Malacology is the branch of invertebrate zoology that deals with the study of the Mollusca, the second-largest phylum of animals in terms of described species after the arthropods. Mollusks include snails and slugs, clams and squid, numerous other kinds, many of which have shells. One division of malacology, conchology, is devoted to the study of mollusk shells. Malacology derives from Greek μαλακός, malakos, "soft". Fields within malacological research include taxonomy and evolution. Applied malacology studies medical and agricultural applications, for example mollusks as vectors of disease, as in schistosomiasis. Archaeology employs malacology to understand the evolution of the climate, the biota of the area, the usage of the site. In 1681, Filippo Bonanni wrote the first book published, about seashells, the shells of marine mollusks; the book was entitled: Ricreatione dell' occhio e dela mente nell oservation' delle Chiociolle, proposta a' curiosi delle opere della natura, &c. In 1868, the German Malacological Society was founded.
Zoological methods are used in malacological research. Malacological field methods and laboratory methods were summarized by Sturm et al.. Those who study malacology are known as malacologists; those who study or the shells of mollusks are known as conchologists. American Malacological Society Association of Polish Malacologists Belgian Malacological Society - French speaking Belgian Society for Conchology - Dutch speaking Conchological Society of Great Britain and Ireland Conchologists of America Dutch Malacological Society Estonian Malacological Society European Quaternary Malacologists Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Society German Malacological Society Hungarian Malacological Society Magyar Malakológiai Társaság Italian Malacological Society Malacological Society of Australasia Malacological Society of London Malacological Society of the Philippines, Inc. Mexican Malacological Society Spanish Malacological Society Western Society of Malacologists Brazilian Malacological Society More than 150 journals within the field of malacology are being published from more than 30 countries, producing an overwhelming amount of scientific articles.
They include: American Journal of Conchology American Malacological Bulletin Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology Basteria Bulletin of Russian Far East Malacological Society Fish & Shellfish Immunology Folia conchyliologica Folia Malacologica Heldia Johnsonia Journal de Conchyliologie - volumes 1850-1922 at Biodiversity Heritage Library. The Conchologist -> The Journal of Malacology The Festivus - a peer-reviewed journal which started as a club newsletter in 1970, published by the San Diego Shell Club. The Nautilus - since 1886 published by Bailey-Matthews Shell Museum. First two volumes were published under name The Conchologists’ Exchange. Impact factor: 0.500 The Veliger - impact factor: 0.606 貝類学雑誌 Venus Vita Malacologica a Dutch journal published in English -- one themed issue a year. Vita Marina Museums that have either exceptional malacological research collections and/or exceptional public exhibits of mollusks: Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia American Museum of Natural History Bailey-Matthews Shell Museum Cau del Cargol Shell Museum Maria Mitchell Association Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard Rinay Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels: with a collection of more than 9 million shells Smithsonian Institution Invertebrate paleontology History of invertebrate paleozoology Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology Cox L. R. & Peake J. F..
Proceedings of the First European Malacological Congress. September 17–21, 1962. Text in English with black-and-white photographic reproductions maps and diagrams. Published by the Conchological Society of Great Britain and Ireland and the Malacological Society of London in 1965 with no ISBN. Heppel D.. "The long dawn of Malacology: a brief history of malacology from prehistory to the year 1800." Archives of Natural History 22: 301-319. Media related to Malacology at Wikimedia Commons Periodicals about molluscs at WorldCat
Richard Axel is an American molecular biologist and university professor in the Department of Neuroscience at Columbia University and investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. His work on the olfactory system won him and Linda Buck, a former postdoctoral research scientist in his group, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2004. Born in New York City, New York, Axel graduated from Stuyvesant High School in 1963, received his A. B. in 1967 from Columbia University, his M. D. in 1971 from Johns Hopkins University. He returned to Columbia that year and became a full professor in 1978. During the late 1970s, along with microbiologist Saul J. Silverstein and geneticist Michael H. Wigler, discovered a technique of cotransformation via transfection, a process which allows foreign DNA to be inserted into a host cell to produce certain proteins. A family of patents, now colloquially referred to as the "Axel patents", covering this technique were filed for February 1980 and were issued in August 1983.
