The Bible is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures. Varying parts of the Bible are considered to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans by Christians, Jews and Rastafarians. What is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups; the Hebrew Bible overlaps with the Christian Old Testament. The Christian New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be Jewish disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek. Among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about what should be included in the canon about the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect. Attitudes towards the Bible differ among Christian groups. Roman Catholics, high church Anglicans and Eastern Orthodox Christians stress the harmony and importance of the Bible and sacred tradition, while Protestant churches, including Evangelical Anglicans, focus on the idea of sola scriptura, or scripture alone.
This concept arose during the Protestant Reformation, many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only infallible source of Christian teaching. The Bible has been a massive influence on literature and history in the Western World, where the Gutenberg Bible was the first book printed using movable type. According to the March 2007 edition of Time, the Bible "has done more to shape literature, history and culture than any book written, its influence on world history is unparalleled, shows no signs of abating." With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, it is considered to be the most influential and best-selling book of all time. As of the 2000s, it sells 100 million copies annually; the English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the same word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin and from Koinē Greek: τὰ βιβλία, translit. Ta biblia "the books". Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra "holy book", while biblia in Greek and Late Latin is neuter plural, it came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun in medieval Latin, so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe.
Latin biblia sacra "holy books" translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια tà biblía tà ágia, "the holy books". The word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of "paper" or "scroll" and came to be used as the ordinary word for "book", it is the diminutive of βύβλος byblos, "Egyptian papyrus" so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece. The Greek ta biblia was "an expression. Christian use of the term can be traced to c. 223 CE. The biblical scholar F. F. Bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer to use the Greek phrase ta biblia to describe both the Old and New Testaments together. By the 2nd century BCE, Jewish groups began calling the books of the Bible the "scriptures" and they referred to them as "holy", or in Hebrew כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ, Christians now call the Old and New Testaments of the Christian Bible "The Holy Bible" or "the Holy Scriptures"; the Bible was divided into chapters in the 13th century by Stephen Langton and it was divided into verses in the 16th century by French printer Robert Estienne and is now cited by book and verse.
The division of the Hebrew Bible into verses is based on the sof passuk cantillation mark used by the 10th-century Masoretes to record the verse divisions used in earlier oral traditions. The oldest extant copy of a complete Bible is an early 4th-century parchment book preserved in the Vatican Library, it is known as the Codex Vaticanus; the oldest copy of the Tanakh in Hebrew and Aramaic dates from the 10th century CE. The oldest copy of a complete Latin Bible is the Codex Amiatinus. Professor John K. Riches, Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism at the University of Glasgow, says that "the biblical texts themselves are the result of a creative dialogue between ancient traditions and different communities through the ages", "the biblical texts were produced over a period in which the living conditions of the writers – political, cultural and ecological – varied enormously". Timothy H. Lim, a professor of Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Judaism at the University of Edinburgh, says that the Old Testament is "a collection of authoritative texts of divine origin that went through a human process of writing and editing."
He states that it is not a magical book, nor was it written by God and passed to mankind. Parallel to the solidification of the Hebrew canon, only the Torah first and the Tanakh began to be translated into Greek and expanded, now referred to as the Septuagint or the Greek Old Testament. In Christian Bibles, the New Testament Gospels were derived from oral traditions in the second half of the first century CE. Riches says that: Scholars have attempted to reconstruct something of the history of the oral traditions behind the Gospels, but the results have not been too encouraging; the period of transmission is short: less than 40 years passed between the death of Jesus and the writing of Mark's Gospel. This means that there was little time for oral trad
Raising of Jairus' daughter
The episode of the daughter of Jairus is a combination of miracles of Jesus in the Gospels. The story follows the exorcism at Gerasa. Jairus, a patron or ruler of a Galilee synagogue, had asked Jesus to heal his 12-year-old daughter; as they were traveling to Jairus' house, a sick woman in the crowd touched Jesus' cloak and was healed of her sickness. Jesus turned round to the woman and said "Daughter, your faith has made you well. Go in peace.". In the 2nd and 3rd Gospel's version, a messenger arrived with the news that Jairus' daughter had died, he was advised not to trouble Jesus any further. However, Jesus responded: Be not afraid, only believe. Jesus continued to the house, where there where Jesus "saw a commotion, people weeping and wailing loudly", he informed all those present that the girl was not asleep. He went upstairs and restored the little girl to life. In Mark's account, the Aramaic phrase "Talitha Koum" is attributed to Jesus; the combined stories have been used as an example of intercalation, where one incident is inserted within another, linked in this case by the connection between the 12-year ailment and the 12-year-old girl.
