Hólar Cathedral is a Church of Iceland cathedral church located in Hólar, Iceland. The church is the official church of the Bishop of Hólar Solveig Lára Guðmundsdóttir; the Cathedral lost its cathedral status in 1801 when the Diocese of Hólar was dissolved and amalgamated in the united Diocese of Iceland. It became a cathedral once more in 1909 when the diocese was re-established, this time as a suffragan see, with the bishop of Hólar being the suffragan bishop to the Bishop of Iceland; the present church stands in the place of 6 other previous churches, the first one built in 1050 by Oxa Hjaltasonar. The second was built between 1050 and 1106; the third built after 1106 by Bishop Jón Ögmundsson. The fourth was built around 1300 by Bishop Jörundur Þorsteinsson while the fifth one was built around 1394 by Bishop Pétur Nikulásson; the sixth was constructed by Halldóru Guðbrandsdóttur around 1627, it being the first Lutheran church since the reformation. The final and present church was built between 1757 and 1763 through the initiatives of Bishop Gísli Magnússon.
The cathedral was consecrated on November 20, 1763. The church building never had a steeple however a tower was built in 1950 adjacent to the church as a memorial to the last catholic bishop of Hólar Jón Arason and his two sons who were killed in 1550 as a result of their opposition to the reformation. List of cathedrals in Iceland
Ludvig Harboe was a Danish theologian and bishop. Harboe was born at Broager Peninsula in Denmark, he was educated in Germany. He attended gymnasium in Hamburg, he studied at the universities of Rostock and Jena returning home to Broager during 1732. In 1738, Harboe was a priest at Garnisonskirken and in 1739 became a priest at Kastelskirken, both churches in Copenhagen, he was sent to Iceland in 1741 to inspect the state of the church there on behalf of the Church of Denmark. He initiated some reforms there and while there was appointed to the post of Bishop of the Diocese of Trondhjem. After returning to Copenhagen in 1745, he was consecrated as Bishop and soon left for Trondheim, the seat of his new diocese, he arrived in Trondheim on 1 July 1746 and served there for two more years before leaving the post and returning to Copenhagen. After returning to Copenhagen in 1748, he married Frederikke Louise Hersleb, the daughter of Peder Hersleb, Bishop of the Diocese of Sjælland, he worked with his new father-in-law in Denmark, when Hersleb died in 1757, Harboe was appointed to replace him.
He served there until his death in 1783
Hólar is a small community in the Skagafjörður district of northern Iceland. Hólar is in some 379 km from the national capital of Reykjavík, it has a population of around 100. It is the site of the main campus of Hólar University College, a site of historical buildings and archeological excavation, home to the Center for the history of the Icelandic horse, Hólar Cathedral, the turf house Nýibær; the first printing press in Iceland was introduced to Hólar in 1530. Hólar Agricultural College was founded 1882, was renamed Holar University College in 2003. Near the end of the 10th century, King Olaf I of Norway convinced his subjects to accept Christianity sent Christian missionaries to Iceland, where they were they accepted. Despite this, the godar, Iceland's ruling class, maintained their power; some built their own churches. Holar was the Episcopal see for northern Iceland, a cultural and educational centre for seven centuries, it was founded as a diocese in 1106 by bishop Jón Ögmundsson and soon became one of Iceland's two main centers of learning.
It played an important part in the medieval politics of Iceland, was the seat of Guðmundur Arason in his struggle with Icelandic chieftains during the time of the commonwealth. Under Jón Arason, Hólar was the last remaining stronghold of Catholicism in Iceland during the Reformation; the religious conflict was brutally resolved in 1550 when the last Catholic bishop, Jón Arason, was taken to the south of Iceland and beheaded, with his two sons, in Skálholt. The best known Lutheran bishop of Hólar was Guðbrandur Þorláksson; the construction of the present church is believed to have been completed in 1763. List of bishops of Hólar This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. "Hólar". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Church of Iceland
The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Iceland called the National Church, is the established Christian church in Iceland. The church is a member of the Porvoo Communion; the church is organised into one diocese headed by the Bishop of Iceland. The current Bishop of Iceland is the first woman to hold this position; the church has two suffragan dioceses, Skálholt and Hólar, with their bishops being suffragans or assistant bishops to the Bishop of Iceland. Christianity was present from the beginning of human habitation in Iceland, a fact, unique to Iceland among the European nations; the first people setting foot on Icelandic soil were Chalcedonian Irish hermits, seeking refuge on these remote shores to worship Christ. Norse settlers are thought to have driven them out; some of the settlers were Christians, although the majority were pagan, worshipping the old Norse gods. When Iceland was constituted as a republic in 930 AD, it was based upon Norse heathenry. In the late 10th century, missionaries from the continent sought to spread Catholicism among the population.
