Fairbanks is a home rule city and the borough seat of the Fairbanks North Star Borough in the U. S. state of Alaska. Fairbanks is the largest city in the Interior region of Alaska. 2016 estimates put the population of the city proper at 32,751, the population of the Fairbanks North Star Borough at 97,121, making it the second most populous metropolitan area in Alaska. The Metropolitan Statistical Area encompasses all of the Fairbanks North Star Borough and is the northernmost Metropolitan Statistical Area in the United States, located 196 driving miles south of the Arctic Circle. Fairbanks is home to the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the founding campus of the University of Alaska system. Though, as of yet, there is not a known permanent Alaska Native settlement at the site of Fairbanks, Athabascan peoples have used the area for thousands of years. An archaeological site excavated on the grounds of the University of Alaska Fairbanks uncovered a Native camp about 3,500 years old, with older remains found at deeper levels.
From evidence gathered at the site, archaeologists surmise that Native activities in the area were limited to seasonal hunting and fishing as fridge temperatures precluded berry gathering. In addition, archeological sites on the grounds of nearby Fort Wainwright date back well over 10,000 years. Arrowheads excavated from the University of Alaska Fairbanks site matched similar items found in Asia, providing some of the first evidence that humans arrived in North America via the Bering Strait land bridge in deep antiquity. Captain E. T. Barnette founded Fairbanks in August 1901 while headed to Tanacross, where he intended to set up a trading post; the steamboat on which Barnette was a passenger, the Lavelle Young, ran aground while attempting to negotiate shallow water. Barnette, along with his party and supplies, were deposited along the banks of the Chena River 7 miles upstream from its confluence with the Tanana River; the sight of smoke from the steamer's engines caught the attention of gold prospectors working in the hills to the north, most notably an Italian immigrant named Felice Pedroni and his partner Tom Gilmore.
The two met Barnette where he convinced him of the potential of the area. Barnette set up his trading post at the site, still intending to make it to Tanacross. Teams of gold prospectors soon congregated around the newly founded Fairbanks. After some urging by James Wickersham, who moved the seat of the Third Division court from Eagle to Fairbanks, the settlement was named after Charles W. Fairbanks, a Republican senator from Indiana and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States, serving under Theodore Roosevelt during his second term. In these early years of settlement, the Tanana Valley was an important agricultural center for Alaska until the establishment of the Matanuska Valley Colonization Project and the town of Palmer in 1935. Agricultural activity still occurs today in the Tanana Valley, but to the southeast of Fairbanks in the communities of Salcha and Delta Junction. During the early days of Fairbanks, its vicinity was a major producer of agricultural goods. What is now the northern reaches of South Fairbanks was the farm of Paul J. Rickert, who came from nearby Chena in 1904 and operated a large farm until his death in 1938.
Farmers Loop Road and Badger Road, loop roads north and east of Fairbanks, were home to major farming activity. Badger Road is named for Harry Markley Badger, an early resident of Fairbanks who established a farm along the road and became known as "the Strawberry King". Ballaine and McGrath Roads, side roads of Farmers Loop Road, were named for prominent local farmers, whose farms were in the immediate vicinity of their respective namesake roads. Despite early efforts by the Alaska Loyal League, the Tanana Valley Agriculture Association and William Fentress Thompson, the editor-publisher of the Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, to encourage food production, agriculture in the area was never able to support the population, although it came close in the 1920s; the construction of Ladd Army Airfield starting in 1939, part of a larger effort by the federal government during the New Deal and World War II to install major infrastructure in the territory for the first time, fostered an economic and population boom in Fairbanks which extended beyond the end of the war.
In the 1940s the Canol pipeline extended north from Whitehorse for a few years. The Haines - Fairbanks 626 mile long 8" petroleum products pipeline was constructed during the period 1953-55; the presence of the U. S. military has remained strong in Fairbanks. Ladd became Fort Wainwright in 1960. Fairbanks suffered from several floods in its first seven decades, whether from ice jams during spring breakup or heavy rainfall; the first bridge crossing the Chena River, a wooden structure built in 1904 to extend Turner Street northward to connect with the wagon roads leading to the gold mining camps washed out before a permanent bridge was constructed at Cushman Street in 1917 by the Alaska Road Commission. On August 14, 1967, after record rainfall upstream, the Chena began to surge over its banks, flooding the entire town of Fairbanks overnight; this disaster led to the creation of the Chena River Lakes Flood Control Project, which built and operates the 50-foot-high Moose Creek Dam in the Chena River and accompanying 8-mile-long spillway.
