Nein — Nain or Naim in English — is an Arab village in northern Israel. Located in the Lower Galilee, 14 kilometers south of Nazareth, Nein covers a land area of 1,000 dunums and falls under the jurisdiction of Bustan al-Marj Regional Council, whose headquarters it hosts, its total land area consisted of 3,737 dunums prior to 1962. According to the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics, in 2017 it had a population of 1,814. Nein lies a short distance from Mount Tabor. A hill known in Arabic as Tell el-Ajul lay on the path that ran between Nein and nearby Indur, an Arab village destroyed in the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. Biblical archaeologist Edward Robinson describes Nein as lying on the northern slope of a hill called "the little Hermon", it is described in biblical guidebooks as lying at the foot of the Hill of Moreh. Edward Robinson and Eli Smith, who visited Palestine in the mid-19th century, identified Nein as, "the Nain of the New Testament" where, according to Luke 7:11-17, Jesus raised a young man from death and reunited him with his mother.
According to Luke's account, this young man was the only son of an unnamed widow. When Jesus saw the dead son being carried out and the mourning widow, he felt compassion for her, he walked towards the bier or stretcher, touched it, stopped the funeral procession and told the man: "Young man, I say to you, arise!" The man came alive, sat up, began to speak. The people who were standing around were all struck by the event, seen as a sign that'a great prophet' had arisen among them, the report of it spread across Judea and the surrounding region. Nain is not mentioned in the other canonical gospels. Rock-sunk tombs have been found here of Christian origin. Nein is mentioned in the writing of Jerome as being situated near Endor, its identity as a biblical site was recognized by the Crusaders, who built a church there to commemorate the site of the miracle, a church rebuilt by the Franciscans. In 1101, during the Crusader era, Prince of Galilee granted Nein together with several other villages to the abbey of Mount Tabor.
In 1153, it belonged to the Hospitallers. By 1263, the area was ruled by Baybars. Nein, like the rest of Palestine, was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517, in the census of 1596, the village was located in the nahiya of Safa in the liwa of Lajjun, it had a population of all Muslim. They paid a fixed tax-rate of 25% on agricultural products, including wheat, summer crops, olive trees and beehives, in addition to winter pastures and occasional revenues. In 1838 Robinson and Smith noted that Nein had decreased in size over the ages, was at time a small hamlet, inhabited by a few families. In 1875 Victor Guérin saw here a ruined building. In the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine, Nein was described as a small village made of stone and adobe, with a small mosque, named Mukam Sidna Aisa, to the north. In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British authorities, Nain had a population of 157, all Muslims, increasing in the 1931 census to 189, still all Muslim, in a total of 34 houses.
In the 1945 statistics the population was 270, all Muslims, while the total land area was 4,687 dunams, according to an official land and population survey. Of this, 87 dunams were for plantations and irrigable land, 3,602 for cereals, while 31 dunams were classified as built-up areas. Welcome To Na'in Survey of Western Palestine, Map 9: IAA, Wikimedia commons
Nazareth is the capital and the largest city in the Northern District of Israel. Nazareth is known as "the Arab capital of Israel". In 2017 its population was 76,551; the inhabitants are predominantly Arab citizens of Israel, of whom 69% are Muslim and 30.9% Christian. Nazareth Illit, declared a separate city in June 1974, is built alongside old Nazareth, had a Jewish population of 40,312 in 2014. In the New Testament, the town is described as the childhood home of Jesus, as such is a center of Christian pilgrimage, with many shrines commemorating biblical events. One view holds that "Nazareth" is derived from one of the Hebrew words for'branch', namely ne·ṣer, נֵ֫צֶר, alludes to the prophetic, messianic words in Book of Isaiah 11:1,'from roots a Branch will bear fruit'. One view suggests this toponym might be an example of a tribal name used by resettling groups on their return from exile. Alternatively, the name may derive from the verb na·ṣar, נָצַר, "watch, keep," and understood either in the sense of "watchtower" or "guard place", implying the early town was perched on or near the brow of the hill, or, in the passive sense as'preserved, protected' in reference to its secluded position.