John Donahue and Daniel Harrington state that this episode shows that "faith as embodied by the bleeding woman, can exist in hopeless situations". Michael Keene states that there is a link between Jairus and the woman: "The link between them is faith since both Jairus and the bleeding woman showed great faith in Jesus". John Walvoord and Roy Zuck state that: "What appeared to be a disastrous delay in the healing of the woman assured the restoration of Jairus' daughter, it was providentially ordered to test and strengthen Jairus' faith." Johann Lange states that: "This delay would serve both to try and to strengthen the faith of Jairus." Life of Jesus in the New Testament Ministry of Jesus Miracles of Jesus Parables of Jesus Luke 8
Jael or Yael is a woman mentioned in the Book of Judges in the Hebrew Bible, as the heroine who killed Sisera to deliver Israel from the troops of King Jabin. Jael was the wife of Heber the Kenite; the Kenites were a nomadic tribe. The Bible records a number of cases of intermarriage; the Kenites may have been a part of the Midianite group. Heber the Kenite was, according to the Book of Judges in the Bible, a descendant of Reuel the Midianite, the father-in-law of Moses, he had separated himself and his wife Jael from the other Kenites and pitched their tent in the plain of Zaanaim, near Kedesh in the tribal territory of Naphtali. Heber lived during the 12th century BC in the Hula Valley of northern Israel during the time of the Israelite judges. According to Jack Sasson, there are reasons to doubt whether the events narrated in Judges 4 occurred. Deborah, a prophetess and judge, advises Barak to mobilize the tribes of Naphtali and Zebulon on Mount Tabor to do battle against King Jabin of Canaan.
Barak demurred, provided she would also. Deborah agreed but prophesied that the honour of defeating Jabin's army would go to a woman. Jabin's army was led by Sisera; the armies met on the plain of Esdraelon, where Sisera's iron-bound chariots became hampered by the mud caused by a downpour during the night that caused the Wadi Kishon to overflow its banks. The Canaanites were defeated and Sisera fled the scene. Sisera arrived on foot at the tent of Heber on the plain of Zaanaim. Heber and his household were at peace with the king of Canaan, who reigned in Hazor. Jael, sympathized with the Israelites because of the twenty-year period of harsh oppression inflicted on them by Jabin, his commander Sisera, his nine hundred iron chariots. Jael covered him with a blanket; as he was thirsty, she gave him a jug of milk. Exhausted, Sisera soon fell asleep. While he was sleeping, Jael took a mallet and drove a tent peg into his temple, killing him instantly; the "Song of Deborah" recounts: Scholars have long recognized that the Song of Deborah, on the basis of linguistic evidence, is one of the oldest parts of the Bible, dating back to the 12th century BC.
Pseudo-Philo refers to Jael in the book, Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum: Now Jael took a stake in her left hand and approached him, saying, "If God will work this sign with me, I know that Sisera will fall into my hands. Behold I will throw him down on the ground from the bed, and Jael pushed him onto the ground from the bed. But he did not feel it, because he was groggy, and Jael said, "Strengthen in me today, Lord, my arm on account of you and your people and those who hope in you." And Jael put it on his temple and struck it with a hammer. And while he was dying, Sisera said to Jael, "Behold pain has taken hold of me, I die like a woman." And Jael said to him, "Go, boast before your father in hell and tell him that you have fallen into the hands of a woman." There is a reference to the story of Jael in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales. During the Wife of Bath's Prologue, whilst discussing her fifth husband's "book of wikked wives", Chaucer mentions some wives who "han drive nailes in hir brain, / Whil that they slepte, thus they had hem slain."
