Saint Onesimus called Onesimus of Byzantium and The Holy Apostle Onesimus in some Eastern Orthodox churches, was a slave to Philemon of Colossae, a man of Christian faith. He may be the same Onesimus named by Ignatius of Antioch as bishop in Ephesus which would put Onesimus's death closer to 95 A. D. Regardless, Onesimus went from slave to brother to Bishop; the name "Onesimus" appears in two New Testament epistles -- in Philemon. In Colossians 4:9 a person of this name is identified as a Christian accompanying Tychicus to visit the Christians in Colossae, he may well be the freed Onesimus from the Epistle to Philemon. The Epistle to Philemon was written by Paul the Apostle to Philemon concerning a person believed to be a runaway slave named Onesimus; the traditional designation of Onesimus as a slave is doubted by some modern scholars. Onesimus found his way to the site of Paul's imprisonment to escape punishment for a theft of which he was accused. After hearing the Gospel from Paul, Onesimus converted to Christianity.
Paul, having earlier converted Philemon to Christianity, sought to reconcile the two by writing the letter to Philemon which today exists in the New Testament.. The letter reads: I appeal to you for my son Onesimus, whom I have begotten while in my chains, who once was unprofitable to you, but now is profitable to you and to me. I am sending him back. You therefore receive him, that is, my own heart, whom I wished to keep with me, that on your behalf he might minister to me in my chains for the gospel, but without your consent I wanted to do nothing, that your good deed might not be by compulsion, as it were, but voluntary. For he departed for a while for this purpose, that you might receive him forever, no longer as a slave but more than a slave—a beloved brother to me but how much more to you, both in the flesh and in the Lord. Although it is doubted by authorities such as Joseph Fitzmyer, it may be the case that this Onesimus was the same one consecrated a bishop by the Apostles and who accepted the episcopal throne in Ephesus following Saint Timothy.
During the reign of Roman emperor Domitian and the persecution of Trajan, Onesimus was imprisoned in Rome and may have been martyred by stoning. However, since the reign of Domitian was from 81 A. D. to 96 A. D. Onesimus' death would have to fall within these years and not 68 A. D. as stated above. Onesimus is regarded as a saint by many Christian denominations; the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod commemorates him and Philemon on February 15. Eastern Churches remember 22 November; the traditional Western commemoration of Onesimus is on 16 February. But in the 2004 edition of the Roman Martyrology, Onesimus is listed under 15 February. There, he is described as " runaway slave, whom the apostle Paul received to the faith of Christ while in prison, regarding him as a son of whom he had become father, as he himself wrote to Philemon, Onesimus's master"; the attitude of Paul is one of the arguments in the debate about slavery. Http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=4908 http://www.santiebeati.it/dettaglio/41200
Olympas was a Roman Christian whom Paul of Tarsus saluted in around 65 AD. Olympas is regarded in the Orthodox Church as being one of the Seventy disciples, his feast day is November 10. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Matthew George. "article name needed". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons
Uzziah known as Azariah, was a king of the ancient Kingdom of Judah, one of Amaziah's sons. Uzziah was 16 when he reigned for 52 years; the first 24 years of his reign were as co-regent with Amaziah. William F. Albright dated Uzziah's reign to 783 – 742 BC. Edwin R. Thiele's chronology has Uzziah becoming coregent with his father Amaziah in 792/791 BC, sole ruler of Judah after his father's death in 768/767 BC. Uzziah was struck with leprosy for disobeying God. Thiele dates Uzziah's being struck with leprosy to 751/750 BC, at which time his son Jotham took over the government, with Uzziah living on until 740/739 BC. Pekah became king of Israel in the last year of Uzziah's reign; the Gospel of Matthew lists Uzziah of Judah in the genealogy of Jesus. Uzziah is referred to several times in the Hebrew Bible as Azariah. According to Catholic theologian James F. Driscoll, the second form of his name is most the result of a copyist's error. Uzziah took the throne at the age of 16, reigned for about 52 years.
