North Slope Borough, Alaska
North Slope Borough, established in 1972, is an Alaskan borough bounded on the south by the Brooks Range and located in the North Slope region of the U. S. state of Alaska. It is the northernmost formal community on the North American continent; as of the 2010 census, the population was 9,430. The borough seat is Utqiagvik; the mayor is Harry K. Brower, Jr. first elected in a special election in July 2016 after recall of the previous mayor by an April 2016 election. The borough was established in 1972 by an election of the majority indigenous people in the region following Congressional passage of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act; the Borough had first-class status and exercised the powers of planning, zoning and schools. In 1974 it adopted a Home Rule Charter, it has a seven-member assembly body, elected to staggered three-year terms. The Borough's executive and administrative powers are vested in a Mayor, limited to two consecutive three-year terms; the current mayor, Harry K. Brower Jr, was first elected in July 2016 in a run-off election to serve the rest of former mayor Charlotte Brower's second term.
She was recalled in April 2016, after it was reported the year before that her office had made numerous donations to individuals, sports clubs and other groups that amounted to more than $800,000 since 2011. Former mayor, Eugene Brower, Charlotte's husband, was convicted of tax evasion involving contractor kickbacks three decades earlier. Harry Brower is Charlotte's brother-in-law, her predecessor, Edward Itta, had succeeded George Ahmaogak and served two terms, 2005-2011. In 2011 Charlotte Brower defeated former mayor, George Ahmaogak, in a runoff after it was revealed that he had billed the Borough for a family vacation in Hawaii. Ahmaogak's wife Maggie, had been convicted of embezzlement from the Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission in 2015. Harry Brower ran for a full term as mayor in October 2017, but was forced into a November runoff against his nephew, Frederick Brower, where he won a full 3-year term. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 94,796 square miles, of which 88,695 square miles is land and 6,101 square miles is water.
The borough is larger than 39 states. Its western coastline is along the Chukchi Sea; the North Slope Borough is the largest county-level political subdivision in the United States by area, with a larger land area than that of the state of Utah. Although the adjacent Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area is larger in area, it has no borough-level government; the borough is the fourth-least densely populated county-level entity in the United States. The Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area is the least densely populated county-level entity). Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, Alaska - southeast Northwest Arctic Borough, Alaska - southwestIt shares its eastern border with Yukon, which has no subdivisions. Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Cape Lisburne Cape Thompson Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Mollie Beattie Wilderness Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve Gates of the Arctic Wilderness Noatak National Preserve Noatak Wilderness National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska As of the census of 2010, there were 7,385 people, 2,109 households, 1,524 families residing in the borough.
The population density was 12.03 square miles per person. There were 2,538 housing units at an average density of 35 square miles per unit; the racial makeup of the borough was 17.09% White, 0.72% Black or African American, 68.38% Native American Inuit, 5.92% Asian, 0.84% Pacific Islander, 0.50% from other races, 6.55% from two or more races. 2.37 % of the population was Latino of any race. 42.84 % reported speaking Iñupiaq or "Eskimo" at home. There were 2,109 households out of which 48.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.3% were married couples living together, 18.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.70% were non-families. 21.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 1.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.45 and the average family size was 4.05. In the borough the population was spread out with 38.2% under the age of 18, 9.50% from 18 to 24, 30.1% from 25 to 44, 18.10% from 45 to 64, 4.2% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females, there were 112.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 113.90 males. Anaktuvuk Pass Atqasuk Utqiagvik Kaktovik Nuiqsut Point Hope Wainwright Point Lay Prudhoe Bay Alpine Deadhorse Sagwon Umiat Eskimo Inuit Iñupiat Iñupiaq List of airports in Alaska Nalukataq North-Slope.org - Official Borough Website Borough map, 2000 census: Alaska Department of Labor Borough map, 2010 census: Alaska Department of Labor
Captain James Cook was a British explorer, navigator and captain in the Royal Navy. He made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand. Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager and joined the Royal Navy in 1755, he saw action in the Seven Years' War and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec, which brought him to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society. This acclaim came at a crucial moment in his career and the direction of British overseas exploration, led to his commission in 1766 as commander of HM Bark Endeavour for the first of three Pacific voyages. In three voyages, Cook sailed thousands of miles across uncharted areas of the globe, he mapped lands from New Zealand to Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean in greater detail and scale not charted by Western explorers.
