Joseph is a masculine given name originating from Hebrew, recorded in the Hebrew Bible, as יוֹסֵף, Standard Hebrew Yossef, Tiberian Hebrew and Aramaic Yôsēp̄. The name can be translated from Hebrew יוסף יהוה yosef YHWH as signifying "Yahweh/Jehovah shall increase/add"; the name appears in the book of Genesis: Joseph is Jacob's eleventh son and Rachel's first son, known in the Jewish Bible as Yossef ben-Yaakov. In the New Testament there are two others named Joseph: 1) Joseph, the husband of Mary, the mother of Jesus; the form "Joseph" is used in English and German-speaking countries. This spelling form is found as a variant in the Nordic countries. In Persian the name is called "Yousef". In Portuguese and Spanish, the name is called "José". In Arabic, including in the Qur ` an, the name is spelled Yūsuf; the name has enjoyed significant popularity in its many forms in numerous countries, Joseph was one of the two names, along with Robert, to have remained in the top 10 boys' names list in the US from 1925 to 1972.
It is common in contemporary Israel, as either "Yossi" or "Yossef", in Italy, where the name "Giuseppe" was the most common male name in the 20th century. Common diminutives of Joseph are Joey. Others include Ossie and Jody; the feminine form of the name, Josephine, is abbreviated to Jo. Variations for males include: Afrikaans: Josef, Joesoef Albanian: Joz, Jozë, Zef, Josif, Isuf, Isufi Alsatian: Sepp Amharic: ዮሴፍ Armenian: Հովսեփ Arabic: يوسف Azerbaijani: Yusif, Usub Belarusian: Іосіф, Язэп Bengali: ইউসুফ, জোসেফ Bosnian: Josip, Jusuf Brazilian Portuguese: José, Josué, Zé, Zezé Basque: Joseba, Josepe Bulgarian: Йосиф Burmese: ယောသပ်သည် Cantonese: Chinese: 約瑟.
Yakub (Nation of Islam)
In the beliefs of the Nation of Islam, Yakub was a black scientist who lived "6,600 years ago" and began the creation of the white race. He is said to have done this through a form of selective breeding referred to as "grafting", while living on the island of Patmos. Scientific consensus rejects the historicity of this figure; the Nation of Islam theology states. All other branches of Islam, as well as Christianity and Judaism, reject these assertions; the story has caused disputes within the NOI during its history. Under its current leader Louis Farrakhan, the NOI continues to assert that the story of Yakub is true, claiming that modern science is consistent with it; the story of Yakub was originated in the writings of Wallace Fard Muhammad, the founder of the Nation of Islam, in his doctrinal Q&A pamphlet Lost Found Moslem Lesson No. 2. It was developed by his successor Elijah Muhammad in several writings, most in a chapter entitled "The Making of Devil" in his book Message to the Blackman in America.
Yakub is said to have been born in Mecca at a time when 30% of original black people were "dissatisfied". He was a member of the Meccan branch of the Tribe of Shabazz. Yakub acquired the nickname "big head", because of his arrogance. At the age of six, he discovered the law of attraction and repulsion by playing with magnets made of steel; this insight led to a plan to create new people. He "saw an unlike human being, made to attract others, who could, with the knowledge of tricks and lies, rule the original black man." By the age of 18, he had exhausted all knowledge in the universities of Mecca. He discovered that the "original black man" contained both a "black germ" and a "brown germ". With 59,999 followers, he went to an "isle in the Aegean Sea called Pelan", which Muhammad identifies with Patmos. Once there, he established a despotic regime and set about breeding out the black traits, killed all darker babies, created a brown race after 200 years. Yakub died at the age of 152. After 600 years of this deliberate eugenics, the white race was created.
The brutal conditions of their creation determined the evil nature of the new race: "by lying to the black mother of the baby, this lie was born into the nature of the white baby. The new race traveled to Mecca where they caused so much trouble they were exiled to "West Asia, stripped of everything but the language.... Once there, they were roped in, to keep them out of Paradise.... The soldiers patrolled the border armed with swords, to prevent the devils from crossing." For many centuries they lived a barbaric life, surviving naked in caves and eating raw meat, but they were drawn out of the caves by Moses who "taught them to wear clothes". Moses tried to civilize them, but gave up and blew up 300 of the most troublesome of them with dynamite. However, they had learned to use "tricknology" to usurp power and enslave the black population, bringing the first slaves to America. According to The Autobiography of Malcolm X, all the races other than the black race were by-products of Yakub's work, as the "red and brown" races were created during the "bleaching" process.