His reign was "the most prosperous excepting that of Jehoshaphat since the time of Solomon." In the earlier part of his reign, under the influence of a prophet named Zechariah, he was faithful to God, "did that, right in the eyes of the Lord" In Jerusalem he made machines designed by skillful men for use on the towers and on the corner defenses to shoot arrows and hurl large stones. According to 2 Chron. 26, Uzziah conquered the Philistines and the Arabians, received tribute from the Ammonites. He refortified the country and reequipped the army, engaged in agricultural pursuits, he was a vigorous and able ruler, "his name spread abroad to the entrance of Egypt". His pride led to his downfall, he entered the temple of Jehovah to burn incense on the altar of incense. Azariah the High Priest saw this as an attempt to usurp the prerogatives of the priests and confronted him with a band of eighty priests, saying, "It is not for you, Uzziah, to burn incense to the Lord, but for the priests, the sons of Aaron, who are consecrated to burn incense."
In the meantime a great earthquake shook the ground and a rent was made in the temple, the bright rays of the sun shone through it, fell upon the king's face, insomuch that the leprosy seized upon him immediately.. Uzziah was struck with tzaraat before he had offered the incense, he was driven from the Temple and compelled to reside in "a separate house" until his death; the government was turned over to his son Jotham, a coregency that lasted for the last 11 years of Uzziah's life. In 740 BC Tiglath-Pileser III took Arpad after a siege of three years, razed Hamath. Uzziah had been an ally of the king of Hamath, thus was compelled by Tiglath-Pileser to do him homage and pay yearly tribute, he was buried in a separate grave "in the field of the burial which belonged to the kings". "That lonely grave in the royal necropolis would eloquently testify to coming generations that all earthly monarchy must bow before the inviolable order of the divine will, that no interference could be tolerated with that unfolding of the purposes of God....
The Book of Isaiah uses "the year that king Uzziah died" as a reference point for describing the vision in which Isaiah sees his vision of the Lord of Hosts. In 1931 an archeological find, now known as the Uzziah Tablet, was discovered by Professor E. L. Sukenik of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, he came across the artifact in a Russian convent collection from the Mount of Olives. The origin of the tablet previous to this was not documented by the convent; the inscription on the tablet is written in an Aramaic dialect similar to Biblical Aramaic. According to its script, it is dated to around AD 30-70, around 700 years after the supposed death of Uzziah of 2 Kings and 2 Chronicles; the inscription is translated, "Hither were brought the bones of Uzziah, king of Judah. Not to be opened." It is open to debate whether this tablet was part of the tomb of King Uzziah or a creation. It may be that there was a reburial of Uzziah here during the Second Temple Period. In two unprovenanced iconic stone seals from 1858 and 1863, the first is inscribed l’byw ‘bd / ‘zyw, "belonging to ’Abiyah, minister of ‘Uziyah" and the second lšbnyw ‘ / bd ‘zyw, "belonging to Shubnayah, minister of ‘Uziyah."
A major earthquake is referred to in the book of the prophet Amos. Amos dated his prophecy to "two years before the earthquake, when Uzziah was king of Judah and Jeroboam son of Jehoash was king of Israel". Over 200 years the prophet Zechariah predicted a future earthquake from which the people would flee as they fled in the days of Uzziah. Geologists believe they have found evidence of this major earthquake in sites throughout Israel and Jordan; the geologists write: Masonry walls best display the earthquake walls with broken ashlars, walls with displaced rows of stones, walls still standing but leaning or bowed, walls collapsed with large sections still lying course-on-course. Debris at six sites is confined stratigraphically to the middle of the eighth century B. C. with dating errors of ~30 years.... The eart
Obadiah is a Biblical theophorical name, meaning "servant of God" or "worshiper of Yahweh". The form of Obadiah's name used in the Septuagint is Obdios; the Bishops' Bible has it as Abdi. The political situation implied in the prophecy points to a time after the Exile in the mid-fifth century B. C. No value can be attributed to traditions identifying this prophet with King Ahab's steward or with King Ahaziah's captain. — The Interpreters' Bible According to the Talmud, Obadiah is said to have been a convert to Judaism from Edom, a descendant of Eliphaz, the friend of Job. He is identified with the Obadiah, the servant of Ahab, it is said that he was chosen to prophesy against Edom because he was himself an Edomite. Moreover, having lived with two such godless persons as Ahab and Jezebel without learning to act as they did, he seemed the most suitable person to prophesy against Esau. Obadiah is supposed to have received the gift of prophecy for having hidden the "hundred prophets" from the persecution of Jezebel.