The negative references to Nazareth in the Gospel of John suggest that ancient Jews did not connect the town's name to prophecy. Another theory holds that the Greek form Nazara, used in Matthew and Luke, may derive from an earlier Aramaic form of the name, or from another Semitic language form. If there were a tsade in the original Semitic form, as in the Hebrew forms, it would have been transcribed in Greek with a sigma instead of a zeta; this has led some scholars to question whether "Nazareth" and its cognates in the New Testament refer to the settlement known traditionally as Nazareth in Lower Galilee. Such linguistic discrepancies may be explained, however, by "a peculiarity of the'Palestinian' Aramaic dialect wherein a sade between two voiced consonants tended to be assimilated by taking on a zayin sound." The Arabic name for Nazareth is an-Nāṣira, Jesus is called an-Nāṣirī, reflecting the Arab tradition of according people an attribution, a name denoting whence a person comes in either geographical or tribal terms.
In the Qur'an, Christians are referred to as naṣārā, meaning "followers of an-Nāṣirī", or "those who follow Jesus of Nazareth". In Luke's Gospel, Nazareth is first described as home of Mary. Following the birth and early epiphanial events of chapter 2 of Luke's Gospel, Mary and Jesus "returned to Galilee, to their own city, Nazareth". In English translations of the New Testament, the phrase "Jesus of Nazareth" appears seventeen times whereas the Greek has the form "Jesus the Nazarēnos" or "Jesus the Nazōraios." One plausible view is that Nazōraean is a normal Greek adaptation of a reconstructed, hypothetical term in Jewish Aramaic for the word used in Rabbinical sources to refer to Jesus. "Nazaréth" is named twelve times in surviving Greek manuscript versions of the New Testament, 10 times as Nazaréth or Nazarét, twice as Nazará. The former two may retain the'feminine' endings common in Galilean toponyms; the minor variants and Nazarath are attested. Nazara might be the earliest form of the name in Greek.
It is found in Matthew 4:13 and Luke 4:16. However, the Textus Receptus translates all passages as Nazara leaving little room for debate there. Many scholars have questioned a link between "Nazareth" and the terms "Nazarene" and "Nazoraean" on linguistic grounds, while some affirm the possibility of etymological relation "given the idiosyncrasies of Galilean Aramaic." The form Nazara is found in the earliest non-scriptural reference to the town, a citation by Sextus Julius Africanus dated about 221 AD. The Church Father Origen knows Nazarét. Eusebius in his Onomasticon refers to the settlement as Nazara; the nașirutha of the scriptures of the Mandeans refers to "priestly craft", not to Nazareth, which they identified with Qom. The first non-Christian reference to Nazareth is an inscription on a marble fragment from a synagogue found in Caesarea Maritima in 1962; this fragment gives the town's name in Hebrew as נצרת. The inscription dates to c. AD 300 and chronicles the assignment of priests that took place at some time after the Bar Kokhba revolt, AD 132-35.
An 8th-century AD Hebrew inscription, the earliest known Hebrew reference to Nazareth prior to the discovery of the inscription above, uses the same form. Around 331, Eusebius records that from the name Nazareth Christ was called a Nazoraean, that in earlier centuries Christians, were once called Nazarenes. Tertullian records that "for this reason the Jews call us'Nazarenes'." In the New Testament Christians are called "Christians" three times by Paul in Romans, "Nazarenes" once by Tertullus, a Jewish lawyer. The Rabbinic and modern Hebrew name for Christians, notzrim, is thought to derive from Nazareth, be connected with Tertullus' charge against Paul of being a member of the sect of the Nazarenes, Nazoraioi, "men of Nazareth" in Acts. Against this some medieval Jewish polemical texts connect notzrim with the netsarim "watchmen" of Ephraim in Jeremiah 31:6. In Syriac Aramaic Nasrath is used for Nazareth, while "Nazarenes" and "of Nazareth" are both Nasrani or Nasraya an adjectival form. Nasrani
Naham is a moshav in central Israel. Located near Beit Shemesh, it falls under the jurisdiction of Mateh Yehuda Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 529; the moshav was established in 1950 by immigrants from Yemen and Cochin on part of the lands of the moshava of Hartuv, abandoned during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. It was named after a member of the Tribe of Judah in the Book of Chronicles 4:19 — "And the sons of the wife of Hodiah, the sister of Naham, were the father of Keilah the Garmite, Eshtemoa the Maacathite."