Ari Þorgilsson, in his historical work Íslendingabók, recounts that the nation was divided between the adherents of the different religions that would not tolerate each other. At the legislative assembly, the Alþingi at Þingvellir, in the year 1000, the country was on the brink of civil war; the leaders of the two groups found a solution. They chose a person that everybody respected for his wisdom, the heathen priest and chieftain, Þorgeir of Ljósavatn, to decide which way the people should go. Þorgeir lay there all day meditating. The next day he called the assembly together and made his decision known. "If we put asunder the law, we will put asunder the peace," he said. "Let it be the foundation of our law that everyone in this land shall be Christian and believe in one God, Father and Holy Spirit." He decreed that pagan sacrifice, the exposure of infants, the eating of horseflesh would be tolerated for the time being, if practiced in private. The people agreed and many were subsequently baptized.
At the inauguration of Christianity in Iceland, missionary bishops and priests from Germany and Eastern Europe worked among the population. The first Icelandic bishop, Ísleifur Gissurarson, was consecrated in Bremen in 1056, he made Skálholt the episcopal see. Thereafter, Skálholt was the centre of Christian learning and spirituality in the country through the 18th century. In spite of all the upheavals of history there is a marked continuity within the church of Iceland. For the first five centuries, the Icelandic church was Roman Catholic. In the beginning of 1056, it was part of the province in Bremen; the Icelandic church came under the archbishops of Lund and in 1153 it became a part of the province of Nidaros. Iceland was divided into two dioceses, Skálholt, established 1056, Holar in 1106; these continued until 1801, when Iceland became one diocese under one bishop of Iceland, residing in Reykjavík. The country was an independent republic from 930 until 1262. Iceland, having suffered civil war and anarchy, came under the rule of the Norwegian king and in 1380 with Norway under the Danish crown.
In 1944 Iceland regained its independence as a republic. Three Icelandic churchmen were revered as saints though none of them was canonized; the most famous of them is Saint Thorlak of Skálholt. He was educated in Lincoln, in Paris, France. Returning to Iceland, Þorlákur became an abbot of the Canon Regular monastery of Þykkvibær, soon gaining a reputation for his sanctity; as a bishop of Skálholt, he sought to enforce the decrees of Rome regarding the ownership of church property and morality of the clergy. The Icelandic calendar has two days dedicated to 20 July and 23 December; the other two saintly bishops are Guðmundur Arason. There was great literary activity during the 12th and 13th centuries, producing extensive religious literature as well as romantic novels and sitcoms in the Icelandic language as well as the well-known sagas. Clergy doubtless wrote most of them. Parts of the Bible were translated into Icelandic in the 13th century; this powerful and enduring literary tradition with its strong national character has shaped the Icelandic language and inspired literary activity.
Icelandic has had a continuity. Every child in Iceland can read texts dating from the 13th century; the Icelandic hymnal contains hymns from the 12th century and the 14th centuries in their original linguistic forms. In 1540, the Lutheran Reformation was established in Iceland, enforced by the Danish crown; the monasteries were dissolved and much of the property of the episcopal sees confiscated by the King of Denmark, who became the supreme head of the church. A dark spot in the history of the Reformation is the lawless execution in 1550 of the last Roman Catholic bishop of Hólar, Jón Arason, his two sons. Most of the Roman priests continued in their parishes under the Lutheran church ordinance; the Reformation unleashed renewed literary activity in the country. The publication of the Icelandic translation of the New Testament in 1540 and the entire Bible in 1584, marks important milestones in the history of the Icelandic language and is a major factor in its preservation; the "Hymns of the Passion", 50 meditations on the cross by the 17th century poet and minister Hallgrímur Pétursson, were for generations the most important school of prayer and wisdom.
The same can be said
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of 348,580 and an area of 103,000 km2, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe. The capital and largest city is Reykjavík, with Reykjavík and the surrounding areas in the southwest of the country being home to over two-thirds of the population. Iceland is geologically active; the interior consists of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields and glaciers, many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland is warmed by the Gulf Stream and has a temperate climate, despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic Circle, its high latitude and marine influence keep summers chilly, with most of the archipelago having a tundra climate. According to the ancient manuscript Landnámabók, the settlement of Iceland began in 874 AD when the Norwegian chieftain Ingólfr Arnarson became the first permanent settler on the island. In the following centuries, to a lesser extent other Scandinavians, emigrated to Iceland, bringing with them thralls of Gaelic origin.
The island was governed as an independent commonwealth under the Althing, one of the world's oldest functioning legislative assemblies. Following a period of civil strife, Iceland acceded to Norwegian rule in the 13th century; the establishment of the Kalmar Union in 1397 united the kingdoms of Norway and Sweden. Iceland thus followed Norway's integration into that union, coming under Danish rule after Sweden's secession from the union in 1523. Although the Danish kingdom introduced Lutheranism forcefully in 1550, Iceland remained a distant semi-colonial territory in which Danish institutions and infrastructures were conspicuous by their absence. In the wake of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, Iceland's struggle for independence took form and culminated in independence in 1918 and the founding of a republic in 1944; until the 20th century, Iceland relied on subsistence fishing and agriculture. Industrialisation of the fisheries and Marshall Plan aid following World War II brought prosperity and Iceland became one of the wealthiest and most developed nations in the world.