He hid the prophets in two caves, so that if those in one cave should be discovered those in the other might yet escape. Obadiah was rich, but all his wealth was expended in feeding the poor prophets, until, in order to be able to continue to support them he had to borrow money at interest from Ahab's son Jehoram. Obadiah's fear of God was one degree higher than that of Abraham. In some Christian traditions he is said to have been born in "Sychem", to have been the third centurion sent out by Ahaziah against Elijah; the date of his ministry is unclear due to certain historical ambiguities in the book bearing his name, but is believed to be around 586 B. C, he is regarded as a saint by several Eastern churches. His feast day is celebrated on the 15th day of the Coptic Month Tobi in the Coptic Orthodox Church; the Eastern Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite celebrate his memory on November 19. He is celebrated on February 28 in the Syriac and Malankara Churches, with the other Minor prophets in the Calendar of saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church on July 31.
According to an old tradition, Obadiah is buried in Sebastia, at the same site as Elisha and where the body of John the Baptist was believed to have been buried by his followers. It is related to "Abdeel", "servant of God", cognate to the Arabic name "Abdullah" or "Obaidullah"; the equivalent Turkish name is Abdi. Other individuals named Obadiah in the Old Testament are listed as: the servant of king Ahab of Israel. According to the rabbinic tradition, the tradition of the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches, this is the same individual as the prophet; the son of Hananiah, a descendant of king David of Israel through Solomon the son of Uzzi, a descendant of the Hebrew patriarch Issachar the son of Azel, a descendant of King Saul of Israel through Jonathan the son of Shemaiah, a descendant of the Hebrew patriarch Levi a warrior of the Tribe of Gad who served King David the father of Ishmaiah, governor of the tribe of Zebulun during the reign of King David a prince of the southern kingdom of Judah during the reign of King Jehoshaphat a Levite, overseer of the reconstruction efforts during the reforms of King Josiah of Judah the son of Joab, one of the individuals who returned from the Babylonian captivity with the priestly scribe Ezra, the Levite mentioned in as a porter of Jerusalem's gates after the city's reconstruction under Nehemiah BookHolweck, F. G.
A Biographical Dictionary of the Saints. St. Louis, MO: B. Herder Book Co. 1924. Prophet Obadiah Orthodox icon and synaxarion
Omega is the 24th and last letter of the Greek alphabet. In the Greek numeric system/Isopsephy, it has a value of 800; the word means "great O", as opposed to omicron, which means "little O". In phonetic terms, the Ancient Greek Ω is a long open-mid o, comparable to the vowel of British English raw. In Modern Greek, Ω represents the same sound as omicron; the letter omega is transcribed ō or o. As the last letter of the Greek alphabet, Omega is used to denote the last, the end, or the ultimate limit of a set, in contrast to alpha, the first letter of the Greek alphabet. Ω was not part of the early Greek alphabets. It was introduced in the late 7th century BC in the Ionian cities of Asia Minor to denote the long half-open, it is a variant of omicron, broken up with the edges subsequently turned outward. The Dorian city of Knidos as well as a few Aegean islands, namely Paros and Melos, chose the exact opposite innovation, using a broken-up circle for the short and a closed circle for the long /o/.