Nebuchadnezzar II, king of Babylon c. 605 BC – c. 562 BC, was the longest-reigning and most powerful monarch of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. His father Nabopolassar was an official of the Neo-Assyrian Empire who rebelled in 620 BCE and established himself as the king of Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar ascended the throne in 605 BCE and subsequently fought several campaigns in the West, where Egypt was trying to organise a coalition against him, his conquest of Judah is described in the Bible's Books of Kings and Book of Jeremiah. His capital, Babylon, is the largest archaeological site in the Middle East; the Bible remembers him as the destroyer of Solomon's Temple and the initiator of the Babylonian captivity. He is an important character in the Book of Daniel, a collection of legendary tales and visions dating from the 2nd century BC. Nebuchadnezzar was the eldest son and successor of Nabopolassar, an Assyrian official who rebelled against the Assyrian Empire and established himself as the king of Babylon in 620 BC.
Nebuchadnezzar is first mentioned in 607 BC, during the destruction of Babylon's arch-enemy Assyria, at which point he was crown prince. In 605 BC he and his ally Cyaxares, ruler of the Medes, led an army against the Assyrians and Egyptians, who were occupying Syria, in the ensuing Battle of Carchemish, Pharaoh Necho II was defeated and Syria and Phoenicia were brought under the control of Babylon. Nabopolassar died in August 605 BC, Nebuchadnezzar returned to Babylon to ascend the throne. For the next few years, his attention was devoted to subduing his eastern and northern borders, in 595/4 BC there was a serious but brief rebellion in Babylon itself. In 594/3 BC, the army was sent again to the west in reaction to the elevation of Psamtik II to the throne of Egypt. King Zedekiah of Judah attempted to organize opposition among the small states in the region but his capital, was taken in 587 BC. In the following years, Nebuchadnezzar incorporated Phoenicia and the former Assyrian provinces of Cilicia into his empire and may have campaigned in Egypt.
In his last years he seems to have begun behaving irrationally, "pay no heed to son or daughter," and was suspicious of his sons. The kings who came after him ruled only and Nabonidus not of the royal family, was overthrown by the Persian conqueror Cyrus the Great less than twenty-five years after Nebuchadnezzar's death; the ruins of Nebuchadnezzar's Babylon are spread over two thousand acres, forming the largest archaeological site in the Middle East. He enlarged the royal palace and repaired temples, built a bridge over the Euphrates, constructed a grand processional boulevard and gateway lavishly decorated with glazed brick; each spring equinox, the god Marduk would leave his city temple for a temple outside the walls, returning through the Ishtar Gate and down the Processional Way, paved with colored stone and lined with molded lions, amidst rejoicing crowds. The Babylonian king's two sieges of Jerusalem are depicted in 2 Kings 24–25; the Book of Jeremiah calls Nebuchadnezzar the "destroyer of nations" and gives an account of the second siege of Jerusalem and the looting and destruction of the First Temple.
