Ratherius or Rathier or Rather of Verona was a teacher and bishop. His difficult personality and political activities led to his becoming a wanderer, he was born sometime between 890 AD into a noble family in the territory of Liège. While still a boy, Ratherius was sent as an oblate to Lobbes Abbey, belonging to the Order of Saint Benedict in the County of Hainaut, he was a diligent student and became a monk there. At an early age, he was described as being restless, difficult to get along with and overly zealous. Despite his strict orthodoxy, wide learning, good conduct, he met with difficulties in every position he assumed and failed to attain lasting success, he spent his life wandering fruitlessly. As presiding bishop, he once commented that if he attempted to enforce the canons against unchaste persons who administered ecclesiastical rites, the Church would be without anyone except boys. Furthermore, if he put into effect canons against bastards, they would be excluded; when Abbot Hilduin of Lobbes went in to Italy in 926, he took Ratherius with him as a companion.
Hilduin's cousin, Hugh of Italy was the current king, after many difficulties, Ratherius received the Diocese of Verona from him in 931. Yet he only ruled his see for two years, soon quarrelling with members of his diocese and with the king; the king had him brought to Como. In 946 he traveled again to Italy and, after being held for some time as a prisoner by Berengar II of Italy, regained the Diocese of Verona; the difficulties that arose were again so great that after two years he fled to Germany and for some time wandered about the country. He took part in the expedition to invade Lombardy with Liudolf, Duke of Swabia, the son of Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, but was unable to regain his diocese. From Lobbes Abbey, Ratherius was called to the cathedral school of Cologne by Archbishop Bruno of Cologne who in 953, gave Ratherius the Diocese of Liège. However, as early as 955, a revolt against him by the nobility obliged Ratherius to give up this see, he retired to Aulne Abbey. In 962 the Diocese of Verona was restored to him by Emperor Otto but after seven years of constant quarrels he was obliged once more to withdraw.
In 968 he went to Lobbes, where he incited such opposition against the Abbot Folcwin that Bishop Notker of Liège restored order by force, in 972 sent Ratherius back to the Abbey of Aulne, where he remained until his death at Namur on 25 April 974. Ratherius was a fine preacher: one of his strengths was his skill in reviving old ideas and making them new again He was one of the first to employ the use of fables to illustrate his sermons, respected ordinary intelligence, speaking against "swollen rhetoric", his writings are as unsystematic as his life was tumultuous. While his style is confused and lacks clarity, his writings made reference to particular occasions, were pamphlets and invectives against his contemporaries, he wrote complaints against himself in his own affairs. While imprisoned in Pavia, Ratherius wrote Praeloquia, a treatise in six books about holy living and the profane condition of the Italian bishops, criticizing all social ranks of the period, his other writings include: Conclusio deliberativa, Phrensis, both in defense of his right to the Diocese of Liège Dialogus confessionum and Qualitatis conjunctura, a self-accusation De contemptu canonum, Discordia inter ipsum et clericos, Liber apologeticus, against the ecclesiastics of his era and in defence of himselfSome of his sermons and letters have been preserved.
The writings shine light upon his era. His works were edited by the brothers Ballerini. Unedited letters are to be found in Studi e documenti di storia e diritto 51-72. Paton, Ker William; the Dark Ages. Mentor Books. P. 117. "Catholic Celibacy". The Saturday Review; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Ratherius of Verona". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
Domitian of Huy
Domitian of Huy was a Gaulish bishop of the sixth century, noted for both his generosity and writings against heresy. He is venerated as a saint. Domitian was the bishop of Tongeren, now in modern-day Belgium, he was present at the Council of Clermont. Domitian is notable for speaking out convincingly against heretics at the Fifth Council of Orléans in 549, he encouraged the development of polemic against heresy in the early church, worked to evangelize the Meuse Valley. He is referred to as the Apostle of the Meuse Valley for his efforts there. Domitian constructed churches and hospices in order to care for people spiritually and physically, he was well known for his generosity, as well as his ability to procure money via fund-raising, a talent that once helped to ease a famine in his bishopric. Domitian's relics are kept and venerated at Huy, the city of which he is now the patron saint, he is invoked against fevers. Jones, Terry. "Saint Domitian of Huy". Saints. SQPN.com. Retrieved 2012-03-01. Rabenstein, Katherine.
