Zacchaeus, or Zaccheus, was a chief tax-collector at Jericho, mentioned only in the Gospel of Luke. A descendant of Abraham, he was an example of Jesus' personal, earthly mission to bring salvation to the lost. Tax collectors were despised as traitors, as being corrupt; because the lucrative production and export of balsam was centered in Jericho, his position would have carried both importance and wealth. In the account, he arrived before the crowd who were to meet with Jesus, passing through Jericho on his way to Jerusalem, he was short in stature and so was unable to see Jesus through the crowd. Zachaeus ran ahead and climbed a sycamore tree along Jesus' path; when Jesus reached the spot he looked up at the sycamore tree, addressed Zacchaeus by name, told him to come down, for he intended to visit his house. The crowd was shocked that Jesus, a religious teacher/prophet, would sully himself by being a guest of a sinner. At Er-riha there is a large, venerable looking square tower, which by tradition is named the House of Zacchaeus.
Clement of Alexandria refers once to Zacchaeus in a way which could be read as suggesting that some identified him with apostle Matthew or Matthias. Luke told us. John told us that many of his disciples turned back and no longer followed him; the Apostolic Constitutions identify "Zacchaeus the Publican" as the first bishop of Caesarea. Medieval legend identified Zacchaeus with Saint Amadour, held him to be the founder of the French sanctuary, Rocamadour. In Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholic Churches of Slavic tradition, the Gospel account of Zacchaeus is read on the last Sunday preceding the liturgical preparation for Great Lent, for which reason that Sunday is known as "Zacchaeus Sunday." It is the first commemoration of a new Paschal cycle. The account was chosen to open the Lenten season because of two exegetical aspects: Jesus' call to Zacchaeus to come down from the tree, Zacchaeus' subsequent repentance. In the Eastern churches of Greek/Byzantine tradition, Zacchaeus Sunday may fall earlier than the Sunday before the Pre-Lenten season.
In Western Christianity, the gospel pericope concerning Zacchaeus is the reading for a Dedication of a Church or its anniversary. In Southern Bavaria, a red banner with white cross may be flown outside a Church on its anniversary, called the Zacchaeus flag; the story of Zacchaeus is used by some to illustrate the saying of Jesus: "Blessed are the pure of heart, for they shall see God" Matthew 5:8, because the name Zacchaeus means'pure'. Zacchaeus becomes a contrast of character with the Rich Young Ruler Luke 18:18-23. Both Zacchaeus and the Rich Young Ruler were wealthy men, but one was self-righteous and would not give up his possessions, while the other gave half his possessions to feed the poor. Zacchaeus of Jerusalem Paschal cycle Zacchaeus Luke 19 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Easton, Matthew George. "Zacchaeus". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons. Media related to Zacchaeus at Wikimedia Commons
Wadi al-Hasa, known from the Hebrew Bible as the valley and brook of Zered, is a wadi in western Jordan. The wadi is big and long and ends in the Dead Sea at the town of Al-Safi; the wadi area is intensely used by farmers who use the water for irrigation for vegetables like tomatoes and melons. Zared is a name used in the Torah for its valley, it is mentioned in Deuteronomy 2:13-14 and more extensively in Numbers 21:12-13, as the place where the Israelites camp on their final approach to Moab. From the context it is understood that it lay in Edom, south of the border to Moab, marked by the River Arnon, modern Wadi Mujib. According to Peter C. Craigie, Zered's "exact location is uncertain." For a series of spectacular photos, see
Zebul (biblical figure)
Zebul is a character in the Hebrew Bible, appearing in Judges 9. He is one of Abimelech's officers, the governor of the city of Shechem. Zebul played an important role in the rebellion and defeat of Gaal, secretly sending messengers to Abimelech warning him of the situation. Barry Webb describes him as a loyal friend of Abimelech, a "shrewd military tactician". In Handel's oratorio Jephtha, Zebul is depicted as Jephthah's brother
Zedekiah written Tzidkiyahu called Mattanyahu or Mattaniah, was a biblical character, the last king of Judah before the destruction of the kingdom by Babylon. Zedekiah had been installed as king of Judah by Nebuchadnezzar II, king of Babylon, after a siege of Jerusalem in 597 BC, to succeed his nephew, overthrown as king after a reign of only three months and ten days. William F. Albright dates the start of Zedekiah's reign to 598 BC, while E. R. Thiele gives the start in 597 BC. On that reckoning, Zedekiah was born in c. 617 618 BC, being twenty-one on becoming king. Zedekiah's reign ended with the siege and fall of Jerusalem to Nebuchadnezzar II, dated to 587 or 586 BC; the prophet Jeremiah was his counselor, yet he did not heed the prophet and his epitaph is "he did evil in the sight of the Lord". When Babylon rose against Assyria it caused upheavals. Egypt, concerned about the new threat, moved northward to support Assyria, it set on the march in 608. King Josiah attempted to block the Egyptian forces, fell mortally wounded in battle at Megiddo.
