Armand Gaston Maximilien de Rohan
Armand de Rohan was a French churchman and politician. He became bishop of Strasbourg in 1704, Cardinal in 1712 Grand Almoner of France in 1713 and member of the regency council in 1722, he constructed the Hôtel de Rohan next to the present day Hôtel de Soubise in which his father lived, employing his father's architect, Pierre-Alexis Delamair. The prince de Rohan was elected a member of the Académie des Inscriptions in 1701 and of the Académie française in 1703, he was made a commander of the Saint-Esprit in 1713. Palais Rohan Claude Muller, Le siècle des Rohan: une dynastie de cardinaux en Alsace au XVIII|e, La Nuée Bleue, Strasbourg, 2006, 446 p. ISBN 2-7165-0652-3 Académie française
A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy, entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, Old Catholic and Independent Catholic churches and in the Assyrian Church of the East, bishops claim apostolic succession, a direct historical lineage dating back to the original Twelve Apostles. Within these churches, bishops are seen as those who possess the full priesthood and can ordain clergy – including another bishop; some Protestant churches including the Lutheran and Methodist churches have bishops serving similar functions as well, though not always understood to be within apostolic succession in the same way. One, ordained deacon and bishop is understood to hold the fullness of the priesthood, given responsibility by Christ to govern and sanctify the Body of Christ, members of the Faithful. Priests and lay ministers cooperate and assist their bishops in shepherding a flock.
The term epískopos, meaning "overseer" in Greek, the early language of the Christian Church, was not from the earliest times distinguished from the term presbýteros, but the term was clearly used in the sense of the order or office of bishop, distinct from that of presbyter in the writings attributed to Ignatius of Antioch.. The earliest organization of the Church in Jerusalem was, according to most scholars, similar to that of Jewish synagogues, but it had a council or college of ordained presbyters. In Acts 11:30 and Acts 15:22, we see a collegiate system of government in Jerusalem chaired by James the Just, according to tradition the first bishop of the city. In Acts 14:23, the Apostle Paul ordains presbyters in churches in Anatolia; the word presbyter was not yet distinguished from overseer, as in Acts 20:17, Titus 1:5–7 and 1 Peter 5:1. The earliest writings of the Apostolic Fathers, the Didache and the First Epistle of Clement, for example, show the church used two terms for local church offices—presbyters and deacon.
In Timothy and Titus in the New Testament a more defined episcopate can be seen. We are told that Paul had left Timothy in Titus in Crete to oversee the local church. Paul commands Titus to exercise general oversight. Early sources are unclear but various groups of Christian communities may have had the bishop surrounded by a group or college functioning as leaders of the local churches; the head or "monarchic" bishop came to rule more and all local churches would follow the example of the other churches and structure themselves after the model of the others with the one bishop in clearer charge, though the role of the body of presbyters remained important. As Christendom grew, bishops no longer directly served individual congregations. Instead, the Metropolitan bishop appointed priests to minister each congregation, acting as the bishop's delegate. Around the end of the 1st century, the church's organization became clearer in historical documents. In the works of the Apostolic Fathers, Ignatius of Antioch in particular, the role of the episkopos, or bishop, became more important or, rather was important and being defined.
While Ignatius of Antioch offers the earliest clear description of monarchial bishops he is an advocate of monepiscopal structure rather than describing an accepted reality. To the bishops and house churches to which he writes, he offers strategies on how to pressure house churches who don't recognize the bishop into compliance. Other contemporary Christian writers do not describe monarchial bishops, either continuing to equate them with the presbyters or speaking of episkopoi in a city. "Blessed be God, who has granted unto you, who are yourselves so excellent, to obtain such an excellent bishop." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 1:1 "and that, being subject to the bishop and the presbytery, ye may in all respects be sanctified." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 2:1 "For your justly renowned presbytery, worthy of God, is fitted as to the bishop as the strings are to the harp." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 4:1 "Do ye, beloved, be careful to be subject to the bishop, the presbyters and the deacons."
— Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 5:1 "Plainly therefore we ought to regard the bishop as the Lord Himself" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 6:1. "your godly bishop" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 2:1. "the bishop presiding after the likeness of God and the presbyters after the likeness of the council of the Apostles, with the deacons who are most dear to me, having been entrusted with the diaconate of Jesus Christ" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 6:1. "Therefore as the Lord did nothing without the Father, either by Himself or by the Apostles, so neither do ye anything without the bishop and the presbyters." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 7:1. "Be obedient to the bishop and to one another, as Jesus Christ was to the Father, as the Apostles were to Christ and to the Father, that there may be union both of flesh and of spirit." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 13:2. "In like manner let all men respe
Louis Constantin de Rohan (1697–1779)
Louis César Constantin de Rohan was a French prelate of the House of Rohan. Louis Caesar Constantine de Rohan-Guemene belonged to the House of Rohan, an ancient and powerful family of the nobility of Brittany which dates back to the xi th century. Son of Charles III de Rohan, cousin of Armand-Gaston-Maximilien de Rohan, his second wife, Charlotte-Elisabeth de Cochefilet, he is the last child of the couple. His brother Armand-Jules de Rohan-Guémené, future archbishop of Reims, had chosen the ecclesiastical state. Louis-César-Constantin de Rohan embraced at first the career of arms, he is first Knight of Malta before entering as a naval officer in the Royal Navy. He was promoted to capitaine de vaisseau in 1720. In 1732, at the age of 35, he was named canon and grand-provost of Strasbourg, entered the ecclesiastical career. In 1734, he was appointed abbot of Lyre near Evreux first chaplain to the King in 1748. Abbot of Saint-Epvre the following year, in 1749, he was made prelate-commander of the Holy Spirit in 1753.
He was appointed Prince-Bishop of Strasbourg and Graf of Alsace in 1756 on the death of his uncle Armand de Rohan-Soubise. He was created cardinal by Pope Clement XIII at the Consistory of 23 November 1761, But will not be great chaplain unlike the other Rohan, bishops of Strasbourg, he did not take part in the conclave of 1769, summoned to the death of Pope Clement XIII, nor to the conclave of 1774-1775, summoned to the death of Pope Clement XIV. His cousin and successor, Louis-René de Rohan-Guéméné, cardinal - bishop of Strasbourg, will be compromised in the affair of the queen's necklace. Blazon: Quarterly: in 1 and 4: from gules to a strip of silver loaded with a cotice of Vert. Comments: Louis Châtellier, "Louis-César-Constantin de Rohan", New dictionary of Alsatian biography, vol. 32, p. 3268 Jean-Claude Fauveau, Prince Louis, Cardinal de Rohan-Guéméné, or the Diamonds of the King on Google Books, Éditions L'Harmattan, 2007, p. 31 Michel Popoff and preface by Hervé Pinoteau, Leopard d'or,1996, 204 p..
Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria
Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria was an Austrian military commander, Governor of the Spanish Netherlands from 1647 to 1656, a patron of the arts. Born at Wiener Neustadt, he was the youngest son of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II and Maria Anna of Bavaria, daughter of William V, Duke of Bavaria, his elder brother became Emperor Ferdinand III. Leopold Wilhelm served as a general in the Thirty Years' War, commanding in the Second battle of Breitenfeld, in the Franco-Spanish War. During the latter war, the Spanish-Low Country forces under Leopold Wilhelm lost the Battle of Lens in an attempt to recover the city in 1648. In the war, he sallied forth from the Netherlands on two occasions. On the second, he seized a number of northern French forts in February–March 1652, forcing the French to withdraw forces from Catalonia to reinforce their northern frontier; this assisted Spanish forces in Spain in recovering Catalonia from the French-backed Catalan rebellion. Though Leopold Wilhelm lacked the canonical qualifications, he was invested, with the help of his father, with a number of prince-bishoprics in order to provide him with an income.
Unqualified as he was, he only held the title administrator realising the full episcopal revenues, of the prince-bishoprics of Halberstadt, Breslau, Olmütz and Strasbourg. In 1635, Pope Urban VIII authorised him to become the prince-archbishop of Bremen, but due to its occupation by the Swedes he never gained de facto power, he returned to Vienna after the situation in the Spanish Netherlands had deteriorated in 1656. In Vienna he was occupied with the administration of his various bishoprics, the Teutonic Order which he led as Grand Master and the family affairs of the imperial house. After the death of his elder brother Emperor Ferdinand III, several electors put him forward for the position of Emperor. However, he stalled to allow his nephew to reach the statutory age to ascend the imperial throne, which his nephew did as Leopold I on 22 July 1658 at the age of 18 years. After devoting himself to the affairs of state, Leopold Wilhelm retired in his final years and lived for the love of art.