"Domitian of Huy". Saint of the Day, May 7: Domitian of Huy. Archived from the original on February 6, 2007. Retrieved 2012-03-01. CS1 maint: Unfit url
Theodard of Maastricht
Theodard of Maastricht was a seventh-century bishop of Maastricht-Liège, in present-day Netherlands. As Theodard was murdered while on his way to protest the plundering of his diocese by Frankish nobles, he is considered a martyr, his feast day is 10 September. Theodard was uncle to his successor Lambert of Maastricht, therefore brother or brother-in-law to Robert II, Lord Chancellor of France. What little we know about Theodard comes from a seventh century biography written by Heriger of Lobbes. There is a biography by Anselm of Liège. Theodard is thought to have been a disciple of Remaclus at the monastery of Stavelot in Belgium; when Remaclus became bishop of Tongeren-Maastricht in around 653, Theodard succeeded him as abbot of the double monastery of Stavelot-Malmedy. When Remaclus retired to Stavelot in 663, Theodard succeeded him as bishop of Maastricht, his biographers describe him as a cheerful and likeable person who performed his role as bishop with great energy and pastoral care. As bishop, in 664 he presided over the dedication of Trudo's abbey to St. Quentin and St. Remigius of Reims.
He was murdered c.670, while on a journey through the forest of Bienwald near Speyer, on his way to seek justice from Childeric II of Austrasia in a legal dispute regarding Frankish nobles plundering the diocese. It is suspected that the murder was carried out on behalf of the nobles. At first buried at the scene in Rülzheim, his body was transferred to Liege by his nephew and successor, Lambert of Maastricht; because he was murdered on his way to defend the rights of the Church, he was honored as a martyr. A chapel was built at his place of death and original burial in Rülzheim, called the "Dieterskirchel"; the place is one of the oldest in the diocese of Speyer. Baronius added his name to Roman Martyrology. Theodard is venerated as the patron saint of cattle dealers and the city of Maastricht; the chapel was built on the eastern edge of a vast forest south of the town of Rülzheim, attracted pilgrimages and processions from Rülzheim and elsewhere. Anselm of Liège mentions a church built in honor of St. Theodard in the eleventh century.
A larger church was subsequently demolished. Paul Burns, Butler's Lives of the Saints, September, pp. 90–1
Maastricht is a city and a municipality in the southeast of the Netherlands. It is largest city of the province of Limburg. Maastricht is located at the point where the Jeker joins it, it is adjacent to the border with Belgium. Maastricht developed from a Roman settlement to a medieval religious centre. In the 16th century it in the 19th century an early industrial city. Today, the city is a thriving regional hub, it became well-known as the birthplace of the Euro. Maastricht has 1677 national heritage buildings, the second highest number in the Netherlands, after Amsterdam; the city is popular with tourists for shopping and recreation, has a large international student population. Maastricht is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network and is part of the Meuse-Rhine Euroregion, which includes the nearby German and Belgian cities of Aachen, Hasselt, Liège, Tongeren; the Meuse-Rhine Euroregion is a metropolis with a population of about 3.9 million with several international universities.
Maastricht is mentioned in ancient documents as Treiectinsem ab. 575, Treiectensis in 634, Triectu in 7th century, Triiect in 768-781, Traiecto in 945, Masetrieth in 1051. The place name Maastricht is an Old Dutch compound Masa- + Old Dutch *treiekt, itself borrowed from Gallo-Romance *TRAECTU cf. its Walloon name li trek, from Classical Latin trajectus with the addition of Maas "Meuse" to avoid the confusion with the -trecht of Utrecht having the same original form and etymology. The Latin name first appears in medieval documents and it is not known whether *Trajectu was Maastricht's name during Roman times. A resident of Maastricht is referred to as Maastrichtenaar whilst in the local dialect it is either Mestreechteneer or, Sjeng. Neanderthal remains have been found to the west of Maastricht. Of a date are Palaeolithic remains, between 8,000 and 25,000 years old. Celts lived here around 500 BC, at a spot where the river Meuse was shallow and therefore easy to cross, it is not known when the Romans arrived in Maastricht, or whether the settlement was founded by them.