Josiah's younger son Jehoahaz was chosen to succeed his father to the throne. Three months the Egyptian pharaoh Necho, returning from the north, deposed Jehoahaz in favor of his older brother, Jehoiakim. Jehoahaz was taken back to Egypt as a captive. After the Egyptians were defeated by the Babylonians at the Battle of Carchemish in 605 BC, Nebuchadnezzar II besieged Jerusalem. Jehoiakim changed allegiances to avoid the destruction of Jerusalem, he paid tribute from the treasury, some temple artifacts, some of the royal family and nobility as hostages. The subsequent failure of the Babylonian invasion into Egypt undermined Babylonian control of the area, after three years, Jehoiakim switched allegiance back to the Egyptians and ceased paying the tribute to Babylon. In 599 BC, Nebuchadnezzar II again laid siege to Jerusalem. In 598 BC, Jehoiakim was succeeded by his son Jeconiah. Jerusalem fell within three months. Jeconiah was deposed by Nebuchadnezzar, who installed Jeconiah's uncle, in his place.
According to the Hebrew Bible, Zedekiah was made king of Judah by Nebuchadnezzar II in 597 BC at the age of twenty-one. This is in agreement with a Babylonian chronicle, which states, "The seventh year: In the month Kislev the king of Akkad mustered his army and marched to Hattu, he encamped against the city of Judah and on the second day of the month Adar he captured the city seized king. A king of his own choice he appointed in the city taking the vast tribute he brought it into Babylon."The kingdom was at that time tributary to Nebuchadnezzar II. Despite the strong remonstrances of Jeremiah, Baruch ben Neriah and his other family and advisors, as well as the example of Jehoiakim, he revolted against Babylon, entered into an alliance with Pharaoh Hophra of Egypt. Nebuchadnezzar responded by invading Judah. Nebuchadnezzar began a siege of Jerusalem in December 589 BC. During this siege, which lasted about thirty months, "every worst woe befell the city, which drank the cup of God's fury to the dregs".
At the end of Zedekiah's eleven-year reign, Nebuchadnezzar succeeded in capturing Jerusalem. Zedekiah and his followers attempted to escape, making their way out of the city, but were captured on the plains of Jericho, were taken to Riblah. There, after seeing his sons put to death, his own eyes were put out, being loaded with chains, he was carried captive to Babylon, where he remained a prisoner until he died. After the fall of Jerusalem, Nebuzaradan was sent to destroy it; the city was razed to the ground. Solomon's Temple was destroyed. Only a small number of vinedressers and husbandmen were permitted to remain in the land. Gedaliah, with a Chaldean guard stationed at Mizpah, was made governor to rule over the remnant of Judah, the Yehud Province. On hearing this news, all the Jews that were in Moab, Edom, in other countries returned to Judah. However, before long Gedaliah was assassinated, the population, left in the land and those that had returned fled to Egypt for safety In Egypt, they settled in Migdol, Tahpanhes and Pathros..
The Babylonian Chronicles give 2 Adar, 597 BC, as the date that Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem, thus putting an end to the reign of Jehoaichin. Zedekiah's installation as king by Nebuchadnezzar can therefore be dated to the early spring of 597 BC. There has been considerable controversy over the date when Jerusalem was captured the second time and Zedekiah's reign came to an end. There is no dispute about the month: it was the summer month of Tammuz; the problem has been to determine the year. It was noted above that Albright preferred 587 BC and Thiele advocated 586 BC, this division among scholars has persisted until the present time. If Zedekiah's years are by accession counting, whereby the year he came to the throne was considered his "zero" year and his first full year in office, 597/596, was counted as year one, Zedekiah's eleventh year, the year the city fell, would be 587/586. Since Judean regnal years were measured from Tishri in the fall, this would place the end of his reign and the capture of the city in the summer of 586 BC.