As he progressed in his voyages of discovery, he surveyed and named features, recorded islands and coastlines on European maps for the first time. He displayed a combination of seamanship, superior surveying and cartographic skills, physical courage, an ability to lead men in adverse conditions. Cook was attacked and killed in 1779 during his third exploratory voyage in the Pacific while attempting to kidnap Hawaiian chief Kalaniʻōpuʻu in order to reclaim a cutter stolen from one of his ships, he left a legacy of scientific and geographical knowledge which influenced his successors well into the 20th century, numerous memorials worldwide have been dedicated to him. James Cook was born on 7 November 1728 in the village of Marton in Yorkshire and baptised on 14 November in the parish church of St Cuthbert, where his name can be seen in the church register, he was the second of eight children of James Cook, a Scottish farm labourer from Ednam in Roxburghshire, his locally born wife, Grace Pace, from Thornaby-on-Tees.
In 1736, his family moved to Airey Holme farm at Great Ayton, where his father's employer, Thomas Skottowe, paid for him to attend the local school. In 1741, after five years' schooling, he began work for his father, promoted to farm manager. Despite not being formally educated he became capable in mathematics and charting by the time of his Endeavour voyage. For leisure, he would climb Roseberry Topping, enjoying the opportunity for solitude. Cooks' Cottage, his parents' last home, which he is to have visited, is now in Melbourne, having been moved from England and reassembled, brick by brick, in 1934. In 1745, when he was 16, Cook moved 20 miles to the fishing village of Staithes, to be apprenticed as a shop boy to grocer and haberdasher William Sanderson. Historians have speculated that this is where Cook first felt the lure of the sea while gazing out of the shop window. After 18 months, not proving suited for shop work, Cook travelled to the nearby port town of Whitby to be introduced to friends of Sanderson's, John and Henry Walker.
The Walkers, who were Quakers, were prominent local ship-owners in the coal trade. Their house is now the Captain Cook Memorial Museum. Cook was taken on as a merchant navy apprentice in their small fleet of vessels, plying coal along the English coast, his first assignment was aboard the collier Freelove, he spent several years on this and various other coasters, sailing between the Tyne and London. As part of his apprenticeship, Cook applied himself to the study of algebra, trigonometry and astronomy—all skills he would need one day to command his own ship, his three-year apprenticeship completed, Cook began working on trading ships in the Baltic Sea. After passing his examinations in 1752, he soon progressed through the merchant navy ranks, starting with his promotion in that year to mate aboard the collier brig Friendship. In 1755, within a month of being offered command of this vessel, he volunteered for service in the Royal Navy, when Britain was re-arming for what was to become the Seven Years' War.
Despite the need to start back at the bottom of the naval hierarchy, Cook realised his career would advance more in military service and entered the Navy at Wapping on 17 June 1755. Cook married Elizabeth Batts, the daughter of Samuel Batts, keeper of the Bell Inn in Wapping and one of his mentors, on 21 December 1762 at St Margaret's Church, Essex; the couple had six children: James, Elizabeth, Joseph and Hugh. When not at sea, Cook lived in the East End of London, he attended St Paul's Church, where his son James was baptised. Cook has no direct descendants—all of his children died before having children of their own. Cook's first posting was with HMS Eagle, serving as able seaman and master's mate under Captain Joseph Hamar for his first year aboard, Captain Hugh Palliser thereafter. In October and November 1755, he took part in Eagle's capture of one French warship and the sinking of another, following which he was promoted to boatswain in addition to his other duties, his first temporary command was in March 1756 when he was master of Cruizer, a small cutter attached to Eagle while on patrol.
In June 1757 Cook formally passed his master's examinations at Trinity House, qualifying him to navigate and handle a ship of the King's fleet. He joined the frigate
Naknek is a census-designated place located in and the borough seat of Bristol Bay Borough in the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census, the population of the CDP was 544, down from 678 in 2000. Naknek is located on the north bank of the Naknek River, close to where the river runs into the Kvichak Bay arm of the northeastern end of Bristol Bay. South Naknek is on the other side of the river. Naknek is located at 58°44′23″N 156°58′18″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 84.8 square miles, of which, 84.2 square miles of it is land and 0.7 square miles of it is water. The total area is 0.80% water. Captain Vasiliav of the Imperial Russian Navy reported an Eskimo village here around 1821, naming it "Naugiek". Lieutenant Sarichev of the IRN, listed it as "Naugvik" in 1826, while Captain Tebenkov of the IRN spelled it "Naknek" in 1852. Fort Surarov was built nearby, if not at this location; the Naknek post office was established in 1907. Naknek first appeared on the 1880 U.