He died in Vienna in 1662. When he assumed the government of the Spanish Netherlands, Leopold Wilhelm, being a great lover of art, employed several painters from the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke, including the great Flemish painter David Teniers the Younger, who he not only employed as a painter but as keeper of the collection of pictures he was forming. With the rank and title of "ayuda de camara," Teniers took up his abode in Brussels shortly after 1647. Immense sums were spent in the acquisition of paintings for the archduke, including paintings by Frans Snyders, Peter Snayers, Daniel Seghers, Peter Franchoys, Frans Wouters, Jan van den Hoecke, Pieter Thijs, Jan van de Venne and others. A number of valuable works of the Italian masters, now in the Vienna Museum, came from Leopold's gallery after having belonged to Bartolomeo della Nave, Charles I and the duke of Buckingham, he commissioned the British painter John Michael Wright in 1650 to travel to Cromwell's England, acquire art and artifacts at the great Commonwealth sale of the late king's goods.
This expansion of his collection was celebrated by having his most prized pieces engraved in the book Theatrum Pictorium called the first "art catalog". When Leopold returned to Vienna, his collection of paintings was relocated to the Stallburg gallery in Hofburg Palace. Jan Anton van der Baren, a Flemish priest, a first-rate flower painter, became director of the archducal gallery. Leopold bequeathed his gallery to his nephew Leopold I, it became imperial property, it is now part of the collections of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. When the tomb of Childeric I, an early Merovingian king of the Salian Franks and father of Clovis I was discovered in 1653 by a mason doing repairs in the church of Saint-Brice in Tournai, it was Leopold Wilhelm who had the find published in Latin. Schreiber, Renate. "Ein Galeria nach meinem Humor": Erzherzog Leopold Wilhelm. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. ISBN 3854970854. Liedtke, Walter A.. Flemish paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
ISBN 0870993569. Media related to Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria at Wikimedia Commons
Charles Amarin Brand
Charles-Amarin Brand was a French prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. Brand was born in Mulhouse and was ordained a priest on July 11, 1943, from the Archdiocese of Strasbourg, he was appointed auxiliary archbishop of the Diocese of Fréjus-Toulon on December 28, 1971, as well as titular bishop of Uthina, was ordained bishop on February 13, 1972. Brand was appointed auxiliary bishop of the Archdiocese of Strasbourg on November 18, 1976. Brand was archbishop of the Archdiocese of Monaco from July 30, 1981, to July 16, 1984, when he was appointed Archbishop of Archdiocese of Strasbourg, he served at Strasbourg until his retirement on October 23, 1997. He died in 2013. Diocese of Frejus-Toulon Archdiocese of Strasbourg
Gustave Maximilien Juste de Croÿ-Solre
Gustave Maximilien Juste de Croÿ-Solre was a French cardinal, Archbishop of Rouen, a member of the House of Croy. Gustave was the son of Anne Emmanuel Ferdinand François, 8th Duke of Croy, Auguste Friederike Wilhelmine zu Salm-Kyrburg, he was ordained a priest on 3 November 1797 in Vienna. On 8 August 1817 he was appointed Bishop of Strasbourg by King Louis XVIII of France, he was ordained a bishop on 9 January 1820 at the Church of St. Sulpice in Paris by Jean Charles de Coucy, Archbishop of Reims, he was made a Peer of France in 1822 and became Archbishop of Rouen on 4 July 1823. In 1824 he assisted King Louis XVIII of France on his death bed and presided over his funeral in the Abbey of Saint-Denis. On 21 March 1825 he was created a cardinal by Pope Leo XII, he did not receive the red hat until 18 May 1829. Three days on 21 May 1829 he received the title Cardinal-Priest of Santa Sabina, he participated in the conclaves of 1829 and 1830-1831. He died of gout, his remains are buried in Rouen Cathedral.