The Romans built a bridge across the Meuse in the 1st century AD, during the reign of Augustus Caesar. The bridge was an important link in the main road between Cologne. Roman Maastricht was relatively small. Remains of the Roman road, the bridge, a religious shrine, a Roman bath, a granary, some houses and the 4th-century castrum walls and gates, have been excavated. Fragments of provincial Roman sculptures, as well as coins, glass and other objects from Roman Maastricht are on display in the exhibition space of the city's public library. According to legend, the Armenian-born Saint Servatius, Bishop of Tongeren, died in Maastricht in 384 where he was interred along the Roman road, outside the castrum. According to Gregory of Tours bishop Monulph was to have built around 570 the first stone church on the grave of Servatius, the present-day Basilica of Saint Servatius; the city remained an early Christian diocese until it lost the distinction to nearby Liège in the 8th or 9th century. In the early Middle Ages Maastricht was part of the heartland of the Carolingian Empire along with Aachen and the area around Liège.
The town was an important centre for manufacturing. Merovingian coins minted in Maastricht have been found in places throughout Europe. In 881 the town was plundered by the Vikings. In the 10th century it became the capital of the duchy of Lower Lorraine. During the 12th century the town flourished culturally; the provosts of the church of Saint Servatius held important positions in the Holy Roman Empire during this era. The two collegiate churches were rebuilt and redecorated. Maastricht Romanesque stone sculpture and silversmithing are regarded as highlights of Mosan art. Maastricht painters were praised by Wolfram von Eschenbach in his Parzival. Around the same time, the poet Henric van Veldeke wrote a legend of Saint Servatius, one of the earliest works in Dutch literature; the two main churches acquired a wealth of relics and the septennial Maastricht Pilgrimage became a major event. Unlike most Dutch towns, Maastricht did not receive city rights at a certain date; these developed during its long history.
In 1204 the city's dual authority was formalised in a treaty, with the prince-bishops of Liège and the dukes of Brabant holding joint sovereignty over the city. Soon afterwards the first ring of medieval walls were built. In 1275, the old Roman bridge collapsed under the weight of a procession. A replacement, funded by church indulgences, was built to the north and survives until today, the Sint Servaasbrug. Throughout the Middle Ages, the city remained a centre for trade and manufacturing principally of wool and leather but economic decline set in. After a brief period of economic prosperity around 1500, the city's economy suffered during the wars of religion of the 16th and 17th centuries, recovery did not happen until the industrial revolution in the early 19th century; the important strategic location of Maastricht resulted in the construction of an impressive array of fortifications around the city during this period. The Spanish and Dutch garrisons became an important factor in the city's economy.
In 1579 the city was sacked by the Spanish army led by
Eberigisil was Bishop of Cologne, being the fifth well-attested bishop, the first with a Frankish name. He is mentioned by Gregory of Tours but always using the past tense, so it is assumed that Eberigisil died before 594. Heriger of Lobbes mentions him as a bishop of Maastricht but this may well be a mix up, he is revered as honoured on 24 October. Régis de la Haye, De bisschoppen van Maastricht. Maastricht, 1985 Sebastian Ristow. "Eberigisil, fünfter überlieferter Bischof von Köln". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 22. Nordhausen: Bautz. Cols. 299–304. ISBN 3-88309-133-2
Prince-Bishopric of Liège
The Prince-Bishopric of Liège or Principality of Liège was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, situated for the most part in present Belgium, ruled by the Bishop of Liège. As a prince, the Bishop had seat and voice at the Imperial Diet; the Prince-Bishopric of Liège should not be confused with the Bishop's diocese of Liège, larger. The bishops of Liège acquired their status as a Prince-bishop between 980 and 985 when Bishop Notger, the bishop of Liege since 972, received secular control of the County of Huy from Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor; the Prince-Bishopric belonged from 1500 on to the Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle. Its territory included most of the present Belgian provinces of Liège and Limburg, some exclaves in other parts of Belgium and the Netherlands, it became a republic from 1789 to 1791, before reverting to a Prince-Bishopric in 1791. The role of the Bishop as prince permanently ended when the state was annexed by France in 1795. In 1815 the territories it had held became part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, in 1830 they were within the part of that kingdom which split off to become Belgium.