As a fundamental process in recombinant DNA research as performed at pharmaceutical and biotech companies, this patent proved quite lucrative for Columbia University, earning it $100 million a year at one time, a top spot on the list of top universities by licensing revenue. The Axel patents expired in August 2000. In their landmark paper published in 1991, Buck and Axel cloned olfactory receptors, showing that they belong to the family of G protein coupled receptors. By analyzing rat DNA, they estimated that there were one thousand different genes for olfactory receptors in the mammalian genome; this research opened the door to the molecular analysis of the mechanisms of olfaction. In their work and Axel have shown that each olfactory receptor neuron remarkably only expresses one kind of olfactory receptor protein and that the input from all neurons expressing the same receptor is collected by a single dedicated glomerulus of the olfactory bulb. Axel's primary research interest is on how the brain interprets the sense of smell mapping the parts of the brain that are sensitive to specific olfactory receptors.
He holds the titles of University Professor at Columbia University, Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics and of Pathology at Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons, Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. In addition to contributions to neurobiology, Axel has made seminal discoveries in immunology, his lab was one of the first to identify the link between HIV infection and immunoreceptor CD4. In addition to making contributions as a scientist, Axel has mentored many leading scientists in the field of neurobiology. Seven of his trainees have become members of the National Academy of Sciences, six of his trainees are affiliated with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute's investigator and early scientist award programs. In addition to the Nobel Prize, Axel has won numerous honors, he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1983. Axel was awarded the Double Helix Medal in 2007.
CSHL Double Helix Medal Honoree and was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 2014. His nomination reads: Axel is married to fellow scientist and olfaction pioneer Cornelia Bargmann, he had been married to Ann Axel, a social worker at Columbia University Medical Center. Owing to his tall stature, Axel played basketball during high school. "Follow the scent of success". The Science Network. Retrieved 24 June 2009. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004". Retrieved 24 June 2009. "Welcome to the Axel Lab". Columbia University Medical Center. Retrieved 24 June 2009. "Richard Axel, M. D." Retrieved 24 June 2009. "Secrets of smell land Nobel Prize". BBC News. 4 October 2004. Retrieved 24 June 2009. "Richard Axel Patents". PatentGenius. Retrieved 24 June 2009. Agres, Ted. "Columbia patents under attack". The Scientist. Retrieved 24 June 2009
Aristotle was a philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece, the founder of the Lyceum and the Peripatetic school of philosophy and Aristotelian tradition. Along with his teacher Plato, he is considered the "Father of Western Philosophy", his writings cover many subjects – including physics, zoology, logic, aesthetics, theatre, rhetoric, linguistics, economics and government. Aristotle provided a complex synthesis of the various philosophies existing prior to him, it was above all from his teachings that the West inherited its intellectual lexicon, as well as problems and methods of inquiry; as a result, his philosophy has exerted a unique influence on every form of knowledge in the West and it continues to be a subject of contemporary philosophical discussion. Little is known about his life. Aristotle was born in the city of Stagira in Northern Greece, his father, died when Aristotle was a child, he was brought up by a guardian. At seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Plato's Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven.
Shortly after Plato died, Aristotle left Athens and, at the request of Philip II of Macedon, tutored Alexander the Great beginning in 343 BC. He established a library in the Lyceum which helped him to produce many of his hundreds of books on papyrus scrolls. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues for publication, only around a third of his original output has survived, none of it intended for publication; the fact that Aristotle was a pupil of Plato contributed to his former views of Platonism, following Plato's death, Aristotle developed an increased interest in natural sciences and adopted the position of immanent realism. Aristotle's views on physical science profoundly shaped medieval scholarship, their influence extended from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages into the Renaissance, were not replaced systematically until the Enlightenment and theories such as classical mechanics. Some of Aristotle's zoological observations found in his biology, such as on the hectocotyl arm of the octopus, were disbelieved until the 19th century.
His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, studied by medieval scholars such as Peter Abelard and John Buridan. Aristotle's influence on logic continued well into the 19th century He influenced Islamic thought during the Middle Ages, as well as Christian theology the Neoplatonism of the Early Church and the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church. Aristotle was revered among medieval Muslim scholars as "The First Teacher" and among medieval Christians like Thomas Aquinas as "The Philosopher", his ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics, such as in the thinking of Alasdair MacIntyre and Philippa Foot. In general, the details of Aristotle's life are not well-established; the biographies written in ancient times are speculative and historians only agree on a few salient points. Aristotle, whose name means "the best purpose" in Ancient Greek, was born in 384 BC in Stagira, about 55 km east of modern-day Thessaloniki.