S. Census as one of two unincorporated Inuit villages called "Paugwik." This also included the future village of South Naknek on the south side of the Naknek River. The community appeared on Ivan Petroff's 1880 Census map as "Kinghiak", but did not include a separate population. There is confusion as to whether the villages listed on the 1890 census and Kinuyak were on either the south or north side of the river, but credited "Kinuyak" here for Naknek, which included an unnamed native village on Naknek Lake. In 1900, it returned as Naknek, it returned again in 1920 and to date. It was made a census-designated place as of the 1980 census; as of the census of 2000, there were 678 people, 247 households, 162 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 8.1 people per square mile. There were 455 housing units at an average density of 5.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 49.47% White, 2.00% Black or African American, 45.28% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.74% Pacific Islander, 2.36% from two or more races.
0.29% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 247 households out of which 44.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.0% were married couples living together, 6.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.4% were non-families. 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.44. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 35.0% under the age of 18, 4.6% from 18 to 24, 34.8% from 25 to 44, 21.8% from 45 to 64, 3.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 116.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 121.6 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $53,393, the median income for a family was $65,000. Males had a median income of $44,375 versus $35,341 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $21,182. About 3.1% of families and 3.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.9% of those under the age of 18 and none of those 65 and older.
Naknek is served by the Bristol Bay Borough School District. Both Naknek Elementary and Bristol Bay Middle/High School are housed in the same building and serve about 100 students. Bristol Bay Borough Bristol Bay School Bristol Bay Times newspaper
The City and Borough of Wrangell is a borough in the Alaska, United States. As of the 2010 census the population was 2,369, up from 2,308 in 2000. Incorporated as a Unified Home Rule Borough on May 30, 2008, Wrangell was a city in the Wrangell-Petersburg Census Area, its Tlingit name is Ḵaachx̱aana.áakʼw. The Tlingit people residing in the Wrangell area, who were there centuries before Europeans, call themselves the Shtaxʼhéen Ḵwáan after the nearby Stikine River. Alternately they use the autonym Shxʼát Ḵwáan; the central part of Wrangell is located at 56°28′15″N 132°22′36″W, in the northwest corner of Wrangell Island, whereas the borough now encompasses the entire eastern half of the former Wrangell-Petersburg Census Area, in addition to the area around Meyers Chuck, in the Prince of Wales-Outer Ketchikan Census Area. It includes Thoms Place, a former census-designated place on Wrangell Island. Tlingit people and their ancestors have inhabited this island for thousands of years. According to Naanyaa.aayí clan traditions, Tlingit people migrated down the Stikine River during a time when the river still flowed underneath glaciers.
The population moved down the river, settling in different locations such as Tlákw.aan "Ancient Village", Sʼiknáx̱ "Across from the Grass", Shaal.aan "Fish Trap Town", Xakw.aan "Sandbar Village", Kayáash "Platform", Hehl "Foam People", Hehl being the senior of house of the village. Settlements on the coast included Chʼuxʼáasʼaan "Waterfall Town", Ḵeishangita.aan "Red Alder Head Village", Kʼaatsʼḵu Noow "Among the Sharps Fort", An.áan "Village that Rests", many others. The numerous petroglyphs found at Petroglyph Beach just north of Wrangell, as well as those scattered on the beaches of the many islands in the vicinity, attest to the long Tlingit presence, it is known and somewhat forgotten, that first peoples coastal migration to the Stikine River happened from the south. The Nass River people had several migrations into the area; the "Git Setti" people tell of their migration story in a totem raised in Wrangell in 1894 called "Kickssetti" Totem. The salt water inlet, now Wrangell Harbor was traditionally called Ḵaachx̱ana.áakʼw "Ḵaachx̱án's little lake".
Before the harbor mouth was dredged and cleared in the late 19th century, the mouth of this inlet would go dry at low tide, which led to its being called a lake. Ḵaachx̱án was a man from the village variously known as Ḵaalchʼalʼaan or Chʼaalʼít.aan, meaning "Willow House Village". The village site today is known as "Old Town" or "Old Wrangell". Ḵaachx̱án was a hermit who preferred living away from his relatives, lived in a smokehouse located on the rear shore of the lake, named after him. Wrangell was founded by Russians as one of the oldest non-Native settlements in Alaska, they started trading for furs with area Tlingit in 1811 at the site of present-day Wrangell. In 1834, Baron Ferdinand Petrovich Wrangel head of Russian government interests in Russian America, ordered a stockade built near the Naanyaa.aayí clan house of Chief Shakes, called Shéiksh Hídi. This house was located about 13 miles north of Old Wrangell, on a small island in the middle of what is today Wrangell Harbor; the stockade, named Redoubt Saint Dionysius, was founded at the location of present-day Wrangell and stood near the end of the small peninsula that forms the northeastern side of the mouth of the harbor.