The principality ruled by the bishops of Liège was never part of the Seventeen Provinces or the Spanish and Austrian Southern Netherlands, but from the 16th century onwards its politics were influenced by the dukes of Burgundy and the Habsburgs. In 1559 its 1,636 parishes were grouped into eight archdeaconries, twenty-eight councils, chrétientés; the most important cities of the bishopric were: Liège, Bilzen, Bree, Châtelet, Couvin, Fosses-la-Ville, Hasselt, Herk-de-Stad, Maaseik, Sint-Truiden, Thuin, Verviers, Visé and Waremme. The city of Maastricht fell under the joint jurisdiction of the Prince-Bishop of Liège and the Duke of Brabant; the second city of the prince-bishopric thus kept its status aparte throughout the ancien régime. The large diocese of the medieval bishops was, until 1559, much larger than the princedom, in their possession. However, the princely domain was enlarged by donations and by acquisitions. In the 10th century, the bishops received secular power over the county of Huy, which lay within of the diocese.
Bishop Notger thus became a sovereign prince. This status was retained by his successors until the French Revolution, throughout that period of nearly eight centuries the Prince-Bishopric of Liège succeeded in maintaining a level of autonomy, though theoretically it was part of the Holy Roman Empire; this virtual independence was owed to the ability of its bishops, who on several occasions played an important part in international politics, being strategically positioned between France and Germany. Throughout the Middle Ages, the prince-bishopric was further expanded with the lordship of Bouillon in 1096, the acquisition of the county of Loon in 1366 and the county of Horne in 1568. Notger, the founder of the principality rebuilt the cathedral of St Lambert, as well as the episcopal palace, he was involved in other building activities in the city, which flourished under his rule. This bishop strengthened the parochial organization of the city, he was one of the first church leaders to spread the observance of All Souls' Day, which he authorized for his diocese.
Under Notger's administration, following up on the work of Heraclius, educational institutions in Liège flourished. With these two bishops "The schools of Liège were, in fact, at that time one of the brightest literary foci of the period". In the 11th century the city was indeed known as the Athens of the North. "Liège for more than a century occupied among the nations a position in regard to science which it has never recovered". Subsequent bishops, Balderic of Looz, Durandus, Nitard, the learned Wazo, Theoduin, valiantly sustained the heritage of Notger; the schools formed many brilliant scholars, gave the Catholic Church popes Stephen IX and Nicholas II. The diocese supplied the University of Paris with a number of important doctors — William of Saint-Thierry, Gerard of Liège and Godfrey of Fontaines. Alger of Liège was an important intellectual of the period, he was first appointed deacon of church of St Bartholomew and retired at the monastery of Cluny. In the reign of Henry of Verdun a tribunal was instituted to prevent war and enforce the Peace of God.
Otbert increased the territory of the principality by purchasing the Lordship of Bouillon. He remained faithful to emperor Henry IV. Henry of Namur was venerated as a martyr. During the administration of Alexander of Juliers the pope, the emperor and St Bernard visited Liège; the episcopate of Raoul of Zachringen was marked by the preaching of the reformer Lambert le Bègue, credited with founding the béguines. Albert of Louvain was elected Bishop of Liège in 1191, but Emperor Henry VI, on the pretext that the election was doubtful, gave the see to Lothair of Hochstadt. Albero's election was confirmed by the pope but in 1192, shortly after he took office, he was assassinated by three German knights at Reims, it is probable that the emperor was privy to this murder but Albero was canonized. In 1195, Albert de Cuyck formally recognized the political franchise of the people of Liège. During the 12th century, the cathedral chapter, along with the bishop, assum
Saint Hubertus or Hubert became Bishop of Liège in 708 AD. He is a Christian saint, the patron saint of hunters, mathematicians and metalworkers. Known as the Apostle of the Ardennes, he was called upon, until the early 20th century, to cure rabies through the use of the traditional St Hubert's Key. Saint Hubertus was venerated during the Middle Ages; the iconography of his legend is entangled with the legend of Saint Eustace. The Bollandists published seven early lives of Hubertus, he died 30 May 727 AD near a place called Fura. In the Middle Ages, this place was identified as Tervuren near Brussels, but recent scholarship considers Voeren/Fourons, between Maastricht and Liège, the likelier place, his feast day is November 3. Saint Hubertus was born about the year 656, he was the eldest son of Duke of Aquitaine. As a youth, Hubert was sent to the Neustrian court of Theuderic III at Paris, where his charm and agreeable address led to his investment with the dignity of "count of the palace". Like many nobles of the time, Hubert was addicted to the chase.