Judges 4:17 states that there was peace between the Heber's clan. They were familiar to the Israelites through the connection of Jethro to Moses, their skill as metalworkers was welcomed wherever they camped. Both sides in the conflict would have considered the Kenites a neutral party. C. E. Schenk notes that Sisera was Jael's guest, "was in the sanctuary of her home, protected by the laws of hospitality." According to Herbert Lockyer she may have acted out of practical necessity. Sisera was in Barak in pursuit, it would not have been wise to allow Barak to find Sisera in her tent. She knew that Sisera would be killed if captured, therefore she would kill him and thus cement a friendship with the victor. Biblical commentaries have viewed Jael as either a someone much less so. Newsom and Ringe consider her a survivor caught up in her husband's politics. Christian moral theorists during the Renaissance extensively referred to Jael as example of tyrannicide. Medieval images of Jael in illuminated manuscripts, depicted her as both a defender of Israel and a prefiguration of the Virgin Mary.
This can be seen in the Speculus Darmstadt, as well as several other texts. When not shown in the act of killing Sisera, she carries her hammer and sometimes the spike, making her easy to identify. In the Renaissance the subject is one of the most shown in the Power of Women topos, with other biblical women who triumphed over men, such as Judith or Delilah. Here she was used to show the risk for men in following women, in groupings including positive figures and scenes such as Judith beheading Holofernes, but ones with females depicted as over-powerful, such as Phyllis riding Aristotle and Delilah, Salome and her mother Herodias and the Idolatry of Solomon. More positively, Jael was included in sets of the female Nine Worthies, such as the prints by Hans Burgkmair. Ladies sometimes chose to have their portraits painted as Jael, a transformation achieved by holding a hammer and spike. In the Baroque period, Jael continued to be a sexua
Jesus referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity, is described as the most influential person in history. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah prophesied in the Old Testament. All modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed although the quest for the historical Jesus has produced little agreement on the historical reliability of the Gospels and on how the Jesus portrayed in the Bible reflects the historical Jesus. Jesus was a Galilean Jew, baptized by John the Baptist and began his own ministry, he preached orally and was referred to as "rabbi". Jesus debated with fellow Jews on how to best follow God, engaged in healings, taught in parables and gathered followers, he was arrested and tried by the Jewish authorities, turned over to the Roman government, crucified on the order of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect. After his death, his followers believed he rose from the dead, the community they formed became the early Church.
The birth of Jesus is celebrated annually on December 25th as Christmas. His crucifixion is honored on his resurrection on Easter; the used calendar era "AD", from the Latin anno Domini, the equivalent alternative "CE", are based on the approximate birthdate of Jesus. Christian doctrines include the beliefs that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of a virgin named Mary, performed miracles, founded the Christian Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement for sin, rose from the dead, ascended into Heaven, from where he will return. Most Christians believe; the Nicene Creed asserts that Jesus will judge the living and the dead either before or after their bodily resurrection, an event tied to the Second Coming of Jesus in Christian eschatology. The great majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, the second of three persons of the Trinity. A minority of Christian denominations reject Trinitarianism, wholly or as non-scriptural. Jesus figures in non-Christian religions and new religious movements.
In Islam, Jesus is considered one of the Messiah. Muslims believe Jesus was a bringer of scripture and was born of a virgin, but was not the son of God; the Quran states. Most Muslims do not believe that he was crucified, but that he was physically raised into Heaven by God. In contrast, Judaism rejects the belief that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill Messianic prophecies, was neither divine nor resurrected. A typical Jew in Jesus' time had only one name, sometimes followed by the phrase "son of <father's name>", or the individual's hometown. Thus, in the New Testament, Jesus is referred to as "Jesus of Nazareth". Jesus' neighbors in Nazareth refer to him as "the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon", "the carpenter's son", or "Joseph's son". In John, the disciple Philip refers to him as "Jesus son of Joseph from Nazareth"; the name Jesus is derived from the Latin Iesus, a transliteration of the Greek Ἰησοῦς. The Greek form is a rendering of the Hebrew ישוע, a variant of the earlier name יהושע, or in English, "Joshua", meaning "Yah saves".