The name Ωμέγα is Byzantine. The modern lowercase shape goes back to the uncial form, a form that developed during the 3rd century BC in ancient handwriting on papyrus, from a flattened-out form of the letter that had its edges curved further upward. In addition to the Greek alphabet, Omega was adopted into the early Cyrillic alphabet. See Cyrillic omega. A Raetic variant is conjectured to be at the origin or parallel evolution of the Elder Futhark ᛟ. Omega was adopted into the Latin alphabet, as a letter of the 1982 revision to the African reference alphabet, it has had little use. See Latin omega; the uppercase letter Ω is used as a symbol: In chemistry: For oxygen-18, a natural, stable isotope of oxygen. In physics: For ohm – SI unit of electrical resistance. Unicode has a separate code point for the ohm sign, but it is included only for backward compatibility, the Greek uppercase omega character is preferred. In statistical mechanics, Ω refers to the multiplicity in a system; the solid angle or the rate of precession in a gyroscope.
In particle physics to represent the Omega baryons. In astronomy, Ω refers to the density of the universe called the density parameter. In astronomy, Ω refers to the longitude of the ascending node of an orbit. In mathematics and computer science: In complex analysis, the Omega constant, a solution of Lambert's W function In differential geometry, the space of differential forms on a manifold. A variable for a 2-dimensional region in calculus corresponding to the domain of a double integral. In topos theory, the subobject classifier of an elementary topos. In combinatory logic, the looping combinator, In group theory, the omega and agemo subgroups of a p-group, Ω and ℧ In group theory, Cayley's Ω process as a partial differential operator. In statistics, it is used as total set of possible outcomes. In number theory, Ω is the number of prime divisors of n. In notation related to Big O notation to describe the asymptotic behavior of functions. Chaitin's constant; as part of logo or trademark: The logo of Omega Watches SA.
Part of the original Pioneer logo. Part of the Badge of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. Part of the mission patch for STS-135, as it was the last mission of the Space Shuttle program; the logo of the God of War video game series based on Greek mythology. In God of War, it is revealed; the logo of E-123 Omega, a Sonic the Hedgehog character. The logo of the Heroes of Olympus series, based on Greek mythology; the logo of the Ultramarines in Warhammer 40,000 The logo of Primal Groudon, the version mascot of Pokémon Omega Ruby. The logo of Darkseid in DC comics One of the logos of professional wrestler Kenny Omega Other The symbol of the resistance movement against the Vietnam-era draft in the United States Year or date of death Used to refer to the lowest-ranked wolf in a pack In eschatology, the symbol for the end of everything In molecular biology, the symbol is used as shorthand to signify a genetic construct introduced by a two-point crossover Omega Particle in the Star Trek universe The final form of NetNavi bosses in some of the Mega Man Battle Network games The personal symbol for Death, as worn by Death in the Discworld series by Terry Pratchett The symbol to represent Groudon in Pokémon Omega Ruby and Alpha Sapphire A secret boss in the Final Fantasy series called Omega Weapon.
A character from the series Doctor Who called Omega, believed to be one of the creators of the Time Lords on Gallifrey. The minuscule letter ω is used as a symbol: Biochemistry and chemistry: Denotes the carbon atom furthest from the carboxyl group of a fatty acid In biochemistry, for one of the RNA polymerase subunits In biochemistry, for the dihedral angle associated with the peptide group, involving the backbone atoms Cα-C'-N-Cα In biology, for the fitness. In genomics, as a measure of evolution at the protein level Physics Angular velocity or angular frequency In computational fluid dynamics, the specific turbulence dissipation rate In meteorology, the change of pressure with respect to time of a parcel o
The Bible is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures. Varying parts of the Bible are considered to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans by Christians, Jews and Rastafarians. What is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups; the Hebrew Bible overlaps with the Christian Old Testament. The Christian New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be Jewish disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek. Among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about what should be included in the canon about the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect. Attitudes towards the Bible differ among Christian groups. Roman Catholics, high church Anglicans and Eastern Orthodox Christians stress the harmony and importance of the Bible and sacred tradition, while Protestant churches, including Evangelical Anglicans, focus on the idea of sola scriptura, or scripture alone.