The British Hudson's Bay Company named the stockade Fort Stikine. The Tlingit had used the Stikine River as a trade route to the interior since ancient times, they protested when the Hudson's Bay Company began to use their trade routes. Two epidemics of smallpox in 1836 and 1840 reduced the Tlingit population in the area by half, as they had no acquired immunity, silenced most of the protest; the HBC abandoned the fort in 1849 after the area's stocks of sea otter and beaver were depleted, ending the fur trade. Fort Stikine remained under British rule until Alaska's purchase by the United States in 1867. In 1868, the U. S. built a military post called Fort Wrangell at the site, it remained active until 1877. The community around the post continued to grow through commerce with prospectors in the gold rushes of 1861, 1874–77, 1897; as in Skagway, businessmen looking to make money off the miners built many gambling halls, dance halls, bars. Thousands of miners traveled up the Stikine River into the Cassiar District of British Columbia during 1874, again to the Klondike in 1897.
The Wrangell Bombardment occurred on the 25th of December 1869 when a Stikine Indian named Lowan bit off Mrs. Jaboc Muller's third right finger, was killed in an ensuing fight by soldiers who mortally wounded an additional Stikine Indian; the following morning, Scutd-doo, the father of the deceased, entered the fort and shot the post trader's partner Leon Smith fourteen times. Smith died some 13 hours later; the US army made an ultimatum demanding Sccutd-doo's surrender, following bombardment of the Stikine Indian village, the villagers handed Scutd-doo over to the military in the fort, where he was court-martialed and publicly hanged before the garrison and assembled natives on 29 December, stating before he was hanged that he had acted in revenge against the
Aleutians East Borough, Alaska
Aleutians East Borough is a 2nd class borough in the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census the borough's population was 3,141; the borough seat is Sand Point. According to archaeological evidence, the area has been inhabited by the Unanga since the last ice age. Early contact was with Russian fur traders. Whaling and cannery operations brought an influx of Scandinavian and European fishermen in the early 1900s. During World War II, the area was a strategic military site for the Aleutian Campaign, many locals were evacuated to Ketchikan. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 15,010 square miles, of which 6,982 square miles is land and 8,028 square miles is water. Aleutians East Borough is located at 162 ° west longitude, it comprises the westernmost portion of the Alaska Peninsula, a small number of the Aleutian Islands, from which the borough name derives. Included are the Shumagin Islands, as well as the Pavlof Islands and the Sanak Islands. In all, about 63.9 percent of its land area comprises land on the Alaska Peninsula, while 36.1 percent is on the numerous islands.
There are five incorporated two unincorporated villages within the borough. Temperatures range from -9 to 76 degrees Fahrenheit. Annual precipitation is 33 inches and annual snowfall is 52 inches. Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Aleutian Islands Wilderness Simeonof Wilderness Unimak Wilderness Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge Izembek National Wildlife Refuge Izembek Wilderness Lake and Peninsula Borough, Alaska to the east Aleutians West Census Area, Alaska to the west As of the census of 2000, there were 2,697 people, 526 households, 344 families residing in the borough; the population density was 0.386 people per square mile. There were 724 housing units at an average density of 0 per square mile; the racial makeup of the borough was 23.95% White, 1.67% Black or African American, 37.26% Native American, 26.51% Asian, 0.30% Pacific Islander, 7.38% from other races, 2.93% from two or more races. 12.57% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 22.25% reported speaking Tagalog at home, while 13.03% speak Spanish, 2.00% speak Ilokano, 1.20% Aleut.
There were 526 households out of which 39.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.10% were married couples living together, 14.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.60% were non-families. 27.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.30. In the borough the population was spread out with 16.80% under the age of 18, 10.20% from 18 to 24, 42.30% from 25 to 44, 28.10% from 45 to 64, 2.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 184.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 207.70 males. A 2014 analysis by The Atlantic found Aleutians East Borough to be the 2nd most racially diverse county-equivalent in the United States, behind the Aleutians West Census Area; this information is available on a community basis. Communities located within the borough include: Akutan, Cold Bay, False Pass, King Cove, Nelson Lagoon, Pauloff Harbor, Sand Point, Unga.