The Salian Franks called the Salians, were a northwestern subgroup of the earliest Franks who first appear in the historical records in the third century. They lived at the mouth of the Rhine river in what was the Roman Empire and today Netherlands and Belgium. Like the other Franks in this period, the Salian Franks were a Germanic people living near the river Rhine, which had long been a militarized border; the Salians, unlike other Franks, first appear living inside the Roman Empire, living in the Rhine delta in the modern Netherlands. In modern works they are contrasted with their neighbours to the east, known as the Rhineland or Ripuarian Franks, who held the Roman city of Cologne, in modern Germany. How the Franks in these areas were politically connected or separated, how many groups there were, is unknown until the time when they all fell under the reign of Clovis I. A much author, Gregory of Tours, said that in old records he found it seemed the Franks had once had kinglets in each city they held.
Although treated as a tribe it has been argued by Matthias Springer that this might represent a misunderstanding. All of the classical mentions of them seem to derive from one mention by Ammianus Marcellinus of "Franks, those namely whom custom calls the Salii". Ammianus, who served in the Roman military, reported that the Salii were pushed from their home in Batavia, into Toxandria, by the non-Roman Chamavi; the first historian to say that the Salians had been pushed into the empire from outside was Zosimus, but his description of events seems to be confused and derived from others. The account of Zosimus, that the Salians had been pushed into the empire as a single tribe, is still accepted. In this case, their homeland may have been between the Rhine and the IJssel in the modern day Dutch region of the Veluwe and they may have given their name to the region of Salland, it has been proposed that the Salii might have been one of the peoples making up the large nation of the Chauci during the Roman empire, most of whom became Saxons.
In 358, the Salians came to some form of agreement with the Romans, which allowed them to keep settlements south of the delta in Toxandria, between the rivers Scheldt and Demer the area of the current Dutch province of Noord-Brabant, adjacent parts of the two bordering Belgian provinces of Antwerpen and Belgian Limburg, the so-called "Kempen". The Merovingian kings responsible for the conquest of Gaul are thought to have had Salian ancestry, because they applied so-called Salian law in their Roman-populated territories between the Loire and Silva Carbonaria, although they clearly had connections with the Rhineland or Ripuarian Franks before they conquered them; the Lex Ripuaria originated about 630 and has been described as a development of the Frankish laws known from Lex Salica. On the other hand, following the interpretation of Springer the Lex Salica may have meant something like "Common Law". Various etymologies are proposed; the ethnonym is unrelated to the name for the dancing priests of Mars, who were called Salii.
In line with theories that the Salians existed as a tribe outside the Roman empire, the name may have derived from the name of the IJssel river called Hisloa or Hisla, in ancient times, which may be the Salians' original residence. Today this area is called Salland. Alternatively, the name may derive from a proposed Germanic word *saljon meaning friend or comrade, indicating that the term implied an alliance. In that case, the name may have originated in the empire itself, or the river and/or region might be named after the inhabitants. Apart from some isolated fragments, there is no record of the Salian Frankish language but it is presumed to be ancestral to the modern family of Low Franconian dialects, which are represented today by Dutch and Flemish dialects, Afrikaans. Before the Merovingian takeover, the Salian tribes constituted a loose confederacy that only banded together, for example to negotiate with Roman authority; each tribe consisted of extended family groups centered on a renowned or noble family.
The importance of the family bond was made clear by the Salic Law, which ordained that an individual had no right to protection if not part of a family. While the Goths or the Vandals had been at least converted to Christianity since the mid-4th century, polytheistic beliefs are thought to have flourished among the Salian Franks until the conversion of Clovis to Catholicism shortly before or after 500, after which paganism diminished gradually. On the other hand it is possible many Salians in Gaul were Arian Christians, like contemporary Germanic kingdoms. Within the Roman empire, Germanic tribes had lived in the river deltas now in the Netherlands long before the names "Frank" or "Salii" appeared; the most important are known to history as the Batavi, a name based on the older name of the island they lived on, where we first find the Salians living. They were reported by Tacitus to be immigrants from the Chatti; the first mention of Franks in the area was about 286 AD, during the reign of emperor Probus, when Carausius was put in charge of defending the coasts of the Straits of Dover against Saxon and Frankish pirates.
In the time of Probus there is record of a large group who decided to hijack some Roman ships and return with them from the Black Sea – reaching the Atlantic after causing chaos through Greece and Gibraltar. It has been proposed that the