Accession counting was the rule for most, but not all, of the kings of Judah, whereas "non-accession" counting was the rule for most, but not a
Zaphnath-Paaneah is the name given by Pharaoh to Joseph in the Genesis narrative. The name may be "Egyptian," but there is no straightforward etymology. Jewish tradition provides an explanation of "revealer of secrets." In his work on Genesis Jerome gives as the Latin translation salvator mundi "saviour of the world." Targum Onkelos gives the meaning of the name as "the man to whom mysteries are revealed". The Jewish interpretation is received in early Protestant translations: the Geneva Bible glosses "The expounder of secrets", while the Authorised Version of 1611 has in the margin: "Which in the Coptic signifies,'A revealer of secrets', or'The man to whom secrets are revealed.' The Christian interpretation of servator mundi is influenced by the Greek form of the name, Ψονθομφανήχ Psonthom-phanêkh and Ψομθομφανήχ Psomthom-phanêkh in the Septuagint and the Hexaplaric version, respectively. This, at least, is the suggestion made by Gesenius in his Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon. Early Egyptologists have interpreted the name as equivalent to Coptic ⲡⲥⲟⲧⲙ ⲫⲉⲛⲉϩ psotm peneh, "salvation of the age"After the decipherment of hieroglyphics, Egyptologists have interpreted the final element of the name as containing the Egyptian word ˁnḫ "life".
Marquardt, vii. 676. Bibl. col. 5379. ZÄS 27, 1889, 41–42. Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch. xx. 208. E. G. "Zaphnath-Paaneah". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2015-08-30
Jehoiakim was a king of Judah from 608 to 598 BC. He was the daughter of Pedaiah of Rumah, his birth name was Eliakim. After Josiah's death, Jehoiakim's younger brother Jehoahaz was proclaimed king, but after three months Pharaoh Necho II deposed him, making Eliakim king in his place; when placed on the throne, his name was changed to "Jehoiakim". Jehoiakim reigned for eleven years, until 598 BC and was succeeded by his son Jeconiah, who reigned for only three months. Jehoiakim was appointed king by Necho II, king of Egypt, in 608 BC, after Necho's return from the battle in Haran, three months after he had killed King Josiah at Megiddo. Necho deposed Jehoiakim's younger brother Jehoahaz after a reign of only three months and took him to Egypt, where he died. Jehoiakim ruled as a vassal of the Egyptians, paying a heavy tribute. To raise the money he "taxed the land and exacted the silver and gold from the people of the land according to their assessments."However, after the Egyptians were defeated by the Babylonians at the battle of Carchemish in 605 BC, Nebuchadnezzar II besieged Jerusalem, Jehoiakim changed allegiances to avoid the destruction of Jerusalem.
He paid tribute from the treasury in Jerusalem, some temple artifacts, handed over some of the royal family and nobility as hostages. Rabbinical literature describes Jehoiakim as a godless tyrant who committed atrocious sins and crimes, he is portrayed as living in incestuous relations with his mother, daughter-in-law, stepmother, was in the habit of murdering men, whose wives he violated and whose property he seized. He had tattooed his body; the prophet Jeremiah criticised the king's policies, insisting on repentance and strict adherence to the law. Another prophet, Uriah ben Shemaiah, proclaimed a similar message and Jehoiakim ordered his execution. Jehoiakim continued for three years as a vassal to the Babylonians, until the failure of an invasion of Egypt in 601 BC undermined their control of the area. Jehoiakim switched allegiance back to the Egyptians. In late 598 BC, the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II invaded Judah and again laid siege to Jerusalem, which lasted three months. Jehoiakim died.
The Book of Chronicles recorded that "Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon... bound him in fetters, to carry him to Babylon." Jeremiah prophesied that he died without proper funeral, describing the people of Judah "shall not lament for him, saying,'Alas, master!' or'Alas, his glory!' He shall be buried with the burial of a donkey and cast out beyond the gates of Jerusalem" "and his dead body shall be cast out to the heat of the day and the frost of the night". Josephus wrote that Nebuchadnezzar slew Jehoiakim along with high-ranking officers and commanded Jehoiakim's body "to be thrown before the walls, without any burial."He was succeeded by his son Jeconiah. After three months, Nebuchadnezzar deposed Jeconiah and installed Zedekiah, Jehoiakim's younger brother, as king in his place. Jeconiah, his household, much of Judah's population were exiled to Babylon. According to the Babylonian Chronicles, Jerusalem fell on 2 Adar 597 BC; the Chronicles state: The seventh year in the month Chislev the king of Babylon assembled his army, after he had invaded the land of Hatti he laid siege to the city of Judah.