The project was designed to prevent a repetition of the 1967 flood by being able to
Boyce Thompson Arboretum State Park
Boyce Thompson Arboretum is the largest and oldest botanical garden in the state of Arizona. It is one of the oldest botanical institutions west of the Mississippi. Founded in 1924 as a desert plant research facility and “living museum”, the Arboretum is located in the Sonoran Desert on 392 acres along Queen Creek and beneath the towering volcanic remnant, Picketpost Mountain. Boyce Thompson Arboretum is on U. S. Highway 60, an hour's drive east from Phoenix and 3 miles west of Superior, Arizona; the Arboretum has a visitor center, gift shop, research offices, greenhouses, a demonstration garden, picnic area, a looping 1.5-mile primary trail that leads visitors through various exhibits and natural areas. The exhibits include a cactus garden and eucalyptus groves, an Australian exhibit, South American exhibit, aloe garden and an herb garden. There are side trails such as the Chihuahuan Trail, Curandero Trail, High Trail. Over 2600 species of arid land plants from around the world grow at the Arboretum.
Agaves, boojum trees, cork oaks, jujube trees, legume trees, and, in the Eucalyptus grove, one of the largest red gum Eucalyptus trees in the United States. Cacti and succulents grow extensively throughout the Arboretum; because the BTA is a riparian zone, the park attracts Sonoran Desert migrating birds. Visitors have seen bobcats, coatimundis, gila monsters, hawks and vultures. 270 bird species have been spotted in the park and the Audubon Society has designated the Arboretum as an Important Bird Area. The Arboretum has 5,000 members and attracts over 75,000 people annually; the arboretum was founded by William Boyce Thompson, a mine engineer who created his fortune in the mining industry. He was the founder and first president of Inspiration Consolidated Copper Company at Globe-Miami and Magma Copper Company in Superior, Arizona. In the early 1920s, enamored with the landscape around Superior, built a winter home overlooking Queen Creek. In the 1920s, as his fortunes grew, he created and financed the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research in Yonkers, New York, the Boyce Thompson Arboretum on the property of the Picket Post House, west of Superior, Arizona.
Boyce Thompson wrote: “I have in mind far more than mere botanical propagation. I hope to benefit the Southwest by the addition of new products. A plant collection will be assembled which will be of interest not only to the nature lover and the plant student, but which will stress the practical side, as well to see if we cannot make these mesas and canyons far more productive and of more benefit to mankind. We will bring together and study the plants of the desert countries, find out their uses, make them available to the people, it is a big job, but we will build here the most beautiful, at the same time the most useful garden of its kind in the world.”The Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum was established on April 1, 1924, by hiring its first two employees, Dr. Franklin Crider and Frederick Gibson, both from the University of Arizona, their first project was the construction of two homes that still exist on site, the Crider House and the Gibson House. Propagation buildings were put up in 1925 and by 1926, the Smith Building and two connecting greenhouses were built.
Ayer Lake was created the same year to help irrigate the lower portion of the park. In 1927, the Boyce Thompson Southwest Arboretum was incorporated, becoming the first non-profit research organization in Arizona; the Arboretum opened to the public on April 6, 1929. Arboretum Administration – Board of Directors In 1927, the Board of Directors consisted of Colonel Thompson, Charles F. Ayer and Edward Rice, an attorney from Globe. In 1929, the Directors of Boyce Thompson Institute and the Arboretum were added. Since that time, the Colonel's family has served continuously on the Board and is represented by his great-great grandson Dr. Paul Hohenlohe, his business associates have been represented by the son of another associate, William T. Smith, his son, Richard A. Smith and his son-in-law Ian Thompson. Between the three of them, they held Chairmanship of the Board from 1963 to 2000 and 2010 to present; the President of the Boyce Thompson Institute has remained on the Board as well and is represented by Dr. David Stern.