Nebuchadnezzar is an important character in the Old Testament Book of Daniel. Daniel 1 introduces Nebuchadnezzar as the king who takes Daniel and other Hebrew youths into captivity in Babylon, to be trained in "the learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans". In Nebuchadnezzar's second year, Daniel interprets the king's dream of a huge image as God's prediction of the rise and fall of world powers, starting with Nebuchadnezzar's kingdom. Nebuchadnezzar twice admits the power of the God of the Hebrews: first after Hashem saves three of Daniel's companions from a fiery furnace and secondly after Nebuchadnezzar himself suffers a humiliating period of madness, as Daniel predicted; the consensus among critical scholars is. His name is sometimes recorded in the Bible as "Nebuchadrezzar", but as "Nebuchadnezzar"; the form Nebuchadrezzar is more consistent with the original Akkadian, some scholars believe that Nebuchadnezzar may be a derogatory pun used by the Israelites, meaning "Nabu, protect my jackass".
Babylonia Book of Daniel Kings of Babylonia List of biblical figures identified in extra-biblical sources Nabucco Neo-Babylonian Empire Inscription of Nabuchadnezzar. Babylonian and Assyrian Literature – old translation Nabuchadnezzar Ishtar gate Inscription Jewish Encyclopedia on Nebuchadnezzar Nebuchadnezzar II on Ancient History Encyclopedia
According to the 1st Book of Samuel Chapter 25, was a rich Calebite, described as harsh and surly. He is featured in a story in which he is threatened by David over an insult, killed by God. According to the Biblical narrative and his band of men, fleeing from King Saul, went to the Wilderness of Paran; the account states that Nabal lived in the city of Maon, owned much land in the town of Carmel, as well as many sheep and goats. The account is set at the time of sheep shearing, which in Israelite culture was a time for great festivities, owing to the importance of the wool trade. At this time David sent ten men to Nabal. David told his men to remind Nabal that his men had not harmed or robbed Nabal's shepherds, requested that Nabal give him whatever provisions were on hand. David's request is couched in language that refers to David's men as Nabal's servants, to David himself as Nabal's "son." Nabal harshly rebuffs David's request: "Who is David? and, the son of Jesse? There are many servants these days.
One of Nabal's shepherds, considering Nabal too abrasive to approach about the issue, warns Nabal's wife, Abigail, of the situation, along with a positive account of his previous experiences with David and his men. Abigail chose to intervene. In the account, while David armed his men and set off with 400 of them for Nabal's home, leaving 200 men behind to look after the supplies, Abigail set off with her servants, a large quantity of provisions, without telling Nabal. Abigail manages to meet David and his men before David could reach Nabal and she pleads for David to accept the gifts she has brought with her, begs that there be no bloodshed, asking to take Nabal's blame herself, complimenting David by stating that Yahweh would make his dynasty long lasting, David sinless and divinely protected. Abigail does not tell Nabal about what she has done until the following day, as, when she returns, Nabal is drunk and high spirited due to a kingly banquet, but when she does tell Nabal he has a heart attack, or a stroke, dies ten days later.
The account ends with David hearing about the death, recognizing that it was a punishment from Yahweh, asking for, receiving, the hand of Abigail in marriage. Abigail is described in the account as being beautiful and intelligent, the aggadah treats Abigail as being one of the four most beautiful people in Jewish history; the root meaning of the name Nabal is wilt, came to mean failure, so gained the figurative meaning of being shamelessly improprietous. Traditionally Nabal is euphemistically translated as fool. Nabal may be a deliberate satirical corruption of the name Nadab. In the genealogical lists of the Books of Chronicles, there is a man named Nadab, whose brother is married to a person named Abihail. Rather than the name of his wife was Abigail the account in the Books of Samuel may have read the name of the chief of Abihail, told of a clan named Abihail, which left a political alliance with the Rechabites to join the Kingdom of Judah. Textual scholars ascribe this narrative to the republican source of the Books of Samuel.