There are 7 schools located in the borough, attended by 273 students. The Sand Point Clinic is managed by Eastern Aleutian Tribes, Inc. and inhabited a new facility in 2006. The clinic is staffed by Community Health Aide/Practitioners or CHAs; the CHA role is unique to Native Health Care. The borough's economy is cash-based. Commercial fishing and fish processing dominate and occur year-round. 222 borough residents hold commercial fishing permits. Sand Point is home to the largest fishing fleet in the Aleutian Chain. Salmon and pacific cod processing occur at Peter Pan Seafoods, Trident Seafoods, Bering Pacific; the Peter Pan cannery in King Cove is one of the largest operations under one roof in Alaska. Transportation and other services provide year-round employment. Several airports are accessible in the Borough, float planes can land in many communities. Marine cargo vessels provide transportation; the State Ferry operates during the summer. Local transportation is by fishing boats or skiffs, since there are no roads.
Akutan Cold Bay False Pass King Cove Sand Point Nelson Lagoon Belkofski Pauloff Harbor Unga List of airports in the Aleutians East Borough National Register of Historic Places listings in Aleutians East Borough, Alaska Official site Aleutians East Borough at the Community Database Online from the Alaska Division of Community and Regional Affairs Maps from the Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development: 2010
Kenai Peninsula Borough, Alaska
Kenai Peninsula Borough is a borough of the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census, the population was 55,400; the borough seat is Soldotna. The borough includes the entirety of the Kenai Peninsula and a few areas of the mainland of Alaska on the opposite side of Cook Inlet; the borough has a total area of 24,752 square miles, of which 16,075 square miles is land and 8,677 square miles is water. Bethel Census Area, Alaska - northwest Matanuska-Susitna Borough, Alaska - north Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska - north Valdez-Cordova Census Area, Alaska - east Lake and Peninsula Borough, Alaska - west Kodiak Island Borough, Alaska - south Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Chiswell Islands Tuxedni Wilderness Chugach National Forest Katmai National Park and Preserve Katmai Wilderness Kenai Fjords National Park Kenai National Wildlife Refuge Kenai Wilderness Lake Clark National Park and Preserve Lake Clark Wilderness Bear Lake, Tutka Bay, the Trail Lakes, have been the site of salmon enhancement activities.
All three sites are managed by the Cook Inlet Aquaculture Association Some of the fish hatched at these facilities are released into the famous Homer fishing hole. Cook Inlet Keeper and the Cook Inlet Regional Citizen's Advisory Council are groups that attempt to influence public policy on the use of the areas resources; as of the census of 2000, there were 49,700 people, 18,400 households, 12,700 families residing in the borough. The population density was 1/km². There were 24,900 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the borough was 86% white, 7% Native American, 2% Hispanic or Latino, 4% from two or more races. Black or African Americans and Pacific Islanders each were less than 1% of the population. Just under 1% were from other races combined. 1.92 % reported speaking Russian at home. There were 18,400 households out of which 38% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55% were married couples living together, 9% had a female householder with no husband present, 31% were non-families.
25% of all households were made up of individuals and 5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.6 and the average family size was 3.2. In the borough the population was spread out with 30% under the age of 18, 7% from 18 to 24, 30% from 25 to 44, 26% from 45 to 64, 7% who were 65 years of age or older; the median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 109 males. There is a borough-wide government based in Soldotna, consisting of a strong mayor and an assembly of representatives from all areas of the borough, they collect sales and property taxes and provide services such as road maintenance, waste collection facilities, emergency services and major funding for public schools, along with mitigation of damage from spruce bark beetles that infested the borough in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Incorporated towns have their own local governments and city councils; the Alaska Department of Corrections operates the Spring Creek Correctional Center near Seward and the Wildwood Correctional Complex near Kenai.