"Whites" were defined as Europeans. Elijah Muhammad asserted that some of the new white race "tried to graft themselves back into the black nation, but they had nothing to go by." As a result, they became gorillas. "A few were lucky enough to make a start, got as far as what you call the gorilla. In fact, all of the monkey family are from this 2,000 year history of the white race in Europe."According to NOI doctrine, Yakub's progeny were destined to rule for 6,000 years before the original black peoples of the world regained dominance, a process that had begun in 1914. The name Ya`qub is the Arabic variant of the name of the Biblical Patriarch known as Jacob in English language versions of the Bible, as Ya`aqob in Biblical Hebrew. Fard Muhammad's Yakub has some parallels to the Biblical Jacob's role as the father of the tribes of Israel; the idea that Jews were an "artificial race" created by interbreeding and dependent on "tricks and lies" existed in anti-Semitic theories of the time. The story of Yakub includes Jews as part of a wider artificially created "white" race.
The NOI's claim that Jacob altered the skin color of a specific group of humans through selective breeding is similar to a story in Genesis 30:37–43 where Jacob alters the fur color of the goats and sheep in his uncle Laban's flocks. This story could be the origin of the NOI's story of Yakub. One major difference is that while the NOI says that Yakub employed selective breeding, Jacob used sympathetic magic in the Old Testament. In speeches by Malcolm X, Yakub is identified with Jacob. Referring to the story of Jacob wrestling with the angel, Malcolm X states that Elijah Muhammad told him that "Jacob was Yacub, the angel that Jacob wrestled with wasn't God, it was the government of the day"; this was because Yakub was seeking funds for his expedition to Patmos, "so when it says Jacob wrestled with an angel,'angel' is only used as a symbol to hide the one he was wrestling with". However, Malcolm X states that John of Patmos was Yakub, that the Book of Revelation refers to his deeds: "John was Yacub.
John was out there getting ready to make a new race, he said, for the word of the Lord". Ernest Allen argues that "the Yakub myth may have been created out of whole cloth by Prophet Fard", but could conceivably have been influenced b
Jubal is a man mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, in Genesis 4:21. Known as the father of all who play the harp and flute, Jubal is the brother of Jabal and the half-brother of Tubal-cain and half-brother of his half-sister Naamah. Jubal was a descendant of Cain, the son of Lamech and Adah, the brother of Jabal, half-brother of Tubal-cain and Naamah. Jubal is described as the "ancestor of all who played the harp and flute." Jubal is said to have played the כנור and the עוגב. Gordon Wenham suggests that the latter may have been a "reed or a Pan's pipe." Media related to Tubal-Cain at Wikimedia Commons
Jacob given the name Israel, is regarded as a Patriarch of the Israelites. According to the Book of Genesis, Jacob was the third Hebrew progenitor with whom God made a covenant, he is the son of Isaac and Rebecca, the grandson of Abraham and Bethuel, the nephew of Ishmael, the younger twin brother of Esau. Jacob had twelve sons and at least one daughter, by his two wives and Rachel, by their handmaidens Bilhah and Zilpah. Jacob's twelve sons, named in Genesis, were Reuben, Levi, Dan, Gad, Issachar, Zebulun and Benjamin, his only daughter mentioned in Genesis is Dinah. The twelve sons became the progenitors of the "Tribes of Israel"; as a result of a severe drought in Canaan and his sons moved to Egypt at the time when his son Joseph was viceroy. After 17 years in Egypt, Jacob died, the length of Jacob's life was 147 years. Joseph carried Jacob's remains to the land of Canaan, gave him a stately burial in the same Cave of Machpelah as were buried Abraham, Isaac and Jacob's first wife, Leah. Jacob is mentioned in a number of sacred scriptures, including the Hebrew Bible, the Talmud, the New Testament, the Quran and the Book of Mormon.
According to the folk etymology found in Genesis 25:26, the name Yaʿaqob יעקב is derived from aqeb עָקֵב "heel". The historical origin of the name is uncertain. Yaʿqob-'el is notably recorded as a placename in a list by Thutmose III; the same name is recorded earlier still, in cuneiform inscriptions. The suggestion that the personal name may be shortened from this compound name, which would translate to "may El protect", originates with Bright; the Septuagint renders the name Ιακωβος, whence Latin Jacobus, English Jacob. The name Israel given to Jacob following the episode of his wrestling with the angel is etymologized as composition of אֵל el "god" and the root שָׂרָה śarah "to rule, have power, prevail over": שָׂרִיתָ עִם־אֱלֹהִים; the biblical account of the life of Jacob is found in the Book of Genesis, chapters 25–50. Jacob and his twin brother, were born to Isaac and Rebecca after 20 years of marriage, when Isaac was 60 years of age. Rebekah went to inquire of God why she was suffering.