This was the name of Moses' successor and of a Jewish high priest. The name Yeshua appears to have been in use in Judea at the time of the birth of Jesus; the 1st-century works of historian Flavius Josephus, who wrote in Koine Greek, the same language as that of the New Testament, refer to at least twenty different people with the name Jesus. The etymology of Jesus' name in the context of the New Testament is given as "Yahweh is salvation". Since early Christianity, Christians have referred to Jesus as "Jesus Christ"; the word Christ was a office, not a given name. It derives from the Greek Χριστός, a translation of the Hebrew mashiakh meaning "anointed", is transliterated into English as "Messiah". In biblical Judaism, sacred oil was used to anoint certain exceptionally holy people and objects as part of their religious investiture. Christians of the time designated Jesus as "the Christ" because they believed him to be the Messiah, whose arrival is prophesied in the Hebrew Bible and Old Testament.
In postbiblical usage, Christ became viewed as a name—one part of "Jesus Christ". The term "Christian" has been in use since the 1st century; the four canonical gospels are the foremost sources for the message of Jesus. However, other parts of the New Testament include references to key episodes in his life, such as the Last Supper in 1 Corinthians 11:23. Acts of the Apostles refers to the early ministry of its anticipation by John the Baptist. Acts 1:1 -- 11 says more about the Ascension of Jesus. In the undisputed Pauline letters, which were written earlier than the gospels, the words or instructions of Jesus are cited several times; some early Christian groups had separate descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus that are not included in the New Testament. These include the Gospel of Thomas, Gospel
The Zarqa River is the second largest tributary of the lower Jordan River, after the Yarmouk River. It is the third largest river in the region by annual discharge, its watershed encompasses the most densely populated areas east of the Jordan River, it rises in springs near Amman, flows through a deep and broad valley into the Jordan, at an elevation 1,090 metres lower. At its spring lays'Ain Ghazal, a major archaeological site that dates back to the Neolithic. Archaeological finds along the course of the river indicate the area was rich in flora and fauna in the past; the river is polluted and its restoration is one of the top priorities for the Jordanian Ministry of the Environment. Geologically, the Zarqa River is about 30 million years old, it is well known for its amber deposits that date back to the Hauterivian era of the Early Cretaceous. A remarkable flora and fauna was reported from this amber reflecting tropical paleoenvironmental conditions prevailing during the time of resin deposition.
The Arabic name, Nahr az-Zarqa' means "the blue river", where nahr means river and zarqa' means blue. The name is of Akkadian origin which mean the Place of Water, hence at the Dead Sea is the Zara springs and Also in the heart of Amman an area locally called which comes from Wadi Zara which mean the Valley of Water The Zarqa River is identified with the biblical river Jabbok. Biblical Jacob crossed the Jabbok on his way after leaving Harran, it leads west into the Sukkot Valley, from where one crosses over the Jordan and can reach Shechem, as Jacob did. The biblical cities of Zaretan and Adam are at the mouth of the valley; the river is first mentioned in the Book of Genesis in connection with the meeting of Jacob and Esau, with the struggle of Jacob with the angel. It was the boundary separating the territory of Reuben and Gad from that of Ammon, the latter being described as lying along the Jabbok; the territory of Sihon is described as extending "from Arnon unto Jabbok", it was reclaimed by the King of Ammon.
Eusebius places the river between Philadelphia. The headwaters of the Zarqa begin just northeast of Amman; the river flows to the north before heading west. Rising on the eastern side of the mountains of Gilead, it runs a course of about 105 kilometers in a wild and deep ravine before flowing into the Jordan River between Gennesaret and the Dead Sea, at a point 1,090 meters below its origin. At its higher reaches, the river banks are steep and canyon-like. Near Ain Ghazal, two tributary wadis join the river, it opens up into a shallow basin, it forms the border between the Jordanian administrative regions of Balqa Governorate. The river is perennial, but with a low base flow of about 2 million to 3 million cubic meters per month during the summer months, as much as 5–million to 8 million cubic meters per month during the rainy winter months; this makes it the second largest tributary of the lower Jordan River, after the Yarmouk River, the third largest river in the region by annual discharge. Irregular floods after rain storms may increase the flow to as much as 54 million cubic meters.