In 1994, it became a part of the European Economic Area, which further diversified the economy into sectors such as finance and manufacturing. Iceland has a market economy with low taxes, compared to other OECD countries, it maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens. Iceland ranks high in economic, social stability, equality ranking first in the world by median wealth per adult. In 2018, it was ranked as the sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations' Human Development Index, it ranks first on the Global Peace Index. Iceland runs completely on renewable energy. Hit hard by the worldwide financial crisis, the nation's entire banking system systemically failed in October 2008, leading to a severe depression, substantial political unrest, the Icesave dispute, the institution of capital controls; some bankers were jailed. Since the economy has made a significant recovery, in large part due to a surge in tourism.
A law that took effect in 2018 makes it illegal in Iceland for women to be paid less than men. Icelandic culture is founded upon the nation's Scandinavian heritage. Most Icelanders are descendants of Gaelic settlers. Icelandic, a North Germanic language, is descended from Old West Norse and is related to Faroese and West Norwegian dialects; the country's cultural heritage includes traditional Icelandic cuisine, Icelandic literature, medieval sagas. Iceland has the smallest population of any NATO member and is the only one with no standing army, with a armed coast guard; the Sagas of Icelanders say that a Norwegian named Naddodd was the first Norseman to reach Iceland, in the 9th century he named it Snæland or "snow land" because it was snowing. Following Naddodd, the Swede Garðar Svavarsson arrived, so the island was called Garðarshólmur which means "Garðar's Isle". Came a Viking named Flóki Vilgerðarson; the sagas say that the rather despondent Flóki climbed a mountain and saw a fjord full of icebergs, which led him to give the island its new and present name.
The notion that Iceland's Viking settlers chose that name to discourage oversettlement of their verdant isle is a myth. According to both Landnámabók and Íslendingabók, monks known as the Papar lived in Iceland before Scandinavian settlers arrived members of a Hiberno-Scottish mission. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed the ruins of a cabin in Hafnir on the Reykjanes peninsula. Carbon dating indicates that it was abandoned sometime between 770 and 880. In 2016, archeologists uncovered a longhouse in Stöðvarfjörður, dated to as early as 800. Swedish Viking explorer Garðar Svavarsson was the first to circumnavigate Iceland in 870 and establish that it was an island, he built a house in Húsavík. Garðar departed the following summer but one of his men, Náttfari, decided to stay behind with two slaves. Náttfari settled in what is now known as Náttfaravík and he and his slaves became the first permanent residents of Iceland; the Norwegian-Norse chieftain Ingólfr Arnarson built his homestead in present-day Reykjavík in 874.
Ingólfr was followed by many other emigrant settlers Scandinavians and their thralls, many of whom were Irish or Scottish. By 930, most arable land on the island had been claimed. Lack of arable land al
Bishop of Iceland
The following is a list of Lutheran bishops of Iceland. List of Skálholt bishops List of Hólar bishops Official website
Gísli Magnússon was an Icelandic pianist whose career spanned more than half a century. Magnússon started piano lessons at the age of ten, he studied in Zürich and Rome. In the first three years he studied with Icelandic pianist Rögnvaldur Sigurjónsson who had himself returned from studying in Paris. Magnússon continued to study piano at the Reykjavik College of Music and graduated in 1949. From there he went on to study with Swiss pianist Walter Frey and graduated as a solo pianist in 1953 from Zürich University of the Arts. In 1954 he played his first concert with the Iceland Symphony Orchestra under conductor Olav Kielland and received rave reviews; the same year he was awarded a one-year grant from the Italian state and studied in Rome under the supervision of Italian pianist Carlo Zecchi. Magnússon was active in the Icelandic music scene and appeared in countless concerts, both live and on radio and television, he made many recordings, both as a solo pianist and together with other musicians, in particular cellist Gunnar Kvaran and pianist Halldór Haraldsson.
During his career he gained considerable international reputation, in 1977 he was invited to perform a piano concert by composer Jón Nordal, at the opening concert of the Bergen Music Festival. In 1979 he played a concert together with Gunnar Kvaran at Carnegie Hall in New York. Magnússon appeared in eighteen concerts as a solo pianist with the Iceland Symphony Orchestra in the years 1954 to 1989, he taught piano throughout his career and was the headmaster of Garðabær College of Music from 1985 to 1999. Magnússon was the main external examiner for piano at the Reykjavik College of Music for the majority of his professional life. In 2004 a CD with Magnússon's best known recordings, Gísli Magnússon: Píanó, was released by music label Bad Taste Record Label, it includes among others compositions English Suite in D Minor by J. S. Bach, Humoresques by Páll Ísólfsson and Vikivaki by Sveinbjörn Sveinbjörnsson. Gísli Magnússon at AllMusic Gísli Magnússon discography at Discogs