His father Nicomachus was the personal physician to King Amyntas of Macedon. Both of Aristotle's parents died when he was about thirteen, Proxenus of Atarneus became his guardian. Although little information about Aristotle's childhood has survived, he spent some time within the Macedonian palace, making his first connections with the Macedonian monarchy. At the age of seventeen or eighteen, Aristotle moved to Athens to continue his education at Plato's Academy, he remained there for nearly twenty years before leaving Athens in 348/47 BC. The traditional story about his departure records that he was disappointed with the Academy's direction after control passed to Plato's nephew Speusippus, although it is possible that he feared the anti-Macedonian sentiments in Athens at that time and left before Plato died. Aristotle accompanied Xenocrates to the court of his friend Hermias of Atarneus in Asia Minor. After the death of Hermias, Aristotle travelled with his pupil Theophrastus to the island of Lesbos, where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island and its sheltered lagoon.
While in Lesbos, Aristotle married Hermias's adoptive daughter or niece. She bore him a daughter, whom they named Pythias. In 343 BC, Aristotle was invited by Philip II of Macedon to become the tutor to his son Alexander. Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. During Aristotle's time in the Macedonian court, he gave lessons not only to Alexander, but to two other future kings: Ptolemy and Cassander. Aristotle encouraged Alexander toward eastern conquest and Aristotle's own attitude towards Persia was unabashedly ethnocentric. In one famous example, he counsels Alexander to be "a leader to the Greeks and a despot to the barbarians, to look after the former as after friends and relatives, to deal with the latter as with beasts or plants". By 335 BC, Aristotle had returned to Athens. Aristotle conducted courses at the school for the next twelve years. While in Athens, his wife Pythias died and Aristotle became involved with Herpyllis of Stagira, who bore him a son whom he named after his father, Nicomachus.
According to the Suda, he had an erômenos, Palaephatus of Abydus. This period in Athens, between 335 and 323 BC, is when Aristotle is believed to have composed many of his works, he wrote many dialogues. Those works that have survived are in treatise form and were not
Liberty Hyde Bailey
Liberty Hyde Bailey was an American horticulturist and botanist, cofounder of the American Society for Horticultural Science. Bailey is credited with being instrumental in starting agricultural extension services, the 4-H movement, the nature study movement, parcel post and rural electrification, he was considered the father of rural journalism. Born in South Haven, Michigan, as the third son of farmers Liberty Hyde Bailey Sr. and Sarah Harrison Bailey. In 1876 Bailey met Lucy Millington who mentored him. Bailey entered the Michigan Agricultural College in 1878 and graduated in 1882; the next year, he became assistant of Harvard University. This was arranged by a professor at William James Beal. Bailey spent two years with Gray as his herbarium assistant; the same year, he married Annette Smith, the daughter of a Michigan cattle breeder, whom he met at the Michigan Agricultural College. They had two daughters, Sara May, born in 1887, Ethel Zoe, born in 1889. In 1884 Bailey returned to MAC to become professor and chair of the Horticulture and Landscape Gardening Department, establishing the first horticulture department in the country.
In 1888, he moved to Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, where he assumed the chair of Practical and Experimental Horticulture. He was elected an Associate Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1900, he founded the College of Agriculture, in 1904 he was able to secure public funding. He was dean of what was known as New York State College of Agriculture from 1903-1913. In 1908, he was appointed Chairman of The National Commission on Country Life by president Theodore Roosevelt, its 1909 Report called for rebuilding a great agricultural civilization in America. In 1913, he retired to devote more time to social and political issues. In 1917 he was elected a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences, he edited The Cyclopedia of American Agriculture, the Cyclopedia of American Horticulture and the Rural Science, Rural Textbook and Young Folks Library series of manuals. He was the founding editor of the journals Country Life in the Cornell Countryman, he dominated the field of horticultural literature, writing some sixty-five books, which together sold more than a million copies, including scientific works, efforts to explain botany to laypeople, a collection of poetry.
He coined the words "cultivar", "cultigen", "indigen". His most significant and lasting contributions were in the botanical study of cultivated plants. Bailey's publisher was George Platt Sr. of Macmillan Publishers. Bailey was one of the first to recognize the overall importance of Gregor Mendel's work, he cited Mendel's 1865 and 1869 papers in the bibliography that accompanied his 1892 paper, "Cross Breeding and Hybridizing." Mendel is mentioned again in the 1895 edition of Bailey's "Plant Breeding." Bailey represented an agrarianism. He had a vision of suffusing all higher education, including horticulture, with a spirit of public work and integrating "expert knowledge" into a broader context of democratic community action; as a leader of the Country Life Movement, he strove to preserve the American rural civilization, which he thought was a vital and wholesome alternative to the impersonal and corrupting city life. In contrast to other progressive thinkers at the time, he endorsed the family, which, he recognized, played a unique role in socialization.