She received the prophecy that twins were fighting in her womb and would continue to fight all their lives after they became two separate nations. The prophecy said that "the one people shall be stronger than the other people. According to Genesis 25:25, Isaac and Rebecca named the first son Hebrew: Esau; the second son they named יעקב, Jacob. The boys displayed different natures as they matured. ... and Esau was a man of the field. Moreover, the attitudes of their parents toward them differed: "And Isaac loved Esau, because he did eat of his venison: but Rebecca loved Jacob." Genesis 25:29–34 tells the account of Esau selling his birthright to Jacob. This passage tells that Esau, returning famished from the fields, begged Jacob to give him some of the stew that Jacob had just made. Jacob offered to give Esau a bowl of stew in exchange for his birthright; as Isaac aged, he became blind and was uncertain when he would die, so he decided to bestow Esau's birthright upon him. He requested. Isaac requested that Esau make "savory meat" for him out of the venison, according to the way he enjoyed it the most, so that he could eat it and bless Esau.
Rebecca overheard this conversation. It is suggested that she realized prophetically that Isaac's blessings would go to Jacob, since she was told before the twins' birth that the older son would serve the younger. Rebecca blessed Jacob and she ordered Jacob to bring her two kid goats from their flock so that he could take Esau's place in serving Isaac and receiving his blessing. Jacob protested that his father would recognize their deception since Esau was hairy and he himself was smooth-skinned, he feared his father would curse him as soon as he felt him, but Rebecca offered to take the curse herself insisted that Jacob obey her. Jacob did as his mother instructed and, when he returned with the kids, Rebekah made the savory meat that Isaac loved. Before she sent Jacob to his father, she dressed him in Esau's garments and laid goatskins on his arms and neck to simulate hairy skin. Disguised as Esau, Jacob entered Isaac's room. Surprised that Esau was back so soon, Isaac asked. Jacob responded, "Because the LORD your God brought it to me."
Rashi, on Genesis 27:21 says Isaac's suspicions were aroused more, because Esau never used the personal name of God. Isaac demanded that Jacob come close so he could feel him, but the
Herbert Lockyer was a minister and best-selling author of over 50 books, including the 21-volume "All" series. He was educated at Glasgow Bible Institute, afterwards receiving honorary degrees at Northwestern Evangelical Seminary, the International Academy in London, he was most influential, after crossing the Atlantic to preach and write in the United States. Dr. Lockyer was invited to preach at the 50th anniversary of the opening of the Moody Bible Institute, this began his ministry in the United States. In the 1930s, the Institute published a number of his sermons, Zondervan soon began to do the same. Dr. Lockyer became influential in the Keswick Higher Life movement and publishing on both sides of the Atlantic. In his life, his ministry was focused on publishing, his son, Herbert Lockyer, Jr. became his editor. Billy Graham wrote, "Dr. Lockyer was unquestionably one of the spiritual giants of our century, his prolific writings will continue to make an impact on countless Christians for generations to come if our Lord tarries."Lockyer wrote the Introduction to the Zondervan reprint edition of Ellicott's Commentary on the Whole Bible, which he begins by saying, "As I journey back through half a century of Christian witness, of the many books that helped to shape my ministry, none has been so eagerly consulted as the volumes comprising Ellicott's Bible Commentary for English Readers, now known as'Ellicott's Commentary on the Whole Bible.'
This valuable eight-volume set is conspicuous among Commentaries for its adherence to the divine inspiration of Holy Scripture. The following is an incomplete list of Herbert Lockyer's published books. Many of his sermons were published in pamphlet form, most of which are now out of print
Joel was a prophet of ancient Israel, the second of the twelve minor prophets and the author of the Book of Joel. He is mentioned by name only once in the Hebrew Bible, in the introduction to his own brief book, as the son of Pethuel; the name Joel combines the covenant name of God, YHWH, El, has been translated as "one to whom YHWH is God," that is, a worshiper of YHWH. He is believed to have lived in the 9th century BCE; the book's mention of Greeks has not given scholars any help in dating the text since the Greeks were known to have had access to Judah from Mycenaean times. However, the book's mention of Judah's suffering and to the standing temple have led some scholars to place the date of the book in the post-exilic period, after the construction of the Second Temple. Joel was from Judah/Judea, judging from its prominence in his prophecy, was quite a prophet associated with the ritual of Solomon's or the Second temple. According to a long-standing tradition, Joel was buried in Gush Halav.