In 1976 with the signing of the Tri-Partite Agreement, two members from the University of Arizona and two members from Arizona State Parks sit on the Board bringing the maximum number of Board members to 20. The Early Years – 1924–1965 With the hiring of Dr. Franklin Crider and Frederick Gibson on April 1, 1924, from the University of Arizona, the Arboretum was on its way. With the passage of Arizona House Bill 121 on March 7, 1925, it became possible for the Arboretum to incorporate as Arizona's first non-profit research institution on October 5, 1927. Opening to the public in 1929, the future was indeed bright for the Arboretum. With the crash of 1929, subsequent depression, a drought, the passing of the Colonel in 1930, the Arboretum began to struggle. Dr. Crider was succeeded by Frederick Gibson; the Picket Post House was sold in 1946 to raise revenues for the Arboretum. Frederick Gibson stayed as Director until his death in 1953; the Colonel's nephew, Joe E. Thompson Jr. became the Managing Director until the agreement with the University of Arizona in 1965.
The Desert Biology Station and University of Arizona Years – 1965–1976 A cooperative agreement was made with the University of Arizona in 1965, Dr. E. Lendell Cockrum became the 4th Managing Director of the Arboretum; the in
Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum
The Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum is a 98-acre zoo, botanical garden, natural history museum and art gallery founded in 1952. Located just west of Tucson, Arizona, it features two miles of walking paths traversing 21 acres of desert landscape, it is one of the most visited attractions in Southern Arizona. The nonprofit organization focuses on the interpretation of the natural history and animals of the Sonoran Desert; the museum is home to more than 230 1,200 varieties of plants. It is open every day through the year, hosts nearly 400,000 visitors annually, including visitors from abroad; the museum is an accredited member of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, a member of the American Alliance of Museums and the American Public Gardens Association. Founded in 1952, the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum interprets the complete natural history of a single region—the Sonoran Desert and adjacent ecosystems—with plants and animals from the region featured together in its exhibits. William H. Carr inspired and founded the Desert Museum with the support of his friend, Arthur Pack, a conservationist, son of Charles Lathrop Pack, editor of Nature Magazine.
Carr had earlier founded the Bear Mountain Trailside Museum in New York, affiliated with the American Museum of Natural History. There he had developed a similar approach to displays, working with native plants and animals to create a regionally focused collection. Pack, through his foundation, had provided $200,000 to open the museum and pay its operating cost, so the museum charged no admission. Although an admission charge was instituted in 1953, the museum is still supported only by admission fees and donations, receives no direct support from public taxes. From 1953 to 1985, a local television series, Desert Trails, featured the museum. “It was an informal show always having live animals and human guests, focusing on the natural history of the desert as well as happenings at the museum.” In 1991 the museum partnered to develop a national television series known as "Desert Speaks.” It was produced in cooperation with the local PBS affiliate, with The Nature Conservancy of Arizona. This television series ran for 19 seasons.
"TripAdvisor rated the Museum as Tucson's #2 attraction for 2018. It was ranked number 18 on their "Top 25 Museums - United States" and a top five public gardens to visit in the United States for 2018, ranked number nine in the world on their "Traveler’s Choice" of top museums for 2013 and 2014. Condé Nast Traveler's "The Daily Traveler" included in their list of five museums in the United States for children interested in dinosaurs; the Warden Aquarium opened in January 2013. The 1,100-square-foot aquarium highlights the roles of the Colorado and other life-giving rivers in the region, as well as the Gulf of California, from which the water brought by the monsoon is essential to life in the Sonoran Desert; the “Rivers to the Sea” exhibit includes a touch tank with marine invertebrates. The Desert Museum has exhibited lower invertebrates since its early days. Though this hall has been modified over the years, the building dates back to 1937 and many of the painted dioramas were created in the early to mid-1950s.