The family farm had a benign influence as a natural cooperative unit where everybody had real duties and responsibilities. The independence it fostered made farmers "a natural correction against organization men, habitual reformers, extremists", it was necessary to uphold fertility. According to Bailey, the American rural population, was backward and saddled with inadequate institutions; the key to his reform program was guidance by an educated elite toward a new social order. The Extension System was pioneered by Bailey; the grander design of a new rural social structure needed a philosophical vision that could inspire and motivate. For this purpose, he wrote Mother Earth, a "powerful testament to Nature as God and to the farmer as acolyte and collaborator in the process of ongoing creation", it conformed to the Freemason creed that Bailey had been brought up with, it was not explicit in demanding that traditional Christian dogma be discarded. Bailey's real legacy was, according to Allan C. Carlson, the themes and direction that he gave the new agrarian movement, ideas different from previous agrarian thought.
He saw technological innovation as friendly to the family farm and resulting in decentralization. He was scornful of the actual forms of peasant life and wanted to transform it by cutting the farmers loose from "the slavery of old restraints". Parochial and communal social groups should be broken down and replaced by "inter–neighborhood" and "inter–community" groups, while new leaders would be called in "who will promote inclusive rather than exclusive sociability." Bailey and his followers held a quasi–religious faith in education by enlightened experts, which meant suppression of inherited ways and substitution by progressive ways. It was accompanied by a corresponding hostility to traditional religion. Bailey's simultaneous embrace of the rural civiliz
Joel Asaph Allen
Joel Asaph Allen was an American zoologist and ornithologist. He became the first president of the American Ornithologists' Union, the first curator of birds and mammals at the American Museum of Natural History, the first head of that museum's Department of Ornithology, he is remembered for Allen's rule, which states that the bodies of endotherms vary in shape with climate, having increased surface area in hot climates to lose heat, minimized surface area in cold climates, to conserve heat. Allen was born in Springfield, the son of Harriet Trumbull and Joel Allen, he studied and collected specimen of natural history early in life, but he was forced to sell his large collection so that he could attend the Wilbraham & Monson Academy in 1861. The following year, he transferred to Harvard University. In 1865, he took part in his mentor's 1865 expedition to Brazil in search of evidence of an ice age there, which Agassiz claimed to have found. After returning to Massachusetts, chronic ill health caused him to return to his family farm in Springfield.
By 1867, Allen's health had improved enough that he went on a flurry of collecting trips, including at Sodus Bay, in Illinois and Indiana. Upon his return to Massachusetts, he took the position of curator of birds and mammals at Harvard's Museum of Comparative Zoology. In the winter of 1868-1869, he was one of two ornithologists, the other being Charles Johnson Maynard, to explore the unknown state of Florida, still much a wilderness in the late 1860s; when he returned, he wrote a celebrated analysis of his trip entitled On the Mammals and Winter Birds of Eastern Florida, published in 1871. That same year he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Sciences. For the next few years, Allen ventured to the Great Plains, Rocky Mountains, Dakota Territory on collecting trips for Harvard's museum. Except for an 1882 collecting trip in Colorado with fellow ornithologist William Brewster, Allen never went field collecting again because of his fragile health. Following the end of his field-collecting days, Allen dedicated his life to research and editorial publication.
In the early summer of 1876, Allen was elected by the Nuttall Ornithological Club to replace Charles Johnson Maynard and Henry Augustus Purdie as editor of their Bulletin. In 1883, along with William Brewster and Elliott Coues, created the American Ornithologists' Union. Allen, suffering ill health, was unable to attend their inaugural meeting, but was elected their first president, nonetheless, he became the chief editor of their journal, The Auk. In 1885, he was appointed as the first curator of birds and mammals at the American Museum of Natural History in New York becoming the first head of the museum's Department of Ornithology. In 1886, he was one of the incorporators of New York City, he was a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, of the American Philosophical Society. The hundreds of letters which Elliott Coues sent to him over many decades form one of the cornerstones of the history of American ornithology. Allen famously memorialized Coues in the pages of The Auk, the union's journal, after the latter's death in 1899.