Meanwhile, the tyrannical conduct of Ebroin, mayor of the Neustrian palace, caused a general emigration of the nobles and others to the court of Austrasia at Metz. Hubert soon followed them and was warmly welcomed by Pepin of Herstal, mayor of the palace, who created him immediately grand-master of the household. About this time Hubert married daughter of Dagobert, Count of Leuven, their son Floribert of Liège would become bishop of Liège, for bishoprics were all but accounted fiefs heritable in the great families of the Merovingian kingdoms. He nearly died at the age of 10 from "fever", his wife died giving birth to their son and Hubert retreated from the court, withdrew into the forested Ardennes, gave himself up to hunting. However, a great spiritual revolution was imminent. On Good Friday morning, when the faithful were crowding the churches, Hubert sallied forth to the chase; as he was pursuing a magnificent stag or hart, the animal turned and, as the pious legend narrates, he was astounded at perceiving a crucifix standing between its antlers, while he heard a voice saying: "Hubert, unless thou turnest to the Lord, leadest an holy life, thou shalt go down into hell".
Hubert dismounted, prostrated himself and said, "Lord, what wouldst Thou have me do?" He received the answer, "Go and seek Lambert, he will instruct you." The story of the hart appears first in one of the legendary hagiographies and has been appropriated from the legend of Saint Eustace or Placidus. It was first attributed to St. Hubert in the 15th century. Saint Hubertus is honored among sport-hunters as the originator of ethical hunting behavior. During Hubert's religious vision, the Hirsch is said to have lectured Hubertus into holding animals in higher regard and having compassion for them as God's creatures with a value in their own right. For example, the hunter ought to only shoot when a humane and quick kill is assured, he ought shoot only old stags past their prime breeding years and to relinquish a much anticipated shot on a trophy to instead euthanize a sick or injured animal that might appear on the scene. Further, one ought never shoot a female with young in tow to assure the young deer have a mother to guide them to food during the winter.
Such is the legacy of Hubert who still today is taught and held in high regard in the extensive and rigorous German and Austrian hunter education courses. The legacy is followed by the French chasse à courre masters and followers, who hunt deer and roe on horseback and are the last direct heirs of Saint Hubert in Europe. Chasse à courre is enjoying a revival in France; the Hunts apply a specific set of ethics, rituals and tactics dating back to the early Middle-Ages. Saint Hubert is venerated every year by the Hunts in formal ceremonies. Be that as it may, Hubert set out for Maastricht, for there Lambert was bishop. Saint Lambert received Hubert kindly, became his spiritual director. Hubert now renounced all his considerable honors, gave up his birthright to the Aquitaine to his younger brother, whom he made guardian of his infant son, Floribert. Having distributed all his personal wealth among the poor, he studied for the priesthood, was soon ordained, shortly afterwards became one of St. Lambert's chief associates in the administration of his diocese.
By the advice of St. Lambert, Hubert made a pilgrimage to Rome in 708, but during his absence, Lambert was assassinated by the followers of Pepin. According to the hagiographies of Hubert, this act was revealed to the pope in a vision, together with an injunction to appoint Hubert bishop of Maastricht, he distributed his episcopal revenues among the poor, was diligent in fasting and prayer, became famous for his eloquence in the pulpit. In 720, in obedience to a vision, Hubert translated St. Lambert's remains from Maastricht to Liège with great pomp and ceremonial, several neighboring bishops assisting. A basilica for the relics was built upon the site of Lambert's martyrdom, was made a cathedral the following year, the see being removed from Maastricht to Liège only a small village; this laid the foundation of the future greatness of Liège, of which Saint Lambert is honored as patron, Saint Hubert as founder and first bishop. Hubert evangelised among the pagans in the extensive Ardennes forests and in Toxandria, a district stretching from near Tongeren