The median annual flow is 63.3 million cubic meters. The total basin area is 3,900 km2 the largest in Jordan. A small dam, Al-Rwyha dam, near the village of Dayr Alla, marks the end of the upstream portion of the river, where it is natural and fast flowing with clear water. There is little agriculture along the banks of the river in this region, which are rocky. Downstream from this dam, the water level is low, the river banks are intensively used for agriculture, as well as grazing by sheep and goats The King Talal Dam was built across the lower Zarqa in 1970, created a reservoir with a capacity of 55 million cubic meters, increased in 1987 to 86 million cubic meters; when built, it was expected that the reservoir would supply water for municipal use in the Amman region. However, the current levels of pollution in the lake make the water unfit for human consumption, it is used for irrigation only; the new Jerash Bridge crosses the Zarqa upstream of King Talal reservoir, on the road from Amman to Jerash.
The bridge is the site of a gauging station. In the city of Zarqa, several bridges and pedestrian, cross the river; the earliest of these was built by the Chechen founders of the city. Current bridges include the Zawahreh Bridge, a vehicular bridge connecting Baha' al-Din Street with al-Zuhur Street and another connecting Baha' al-Din Street with King Talal Street. Two pedestrian bridges connect al-Zuhur Street and Baha' al-Din Street, Wasfi al-Tal Street and Petra Street; the geological origins of the Zarqa river are about 30 million years old, when the Jordan Rift Valley was formed. A ripple effect of its formation was the creation of side-wadis; the Zarqa river carved into the western edge of one of these side wadis. The earliest exposed formations in the area date from the Triassic and early Jurassic periods, have been named Zerqa and Kurnub formations; the rock formations are marine sediments, remnants of the prehistoric Tethys Sea, which used to cover the area running east–west, halfway across the present Dead Sea.
Along the Zarqa, crystalline limestone alternating with shale was found. The next layer is a 20-30 meter high layer of gypsum, argillaceous marly lime and iron-rich stone and sandstone; this layer is rich in fossils. Arc
Grace Jahdiel Benjamin popularly known by her stage name Jahdiel, is a contemporary Nigerian gospel singer and vocalist. She professionally began her music career in 2006, releasing her debut album Heritage in 2008, she is one of several gospel artists under Loveworld Records of Christ Embassy. She was born in Ikoyi, Lagos State, Nigeria where she had her primary and secondary school education at Aunty Ayo International School, Ikoyi before proceeding to further her education by obtaining a B. Sc degree in Chemistry. Jahdiel started singing at the age of five upon joining the choir of her local church before she began to play musical equipments like the piano and keyboard at the age of thirteen. After being part of various singing groups, she released her debut album Heritage in 2008 to massive reception, thereby gaining her new grounds in the industry and further earning her a nomination spot in the "Most Promising Artist or Group" category at the 2008 edition of Kora Awards, her follow-up album Under Oath was released in 2010.
Contained with songs like "Ebube Dike", "Oh God" and "Ayaya", Under Oath earned her a nomination at the 2013 Nigeria Gospel Music Awards. In November 2015, she released her third studio album titled Majesty. In 2017, she was listed in YNaija's list of "100 Most Influential People in Christian Ministry in Nigeria". Jahdiel's music style is influenced by a blend of rock and afrocentric pop; when asked about her style of gospel music, she told The Nation: "I think the blend of the English pop with African music makes it very different. If you listen to it for the first time you feel it’s not from Nigeria", her musical influences include Celine Dion. Heritage Under Oath Majesty On 30 November 2013, she got married to Emmanuel Benjamin, popularly known as Eben, a Nigerian gospel singer with whom she has two children. List of Nigerian gospel musicians Jahdiel at AllMusic
Jaala is a former municipality of Finland. It is part of the Kymenlaakso region; the municipality had a population of 1,906 and covered an area of 563.06 km² of which 129.89 km² was water. The population density was 3.4 inhabitants per km². The municipality was unilingually Finnish. In 2009, the six municipalities of Kouvola, Elimäki, Anjalankoski and Jaala were consolidated to form a new municipality named Kouvola, with a population of over 80,000, became the tenth largest city in Finland. Valto Koski Ville Iiskola Media related to Jaala at Wikimedia Commons