This concept arose during the Protestant Reformation, many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only infallible source of Christian teaching. The Bible has been a massive influence on literature and history in the Western World, where the Gutenberg Bible was the first book printed using movable type. According to the March 2007 edition of Time, the Bible "has done more to shape literature, history and culture than any book written, its influence on world history is unparalleled, shows no signs of abating." With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, it is considered to be the most influential and best-selling book of all time. As of the 2000s, it sells 100 million copies annually; the English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the same word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin and from Koinē Greek: τὰ βιβλία, translit. Ta biblia "the books". Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra "holy book", while biblia in Greek and Late Latin is neuter plural, it came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun in medieval Latin, so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe.
Latin biblia sacra "holy books" translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια tà biblía tà ágia, "the holy books". The word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of "paper" or "scroll" and came to be used as the ordinary word for "book", it is the diminutive of βύβλος byblos, "Egyptian papyrus" so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece. The Greek ta biblia was "an expression. Christian use of the term can be traced to c. 223 CE. The biblical scholar F. F. Bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer to use the Greek phrase ta biblia to describe both the Old and New Testaments together. By the 2nd century BCE, Jewish groups began calling the books of the Bible the "scriptures" and they referred to them as "holy", or in Hebrew כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ, Christians now call the Old and New Testaments of the Christian Bible "The Holy Bible" or "the Holy Scriptures"; the Bible was divided into chapters in the 13th century by Stephen Langton and it was divided into verses in the 16th century by French printer Robert Estienne and is now cited by book and verse.
The division of the Hebrew Bible into verses is based on the sof passuk cantillation mark used by the 10th-century Masoretes to record the verse divisions used in earlier oral traditions. The oldest extant copy of a complete Bible is an early 4th-century parchment book preserved in the Vatican Library, it is known as the Codex Vaticanus; the oldest copy of the Tanakh in Hebrew and Aramaic dates from the 10th century CE. The oldest copy of a complete Latin Bible is the Codex Amiatinus. Professor John K. Riches, Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism at the University of Glasgow, says that "the biblical texts themselves are the result of a creative dialogue between ancient traditions and different communities through the ages", "the biblical texts were produced over a period in which the living conditions of the writers – political, cultural and ecological – varied enormously". Timothy H. Lim, a professor of Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Judaism at the University of Edinburgh, says that the Old Testament is "a collection of authoritative texts of divine origin that went through a human process of writing and editing."
He states that it is not a magical book, nor was it written by God and passed to mankind. Parallel to the solidification of the Hebrew canon, only the Torah first and the Tanakh began to be translated into Greek and expanded, now referred to as the Septuagint or the Greek Old Testament. In Christian Bibles, the New Testament Gospels were derived from oral traditions in the second half of the first century CE. Riches says that: Scholars have attempted to reconstruct something of the history of the oral traditions behind the Gospels, but the results have not been too encouraging; the period of transmission is short: less than 40 years passed between the death of Jesus and the writing of Mark's Gospel. This means that there was little time for oral trad
Og according to the Hebrew Bible, was an Amorite king of Bashan who, along with his army, was slain by Moses and his men at the battle of Edrei. In Arabic literature he is referred to as ‘Uj ibn Anaq. Og is introduced in the Book of Numbers. Like his neighbor Sihon of Heshbon, whom Moses had conquered at the battle of Jahaz, he was an Amorite king, the ruler of Bashan, which contained sixty walled cities and many unwalled towns, with his capital at Ashtaroth; the Book of Numbers, Chapter 21, Deuteronomy, Chapter 3, continues: "Next we turned and headed for the land of Bashan, where King Og and his entire army attacked us at Edrei. But the Lord told me, ‘Do not be afraid of him, for I have given you victory over Og and his entire army, I will give you all his land. Treat him just as you treated King Sihon of the Amorites, who ruled in Heshbon.’“So the Lord our God handed King Og and all his people over to us, we killed them all. Not a single person survived. We conquered all sixty of his towns—the entire Argob region in his kingdom of Bashan.