Homer Kachemak Kenai Seldovia Seward Soldotna Jakolof Bay Kachemak Selo Lawing Razdolna Voznesenka 2006 Arctic Winter Games Kalgin Island List of airports in the Kenai Peninsula Borough State parks on the Kenai Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Borough, Alaska at Curlie Borough map, 2000 census: Alaska Department of Labor Borough map, 2010 census: Alaska Department of Labor
Soldotna is a home rule city in the Kenai Peninsula Borough, in the U. S. state of Alaska. At the 2010 census the population was 4,163, up from 3,759 in 2000, it is the seat of the Kenai Peninsula Borough. Soldotna is located in the Southcentral portion of Alaska on the central-western portion of the Kenai Peninsula; the city limits span 7 square miles along the Kenai River, which empties into the Cook Inlet in the nearby city of Kenai. The Kenai River was selected by CNN Travel as one of the "World's 15 Best Rivers for Travelers," due to its fishing and hunting opportunities. Soldotna is located on the western edge of the vast Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, a protected area spanning nearly 2 million acres and home to bears, caribou and many fish and bird species; the city is located at the junction of the Sterling Highway and the Kenai Spur Highway, which has enabled Soldotna to develop as a service and retail hub for the Central Peninsula as well as for travelers between Anchorage and Homer.
The Central Peninsula Hospital serves the medical needs of the region's tourists. The Kenai Peninsula College, a branch of the University of Alaska Anchorage, operates the Kenai River Campus in Soldotna. Additionally, the headquarters of the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, the Kenai Peninsula Borough, the Kenai Peninsula Borough School District are located in the city. In 1947, after World War II, the United States government withdrew a number of townships along Cook Inlet and the lower Kenai River from the Kenai National Moose Range, opening up the area to settlement under the Homestead Act. Veterans of the United States armed services were given a 90-day preference over non-veterans in selecting land and filing for property. In that year, the Sterling Highway right-of-way was cleared of trees from Cooper Landing to Kenai; the location of present-day Soldotna was selected as the site for the highway's bridge crossing the Kenai River. The construction of the Sterling Highway provided a link from the Soldotna area to the outside world.
More homesteads were taken and visitors came to fish in the area. The Soldotna Post Office opened in 1949 and other businesses opened in the next few years. Oil was discovered in the Swanson River region in 1957, bringing new economic development to the area. In 1960, Soldotna was incorporated as a fourth class city with a population of 332 and an area of 7.4 square miles. Seven years in 1967, Soldotna was recognized as a first class city. In 1964, the Kenai Peninsula College, the Kenai Peninsula Borough government, the Kenai Peninsula Borough School District were formed; the city experienced rapid population growth in the 1960s through the 1990s as a result of its location at the intersection of two major highways and due to development of the oil industry on the Kenai Peninsula. As the City and the oil industry have matured, population growth has somewhat slowed, although the city experienced more growth from 2000-2010 than during the previous decade. Soldotna is located at 60°29′12″N 151°4′31″W.
Soldotna is located on the banks of the Kenai River on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska. It is named after nearby Soldotna Creek. There are multiple theories explaining the origin of the word "Soldotna". According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.4 square miles, of which 6.9 square miles of it is land and 0.5 square miles of it is water. As with much of Southcentral Alaska, Soldotna has a moderate subarctic climate due to the cool summers, though the diurnal temperature variation is larger than most locations in the region. Winters are snowy, long but not cold considering the latitude, with January featuring a daily average temperature of 13.4 °F. There are 46 nights of sub-0 °F lows annually, the area lies in USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 4, indicating an average annual minimum in the −20 to −30 °F range. Summers are cool due with 12 days of 70 °F + highs annually. Soldotna first appeared on the 1960 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it formally incorporated in 1967.
As of the US Census of 2010, there were 4,163 people residing in 1,720 households in the city. The population density was 563 people per square mile; the racial makeup of the city was 86 percent White, 0.3 percent Black or African American, 4.3 percent Native American, 1.6 percent Asian, 0.3 percent Pacific Islander, 0.8 percent from other races, 6.8 percent from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino residents of all races comprised 3.9 percent of the population. There were 1,720 households out of which 30.1 percent had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44 percent were married couples living together, 11.9 percent had a female householder with no husband present, 38.7 percent were non-families. Of all households, 32 percent were made up of individuals living alone, 9.2 percent of whom were 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.02. The age distribution of the population shows 26 percent under the age of 18 and 13 percent age 65 or older.
The median age was 34.6 years. The 2012 estimated median income for a household in the city was $44,805, the median income for a family was $56,208; the per capita income for the city was $30,553. About 3 percent of families and 6.1 percent of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.9 percent of those under age 18 and 8.3 percent of those age 65 or over. Soldotna is home to the Kenai Peninsula College’s Kenai River Campus, a division of the University of Alaska Anchorage