On the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar, his feast day is October 19. In the Roman Martyrology the prophet is commemorated on July 13, he is commemorated with the other Minor prophets in the Calendar of saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church on July 31. Joel's statement. Since other religious figures have interpreted the words as having special significance for their own time. According to the Eastern Orthodox Christian hymns, the ancient hymnographer Anatolius links Joel’s prophecy to the birth of Christ. In Joel 2:30, he says that the blood refers to the Incarnation of Jesus Christ, the fire to the Divinity of Christ, the pillars of smoke to the Holy Spirit. Joel is considered a minor prophet in the Baha'i Faith. In the Kitab-i-Iqan, Baha'ullah states that previous prophecies by minor prophets such as Joel have symbolic meanings and significance and therefore should not be understood literally. Four Prophets at Chabad.org
The Bible is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures. Varying parts of the Bible are considered to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans by Christians, Jews and Rastafarians. What is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups; the Hebrew Bible overlaps with the Christian Old Testament. The Christian New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be Jewish disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek. Among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about what should be included in the canon about the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect. Attitudes towards the Bible differ among Christian groups. Roman Catholics, high church Anglicans and Eastern Orthodox Christians stress the harmony and importance of the Bible and sacred tradition, while Protestant churches, including Evangelical Anglicans, focus on the idea of sola scriptura, or scripture alone.
This concept arose during the Protestant Reformation, many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only infallible source of Christian teaching. The Bible has been a massive influence on literature and history in the Western World, where the Gutenberg Bible was the first book printed using movable type. According to the March 2007 edition of Time, the Bible "has done more to shape literature, history and culture than any book written, its influence on world history is unparalleled, shows no signs of abating." With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, it is considered to be the most influential and best-selling book of all time. As of the 2000s, it sells 100 million copies annually; the English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the same word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin and from Koinē Greek: τὰ βιβλία, translit. Ta biblia "the books". Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra "holy book", while biblia in Greek and Late Latin is neuter plural, it came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun in medieval Latin, so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe.
Latin biblia sacra "holy books" translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια tà biblía tà ágia, "the holy books". The word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of "paper" or "scroll" and came to be used as the ordinary word for "book", it is the diminutive of βύβλος byblos, "Egyptian papyrus" so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece. The Greek ta biblia was "an expression. Christian use of the term can be traced to c. 223 CE. The biblical scholar F. F. Bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer to use the Greek phrase ta biblia to describe both the Old and New Testaments together. By the 2nd century BCE, Jewish groups began calling the books of the Bible the "scriptures" and they referred to them as "holy", or in Hebrew כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ, Christians now call the Old and New Testaments of the Christian Bible "The Holy Bible" or "the Holy Scriptures"; the Bible was divided into chapters in the 13th century by Stephen Langton and it was divided into verses in the 16th century by French printer Robert Estienne and is now cited by book and verse.
The division of the Hebrew Bible into verses is based on the sof passuk cantillation mark used by the 10th-century Masoretes to record the verse divisions used in earlier oral traditions. The oldest extant copy of a complete Bible is an early 4th-century parchment book preserved in the Vatican Library, it is known as the Codex Vaticanus; the oldest copy of the Tanakh in Hebrew and Aramaic dates from the 10th century CE. The oldest copy of a complete Latin Bible is the Codex Amiatinus. Professor John K. Riches, Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism at the University of Glasgow, says that "the biblical texts themselves are the result of a creative dialogue between ancient traditions and different communities through the ages", "the biblical texts were produced over a period in which the living conditions of the writers – political, cultural and ecological – varied enormously". Timothy H. Lim, a professor of Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Judaism at the University of Edinburgh, says that the Old Testament is "a collection of authoritative texts of divine origin that went through a human process of writing and editing."
He states that it is not a magical book, nor was it written by God and passed to mankind. Parallel to the solidification of the Hebrew canon, only the Torah first and the Tanakh began to be translated into Greek and expanded, now referred to as the Septuagint or the Greek Old Testament. In Christian Bibles, the New Testament Gospels were derived from oral traditions in the second half of the first century CE. Riches says that: Scholars have attempted to reconstruct something of the history of the oral traditions behind the Gospels, but the results have not been too encouraging; the period of transmission is short: less than 40 years passed between the death of Jesus and the writing of Mark's Gospel. This means that there was little time for oral trad