He formulated what is now known as Allen's rule, stating a correlation between body shape and climate, in 1877. On the Mammals and Winter Birds of Eastern Florida The American Bisons History of the American Bison, Bison americanus Monographs of North American Rodentia History of North American Pinnipedia The Right Whale of the North Atlantic Mammals of Southern Patagonia The Influence of Physical Conditions in the Genesis of Species Ontogenetic and Other Variations in Musk-Oxen Works by Joel Asaph Allen at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Joel Asaph Allen at Internet Archive National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir
Karl Ernst von Baer
Karl Ernst Ritter von Baer Edler von Huthorn was a Baltic German scientist and explorer. Baer is known in Russia as Karl Maksímovich Ber. Baer was a naturalist, geologist, geographer, a founding father of embryology, he was an explorer of European Scandinavia. He was a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, a co-founder of the Russian Geographical Society, the first president of the Russian Entomological Society, making him a distinguished Baltic German scientist. Karl Ernst von Baer was born into the Baltic German noble Baer family in the Piep Manor, Jerwen County, Governorate of Estonia, as a knight by birthright, his family was of Westphalian origin and originated in Osnabrück. He spent his early childhood at Lasila Estonia. Many of his ancestors had come from Westphalia, he was educated at the Knight and Cathedral School in Reval and the Imperial University of Dorpat, each of which he found lacking in quality education. In 1812, during his tenure at the university, he was sent to Riga to aid the city after Napoleon's armies had laid siege to it.
As he attempted to help the sick and wounded, he realized that his education at Dorpat had been inadequate, upon his graduation, he notified his father that he would need to go abroad to "finish" his education. In his autobiography, his discontent with his education at Dorpat inspired him to write a lengthy appraisal of education in general, a summary that dominated the content of the book. After leaving Tartu, he continued his education in Berlin, Würzburg, where Ignaz Döllinger introduced him to the new field of embryology. In 1817, he became a professor at Königsberg University and full professor of zoology in 1821, of anatomy in 1826. In 1829, he taught in St Petersburg, but returned to Königsberg. In 1834, Baer moved back to St Petersburg and joined the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences, first in zoology and in comparative anatomy and physiology, his interests while there were anatomy, ethnography and geography. While embryology had kept his attention in Königsberg in Russia von Baer engaged in a great deal of field research, including the exploration of the island Novaya Zemlya.
The last years of his life were spent in Dorpat. Von Baer studied the embryonic development of animals, discovering the blastula stage of development and the notochord. Together with Heinz Christian Pander and based on the work by Caspar Friedrich Wolff, he described the germ layer theory of development as a principle in a variety of species, laying the foundation for comparative embryology in the book Über Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere. In 1826, Baer discovered the mammalian ovum; the human ovum was first described by Edgar Allen in 1928. In 1827, he completed research Ovi Mammalium et Hominis genesi for St Petersburg's Academy of Science. In 1827 von Baer became the first person to observe human ova. Only in 1876 did Oscar Hertwig prove that fertilization is due to fusion of an egg and sperm cell.von Baer formulated what became known as Baer's laws of embryology: General characteristics of the group to which an embryo belongs develop before special characteristics. General structural relations are formed before the most specific appear.
The form of any given embryo does not converge upon other definite forms, but separates itself from them. The embryo of a higher animal form never resembles the adult of another animal form, such as one less evolved, but only its embryo. From his studies of comparative embryology, Baer had believed in the transmutation of species but rejected in his career the theory of natural selection proposed by Charles Darwin, he produced an early phylogenetic tree revealing the phylogeny of vertebrate embryos. In the fifth edition of On the Origin of Species published in 1869, Charles Darwin added a Historical Sketch giving due credit to naturalists who had preceded him in publishing the opinion that species undergo modification, that the existing forms of life have descended by true generation from pre-existing forms. According to Darwin: "Von Baer, towards whom all zoologists feel so profound a respect, expressed about the year 1859... his conviction, chiefly grounded on the laws of geographical distribution, that forms now distinct have descended from a single parent-form."Baer believed in a teleological force in nature which directed evolution.
The term Baer's law is applied to the unconfirmed proposition that in the Northern Hemisphere, erosion occurs on the right banks of rivers, in the Southern Hemisphere on the left banks. In its more thorough formulation, which Baer never formulated himself, the erosion of rivers depends on the direction of flow, as well. For example, in the Northern Hemisphere, a section of river flowing in a North-South direction, according to the theory, erodes on its right bank due to the coriolis effect, while in an East-West section there is no preference. However, this was repudiated by Albert Einstein's Tea leaf paradox. Baer was interested in the northern part of Russia, explored Novaya Zemlya in 1837, collecting biological specimens. Other travels led him to the Caspian Sea, the North Cape, Lapland, he was one of the founders of the Russian Geographical Society. He was a pioneer in studying biological time – the perception of time in different organisms. In 1849, he was elected a foreign honorary of the American Academy of Sciences.