The same narrative position is occupied in the monarchial source by the story of a raid by Amalekites on the town of Ziklag, the subsequent defeat of the Amalekites by David. There are some similarities between the narratives: the fact that Ziklag and Maon are located in the region south of Hebron. However, there are several differences: such as the victory and provisions being obtained by a heroic victory by David ra
Naaran is an ancient Jewish village dating to the 5th and 6th century CE, located in the West Bank. Remains of the village have been excavated north of Jericho, in Ephraim, between Jericho; the mosaic floor of a synagogue was discovered at the site featuring a large zodiac design. Naaran is mentioned in 1 Chronicles 7:28 as a town in the eastern part of Ephraim. Eusebius, in his Onomasticon, makes mention of the site, saying that in his day it was "a village inhabited by Jews, five miles from Jericho." The site is named in the writings of Josephus, under its name, in the Midrash Rabba. Aramaic inscriptions and mosaics from the synagogue are displayed at an archaeology museum established by the Israeli archaeologist Yitzhak Magen at the Good Samaritan Inn. In May 2012, the ancient synagogue was vandalized with graffiti that included swastikas and Palestinian flags. Israel's Public Diplomacy Minister Yuli-Yoel Edelstein condemned the act and noted that, "The incident reaffirms the belief that Jewish holy sites must be under Israel's sovereignty."
An Israeli settlement, kibbutz Niran, located several kilometers to the north, takes its name from Naaran. Shalom Al Yisrael Synagogue Mevo'ot Yericho Yitav Oldest synagogues in the world Archaeology of Israel
Naomi (biblical figure)
Naomi is Ruth's mother-in-law in the Old Testament Book of Ruth. The etymology of her name is not certain, but it is possible that it means "good, lovely, winsome." Naomi is married to a man named Elimelech. A famine causes them to move from their home in Judea to Moab. While there Elimelech dies, as well as his sons who had gotten married in the meantime. Near destitute, Naomi returns to Bethlehem with one daughter-in-law, whom she could not dissuade from accompanying her, her other daughter-in-law, remains in Moab. When Naomi returns, she tells the Bethlehemites, "Do not call me Naomi, call me Mara, for the Almighty has dealt bitterly with me". Barry Webb points out that there is both an objective element in her life being bitter through bereavement and poverty, as well as a subjective element - the bitterness she feels, he further argues that in Chapter 1 of the Book of Ruth, Naomi's "perception of her condition" is "distorted by self-absorption," but that Ruth plays "a key role in her rehabilitation."
Abraham Kuyper, on the other hand, asserts that "Naomi has such innate nobility of character that she elicits from us our most sincere sympathy." The Book of Ruth depicts the struggles of Ruth for survival in a patriarchal environment. The arrival of Naomi and Ruth in Bethlehem coincides with the barley harvest. Naomi gives Ruth permission to glean those fields. Ruth is working in the field of Boaz, when a servant identifies her to him as Naomi's daughter-in-law, it happens. He tells her to work with female servants, warns the young men not to bother her, at mealtime invites her to share his food; when Naomi learns that Ruth has the attention and kindness of Boaz, she counsels Ruth to approach him directly: "... ut on your best attire and go down to the threshing floor. Do not make yourself known to the man before he has finished eating and drinking, but when he lies down, take note of the place where he does so. Go, uncover a place at his feet, lie down, he will tell you what to do." Webb points out Naomi's "feminine scheming" in forcing Boaz's hand.
Yitzhak Berger suggests that Naomi's plan was that Ruth seduce Boaz, just as Tamar and the daughters of Lot all seduced "an older family member in order to become the mother of his offspring." At the crucial moment, however, "Ruth abandons the attempt at seduction and instead requests a permanent, legal union with Boaz."Ruth marries Boaz, they have a son, whom Naomi cares for, so the women of the town say: "Naomi has a son". In this way, the book can be seen to be Naomi's story: Gregory Goswell argues that Naomi is the central character of the book, whereas Ruth is the main character; the son in question was Obed, the father of Jesse and thus the grandfather of David