On exhibit is a wide variety of native reptiles, including many species of rattlesnakes. Many amphibians and other invertebrates, ranging from spiders and scorpions to beetles, walking sticks, grasshoppers, are showcased. At Cat Canyon visitors can view small cats, like bobcats and an ocelot, in naturalistic grotto settings; this exhibit area includes a gray fox and porcupine. The animals can be viewed from overhead and at eye level.. The Desert Grassland exhibit area recreates a desert grassland habitat featuring soap tree yuccas, desert scrub and succulents. Visitors here can observe prairie dogs and learn the region's history through a replica of a mammoth kill site. Life on the Rocks is a multi-species exhibit focusing on the habitat and species most encountered amid the region's rocky slopes; some enclosures are mesh-topped with natural vegetation. The “homes” of individual species are embedded in the rocks – many with underground burrows that can be exposed by visitors; the Life Underground exhibit highlights creatures.
Visitors enter a tunnel and walk below ground into a dimly lit corridor where various creatures, such as kit fox, kangaroo rat, ringtail, are featured. Here visitors learn. On exhibit in the Riparian Corridor area are a river otter, bighorn sheep, beavers, native fish and aquatic invertebrates. There is a desert toad life-cycle installation; the Desert Loop Trail is an unpaved desert trail one-half mile long, passing through areas where javelinas and lizards are on display. The fiber fencing there are designed to be invisible to the eye, aiming to make the enclosure feel like open space. Agaves and various legume trees, native to the region, are identified on this trail; the "Mountain Woodland" exhibit is a Mexican Pine-Oak Woodland habitat recreating similar habitats in nearby mountain ranges. Native species include white-tailed deer, Merriam's turkeys and a brown bear. Mexican wolves and thick-billed parrots showcased in this area are no longer present in the Sonoran Desert. There is a walk-in aviary with northern cardinals, Gambel's quail, ducks and many other species of native birds.
Several benches are located throughout the aviary for observation. A small strea
Bisbee is a town in Cochise County, Arizona, USA, 92 miles southeast of Tucson. According to the 2010 census, the population of the town was 5,575; the town is the county seat of Cochise County. Bisbee was founded as a copper and silver mining town in 1880, named in honor of Judge DeWitt Bisbee, one of the financial backers of the adjacent Copper Queen Mine. In 1929, the county seat was moved from Tombstone to Bisbee. Mining in the Mule Mountains proved quite successful: in the early 20th century the population of Bisbee soared. Incorporated in 1902, by 1910 its population had swelled to 9,019, it sported a constellation of suburbs, including Warren and San Jose, some of, founded on their own mines. In 1917, open-pit mining was introduced to meet the copper demand during World War I. A high quality turquoise promoted. Many high-quality mineral specimens have come from Bisbee area mines and are to be found in museum collections worldwide; some of these minerals include cuprite, wulfenite, malachite and galena.
Miners attempted to organize to gain better working wages. In 1917, the Phelps Dodge Corporation, using private police, transported at gun point over 1,000 striking miners out of town to Hermanas, New Mexico, due to allegations that they were members of the Industrial Workers of the World. Earlier that year, industry police conducted the Jerome Deportation intended to expel striking miners. Continued underground work enabled the town to survive the changes in mining that caused mines in neighboring towns to close, leading to a resulting dramatic loss of population. But, by 1950 the population of Bisbee had dropped--to less than 6,000. In 1975 the Phelps Dodge Corporation halted its Bisbee copper-mining operations. Bisbee Mayor Chuck Eads, with cooperation of Phelps Dodge, implemented development of a mine tour and historic interpretation of a portion of the Copper Queen Mine as part of an effort to create heritage tourism as another economic base to compensate for the financial loss due to the end of the mining industry.
Community volunteers re-timbered the old workings. This local effort came to the attention of the federal Economic Development Administration, it approved a large grant to the City of Bisbee to help the mine tour project and other improvements in downtown Bisbee. The Queen Mine Tour was opened to visitors on February 1, 1976. More than a million visitors have taken the underground mine tour train. From 1950 to 1960, the sharp population decline changed course and the number of residents of Bisbee increased by nearly 160 percent when open-pit mining was undertaken and the city annexed nearby areas; the peak population was in 1960, at 9,914. In the following decade, there was a decline in jobs and population, although not as severe as from 1930 to 1950. But, the economic volatility resulted in a crash in housing prices. Coupled with an attractive climate and picturesque scenery, Bisbee became a destination in the 1960s for artists and hippies of the counter culture. Artist Stephen Hutchison and his wife Marcia purchased the Copper Queen Hotel, the town's anchor business and architectural gem, from the Phelps-Dodge mining company in 1970.