He was elected a
Zoology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, evolution, classification and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, how they interact with their ecosystems. The term is derived from Ancient Greek ζῷον, zōion, i.e. "animal" and λόγος, logos, i.e. "knowledge, study". The history of zoology traces the study of the animal kingdom from ancient to modern times. Although the concept of zoology as a single coherent field arose much the zoological sciences emerged from natural history reaching back to the biological works of Aristotle and Galen in the ancient Greco-Roman world; this ancient work was further developed in the Middle Ages by Muslim physicians and scholars such as Albertus Magnus. During the Renaissance and early modern period, zoological thought was revolutionized in Europe by a renewed interest in empiricism and the discovery of many novel organisms. Prominent in this movement were Vesalius and William Harvey, who used experimentation and careful observation in physiology, naturalists such as Carl Linnaeus, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Buffon who began to classify the diversity of life and the fossil record, as well as the development and behavior of organisms.
Microscopy revealed the unknown world of microorganisms, laying the groundwork for cell theory. The growing importance of natural theology a response to the rise of mechanical philosophy, encouraged the growth of natural history. Over the 18th, 19th, 20th centuries, zoology became an professional scientific discipline. Explorer-naturalists such as Alexander von Humboldt investigated the interaction between organisms and their environment, the ways this relationship depends on geography, laying the foundations for biogeography and ethology. Naturalists began to reject essentialism and consider the importance of extinction and the mutability of species. Cell theory provided a new perspective on the fundamental basis of life; these developments, as well as the results from embryology and paleontology, were synthesized in Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection. In 1859, Darwin placed the theory of organic evolution on a new footing, by his discovery of a process by which organic evolution can occur, provided observational evidence that it had done so.
Darwin gave a new direction to morphology and physiology, by uniting them in a common biological theory: the theory of organic evolution. The result was a reconstruction of the classification of animals upon a genealogical basis, fresh investigation of the development of animals, early attempts to determine their genetic relationships; the end of the 19th century saw the fall of spontaneous generation and the rise of the germ theory of disease, though the mechanism of inheritance remained a mystery. In the early 20th century, the rediscovery of Mendel's work led to the rapid development of genetics, by the 1930s the combination of population genetics and natural selection in the modern synthesis created evolutionary biology. Cell biology studies the structural and physiological properties of cells, including their behavior and environment; this is done on both the microscopic and molecular levels, for single-celled organisms such as bacteria as well as the specialized cells in multicellular organisms such as humans.
Understanding the structure and function of cells is fundamental to all of the biological sciences. The similarities and differences between cell types are relevant to molecular biology. Anatomy considers the forms of macroscopic structures such as organs and organ systems, it focuses on how organs and organ systems work together in the bodies of humans and animals, in addition to how they work independently. Anatomy and cell biology are two studies that are related, can be categorized under "structural" studies. Physiology studies the mechanical and biochemical processes of living organisms by attempting to understand how all of the structures function as a whole; the theme of "structure to function" is central to biology. Physiological studies have traditionally been divided into plant physiology and animal physiology, but some principles of physiology are universal, no matter what particular organism is being studied. For example, what is learned about the physiology of yeast cells can apply to human cells.
The field of animal physiology extends the tools and methods of human physiology to non-human species. Physiology studies how for example nervous, endocrine and circulatory systems and interact. Evolutionary research is concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change over time, includes scientists from many taxonomically oriented disciplines. For example, it involves scientists who have special training in particular organisms such as mammalogy, herpetology, or entomology, but use those organisms as systems to answer general questions about evolution. Evolutionary biology is based on paleontology, which uses the fossil record to answer questions about the mode and tempo of evolution, on the developments in areas such as population genetics and evolutionary theory. Following the development of DNA fingerprinting techniques in the late 20th century, the application of these techniques in zoology has increased the understanding of animal populations. In the 1980s, developmental biology re-entered evolutionary biology from its initial exclusion from the modern synthesis through the study of evolutionary developmental biology.
Related fields considered part of evolutionary biology are phylogenetics and taxonomy. Scientific classification in zoology, is a method by which