter articulates twin goals: to begin public-health initiatives and nurses training in Palestine, to foster Zionist ideals through education in America. In 1913, Hadassah sent two nurses to Rose Kaplan and Rae Landy, they set up a small public health station in Jerusalem to provide maternity care and treat trachoma, a dreaded eye disease rampant in the Middle East.
The core of future Hadassah education programs emerged when Jessie Sampter founded The Hadassah School of Zionism in New York in 1915. The school required chapter leaders to take courses, instituted a correspondence course and inspires other Hadassah chapters to create their own Schools of Zionism. Sampter published "A Course in Zionism," a collection of facts and reading lists financed by prominent American Zionist, Judge Louis Brandeis. By 1916, Hadassah established the Palestine Purchasing and Supplies Department to buy and ship items unavailable in the yishuv, the pre-state Jewish community in Palestine. Although Hadassah's first two nurses were compelled to return to America in 1915, the physicians with whom they had co-operated– Dr. Avraham Ticho and Dr. Helena Kagan – as well as the midwives and probationers were able to carry on their work. Hadassah established the American Zionist Medical Unit in 1918, composed of 45 doctors, nurses and sanitary engineers; the Unit was set up to combat the intolerable health conditions of postwar Palestine and to create permanent health and welfare programs.
From the beginning, it established a principle that it would serve all with equal care, regardless of race, ethnicity or nationality. The AZMU helped to establish six hospitals in Palestine which were turned over to municipal authorities. Led by Alice Seligsberg, the Unit sailed for Palestine in June, bringing needed drugs, medical instruments and supplies and clothing; that year, Hadassah founded a nursing school to train local personnel and create a cadre of nurses. Over the next few years, the Unit, based in the old Rothschild Hospital in Jerusalem, initiated American-style health and welfare programs with intensive campaigns to wipe out malaria, cholera and scalp diseases in many Jewish communities in the yishuv; the Unit organized a sanitation program and founded Hadassah hospitals in Jaffa and Safed, as well as opened the Nurses Training School at the Rothschild Hospital in Jerusalem. The first 22 young women graduated from Hadassah's Nurses' Training School in 1921. In 1924, the Unit's name is changed to Hadassah Medical Organization.
In 1919, Hadassah organized the first School Hygiene Department in Palestine to give routine health examinations to Jerusalem school children. During the Arab riots of 1920, Hadassah nurses cared for the wounded on both sides. Henrietta Szold moved to Jerusalem that year to develop community health and preventive care programs. Back in New York in 1920, Alice Seligsberg formed Junior Hadassah, which provided innovative programs for young women who wanted to participate in Hadassah's Zionist mission. In the same year, Henrietta Szold moved to Palestine to lead the medical work started by the Unit, she remained based in Jerusalem until her death in 1945. In 1921, Hadassah nurse Bertha Landsman created Palestine's first permanent infant welfare station, Tipat Halav, in Jerusalem; the overwhelming success inspired Hadassah to expand the program, delivering fresh milk to needy families by "donkey express." Hadassah opened a hospital in Tel Aviv, the city's first hospital. Under Hadassah's philosophy of "devolution," it initiated and developed a number of facilities and projects and transferred them to the appropriate municipalities.
Hadassah transferred administration of this hospital to the Tel Aviv municipality in 1931. 1923: Hadassah instituted a school lunch program to teach nutrition and serve healthy meals to children and teenagers in Palestine. Pennies are collected by American Hebrew school students to fund this project, devolved to
Haggai was a Hebrew prophet during the building of the Second Temple in Jerusalem, one of the twelve minor prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the author of the Book of Haggai. He is known for his prophecy in 520 BCE, his name means "my holiday." He was the first of three post-exile prophets from the Neo-Babylonian Exile of the House of Judah, who belonged to the period of Jewish history which began after the return from captivity in Babylon. Scarcely anything is known of his personal history, he may have been one of the captives taken to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar. He began God’s prophesy about sixteen years after the return of the Jews to Judah; the work of rebuilding the temple had been put to a stop through the intrigues of the Samaritans. After having been suspended for eighteen years, the work was resumed through the efforts of Haggai and Zechariah, they exhorted the people, which roused them from their lethargy, induced them to take advantage of a change in the policy of the Persian government under Darius I.
The name Haggai, with various vocalizations, is found in the Book of Esther, as a eunuch servant of the Queen. Haggai prophesied about the people needing to complete building the Temple; the new Temple was bound to exceed the awesomeness of the previous Temple. He claimed if the Temple was not built there would be poverty and drought affecting the Jewish nation. There is a controversy regarding. According to scholars, they credit it to his students. However, Jewish Tradition believe, that the Men of the Great Assembly were responsible for the edits; the Men of the Great Assembly are traditionally known for continuing the work of Nehemiah. Haggai supported the officials of his time Zerubbabel, the governor, Joshua the High Priest. In the Book of Haggai, God refers to Zerubbabel as "my servant" as King David was, says he will make him as a "signet ring," as King Jehoiachin was; the signet ring symbolized a ring worn on the hand of Yahweh, showing that a king held divine favour. Thus, Haggai is implicitly, but not explicitly, saying that Zerubbabel would preside over a restored Davidic kingdom.
The Persian Empire was growing weak, Haggai saw time as an opportunity to restore the Davidic Kingdom. He believed that the Kingdom of David was able to take back their part in Jewish issues. Haggai’s message was directed to the nobles and Zerubbabel, as he would be the first Davidic monarch restored, he saw this as important worship. Haggai, in rabbinic writing, is referred to as one of the men of the Great Assembly; the Babylonian Talmud mentions a tradition concerning the prophet Haggai, saying that he gave instruction concerning three things: that it is not lawful for a man whose brother married his daughter to consummate a levirate marriage with one of his deceased brother's co-wives. On the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar, Haggai is commemorated as a prophet, his feast day is 16 December. He is commemorated, in common with the other righteous persons of the Old Testament, on the Sunday of the Holy Fathers. Haggai is commemorated with the other Minor prophets in the Calendar of saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church on 31 July.
In the Masonic degree of Holy Royal Arch Haggai is one of the Three Principals of the Chapter. Named after Haggai the prophet and accompanies Zerubbabel, Prince of the People, Joshua, the son of Josedech, the High Priest. Book of Haggai Tomb of the Prophets Haggai and Malachi This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Easton, Matthew George. "Haggai". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons. Prophet Haggai Orthodox icon and synaxarion