Not a single town escaped our conquest. These towns barred gates. We took many unwalled villages at the same time. 6 We destroyed the kingdom of Bashan, just as we had destroyed King Sihon of Heshbon. We destroyed all the people in every town we conquered—men and children alike, but we kept all the livestock for ourselves and took plunder from all the towns.“So we took the land of the two Amorite kings east of the Jordan River—all the way from the Arnon Gorge to Mount Hermon. We had now conquered all the cities on the plateau and all Gilead and Bashan, as far as the towns of Salecah and Edrei, which were part of Og’s kingdom in Bashan."Og's destruction is told in Psalms 135:11 and 136:20 as one of many great victories for the nation of Israel, the Book of Amos 2:9 may refer to Og as "the Amorite" whose height was like the height of the cedars and whose strength was like that of the oaks. In Deut. 3:11 and in the book of Numbers and Joshua, Og is called the last of the Rephaim. Rephaim is a Hebrew word for giants.
Deut. 3:11 declares that his "bedstead" of iron is "nine cubits in length and four cubits in width", 13.5 ft by 6 ft according to the standard cubit of a man. It goes on to say that at the royal city of Rabbah of the Ammonites, his giant bedstead could still be seen as a novelty at the time the narrative was written. If the giant king's bedstead was built in proportion to his size as most beds are, he may have been between 9 and 13 feet in height; however Rabbinic tradition has it, that the length of his bedstead was measured with the cubits of Og himself. It is noteworthy that the region north of the river Jabbok, or Bashan, "the land of Rephaim", contains hundreds of megalithic stone tombs dating from the 5th to 3rd millennia BC. In 1918, Gustav Dalman discovered in the neighborhood of Amman, Jordan a noteworthy dolmen which matched the approximate dimensions of Og's bed as described in the Bible; such ancient rock burials are seen west of the Jordan river, the only other concentration of these megaliths are to be found in the hills of Judah in the vicinity of Hebron, where the giant sons of Anak were said to have lived.
A reference to "Og" appears in a Phoenician inscription from Byblos published in 1974 by Wolfgang Rölling in "Eine neue phoenizische Inschrift aus Byblos,". It appears in a damaged 7-line funerary inscription that Rölling dates to around 500 BC, appears to say that if someone disturbs the bones of the occupant, "the mighty Og will avenge me." A possible connection to Og and the Rephaim kings of Bashan can be made with the much older Canaanite Ugaritic text KTU 1.108 from the 13th century B. C. which uses the term "king" in association with the root /rp/ or "Rapah" and geographic place names that correspond to the cities of Ashtaroth and Edrei in the Bible, with which king Og is expressly said to have ruled from. The clay tablet from Ugarit KTU 1.108 reads in whole, "May Rapiu, King of Eternity, drink ine, may he drink, the powerful and noble, the god enthroned in Ashtarat, the god who rules in Edrei, whom men hymn and honour with music on the lyre and the flute, on drum and cymbals, with castanets of ivory, among the goodly companions of Kothar.
And may Anat the power<ful> drink, the mistress of kingship, the mistress of dominion, the mistress of the high heavens, ss of the earth." Og's existence and true identity is disputed. The Jewish Talmud embellishes the story, stating that Og was so large that he sought the destruction of the Israelites by uprooting a mountain so large, that it would have crushed the entire Israelite encampment; the Lord caused a swarm of ants to dig away the center of the mountain, resting on Og's head. The mountain fell onto Og's shoulders; as Og attempted to lift the mountain off himself, the Lord caused Og's teeth to lengthen outward, becoming embedded into the mountain, now surrounding his head. Moses, fulfilling the LORD's injunction not to fear him, seized a stick of ten cubits length, jumped a