On the second day of the month of Adar he took the king prisoner. He installed in his place a king of his own choice, after he had received rich tribute, he sent forth to Babylon. King, Philip J. Jeremiah: An Archaeological Companion
Daughters of Zelophehad
The Daughters of Zelophehad were five sisters - Mahlah, Hoglah and Tirzah - mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, who lived at the end of the Israelites' Exodus from Egypt as they prepared to enter the Promised Land and who raised before the Israelite community the case of a woman's right and obligation to inherit property in the absence of a male heir in the family. Zelophehad, a man of the Tribe of Manasseh, had five daughters but no sons, therefore no male heirs; the biblical text tells little of Zelophehad himself, save that he died during the 40 years when the Israelites were wandering in the wilderness, explicitly that he played no part in Korah's rebellion. Numbers 16 does not in any case cite the tribe of Manasseh as being involved in the rebellion against Moses. Zelophehad's daughters petitioned Moses, Eleazar the priest, the chieftains, the whole assembly, at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting for their right to inherit his property rights in the Land of Israel. Zelophehad's daughters noted that their father Zelophehad had not taken part in Korah's rebellion, but only died in his own sin.
Zelophehad's daughters argued that were they not to inherit Zelophehad's name would be lost to his clan. Moses took their case to God. God told Moses that the plea of Zelophehad's daughters was just, that they should be granted their father's hereditary holding; the family heads of the clan of Manasseh's grandson Gilead appealed to Moses and the chieftains, arguing that if Zelophehad's daughters married men from another Israelite tribe their share would be lost to the tribe of Manasseh and be added to the portion of the tribe into which they married. So Moses, at God's bidding, instructed the Israelites that the plea of the tribal leaders was just and that Zelophehad's daughters could marry anyone they wished, but only among the men of the tribe of Manasseh. Zelophehad's daughters did as God had commanded in the instructions conveyed to Moses, each married a son of an uncle; when the Israelites entered the land, Zelophehad's daughters appeared before Eleazer the priest and the chieftains, reminding them that God had commanded Moses to grant them a portion among their kinsmen, Zelophehad's daughters received a portion in the holdings of Manasseh on the east side of the Jordan River.
In the Talmud and the Zohar the reference to Zelophehad having "died in his own sin" is used to equate him with the man executed for gathering sticks on the Sabbath, but Sifri Zuta says that it cannot be known if he was. In the Talmud, Rabbi Joshua interpreted that they petitioned first the assembly the chieftains Eleazar, Moses, but Abba Chanan said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer that Zelophehad's daughters stood before all of them as they were sitting together; the Zohar said that Zelophehad's daughters drew near to Moses in the presence of Eleazar and all the chieftains because they were afraid of Moses' anger at Zelophehad and thought that it might be contained in a public forum. According to the Zohar, Moses presented the case to God instead of deciding it himself out of modesty. A Baraita taught that Zelophehad's daughters were wise, Torah students, righteous. Another Baraita taught that Zelophehad's daughters were equal in merit, and, why the order of their names varies in the text. According to the Gemara, they demonstrated their wisdom by raising their case in a timely fashion, just as Moses was expounding the law of levirate marriage, or yibbum, they argued for their inheritance by analogy to that law.
The daughters demonstrated their righteousness by marrying men who were fitting for them. Two genealogies are given for Zelophehad by the Bible. Both of these genealogies record Zelophehad as being a member of the tribe of Manasseh; the apparent contradictions have been addressed by naming Zelophehad as a descendant rather than as the second. According to Shammai Feldman and his daughters are a fiction created to illustrate some of the legal rules of inheritance; the presence of Zelophehad and his daughters in the earlier census is marked by the King James Version as having dubious authenticity. According to Tevye's Daughters: No Laughing Matter, author Jan Lisa Huttner makes a connection from the five daughters of Zelophehad to Tevye's five daughters in Fiddler on the Roof. Both Jane Austen and Solomon Rabinowitz read the story of Zelophehad’s five daughters and it is likely that Joseph Stein read it at one time too; the number five, five daughters—or to be exact, five dowries—is the same number God bestowed on Solomon Rabinowitz.
Linguistic scholars are divided in regard to the etymology of the name Zelophehad. Following the reading of the masoretic text, some scholars suspect that the name is derived from a Syriac term meaning first rupture, in the sense of being a first-born son. Most scholars, following the septuagint's rendering of the name as salpaad, believe that the name was derived from the Hebrew term salpahad meaning shadow from terror. In regard to the names of the daughters, scholars are in agr