The company had tried to find a local buyer, offering the deed to any local resident for the sum of $1, but there were no takers. The property needed renovation for continued use. Hutchison renovated the hotel, as well as other buildings in the downtown area. One held Stock Exchange. Hutchison began to market Bisbee as a destination of the "authentic," old Southwest, his work attracted the developer Ed Smart. Among the many guests at the hotel have been celebrities from nearby California. Actor John Wayne was a frequent visitor to the Copper Queen, he befriended Hutchison and partnered with Smart in his real estate ventures. This period of Bisbee's history is well documented in contemporary articles in The New Yorker and in an article by Cynthia Buchanan in The Cornell Review, it was at this time that Bisbee became a haven for artists and hippies fleeing the larger cities of Arizona and California. It attracted people priced out by gentrification of places such as Aspen, Colorado. In the 1990s, additional people were attracted to Bisbee, leading it to develop such amenities as coffee shops and live theatre.
Many of the old houses have been renovated, property values in Bisbee now exceed those of other southeastern Arizona cities. Today, the historic city of Bisbee is known as "Old Bisbee" and is home to a thriving downtown cultural scene; this area is noted for its architecture, including Victorian-style houses and an elegant Art Deco county courthouse. Because its plan was laid out to a pedestrian scale before the automobile, Old Bisbee is compact and walkable; the town's hilly terrain is exemplified by the old four-story high school. The city of Bisbee now includes the satellite communities of Warren and San Jose; the Lowell and Warren townsites were consolidated into Bisbee proper during the early part of the twentieth century. There are smaller neighborhoods interspersed between these larger boroughs, including Galena, Tintown, South Bisbee and Saginaw. Warren was Arizona's first planned community, it was designed as a bedroom community for the more affluent citizens of the mining district. Warren has a fine collection of Arts and Crafts style bungalow houses.
Many have been recognized as historic places
The Navajo Nation is a Native American territory covering about 17,544,500 acres, occupying portions of northeastern Arizona, southeastern Utah, northwestern New Mexico in the United States. This is the largest land area retained by a Native American tribe, with a population of 350,000 as of 2016. By area, the Navajo Nation is larger than West Virginia, Hawaii, Vermont, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Delaware; the original territory has been expanded several times since the 1800s. In 2016, under the Tribal Nations Buy-Back Program, some 149,524 acres of land were returned by the Department of Interior to the Navajo Nation for tribal communal use; the program is intended to help restore the land bases of reservations. The Navajo Nation has an elected government that includes an executive office, a legislative house, a judicial system, but the United States federal government continues to assert plenary power over all decisions; the executive system manages a large law enforcement and social services apparatus, health services, Diné College, other local educational trusts.
The population continues to disproportionately struggle with health problems and the effects of past uranium mining incidents. In English, the official name for the area was "Navajo Indian Reservation", as outlined in Article II of the 1868 Treaty of Bosque Redondo. On April 15, 1969, the tribe changed its official name to the Navajo Nation, displayed on the seal; this was assertion of sovereignty. In 1994, the Tribal Council rejected a proposal to change the official designation from "Navajo" to "Diné." It was remarked that the name Diné represented the time of suffering before the Long Walk, that Navajo is the appropriate designation for the future. In Navajo, the geographic entity with its defined borders is known as "Naabeehó Bináhásdzo"; this contrasts with "Diné Bikéyah" and "Naabeehó Bikéyah" for the general idea of "Navajoland". Neither of these terms should be confused with "Dinétah," the term used for the traditional homeland of the Navajo, it is situated in the area among the four sacred Navajo mountains of Dookʼoʼoosłííd, Dibé Ntsaa, Sisnaajiní, Tsoodził.
The Navajo people's tradition of governance is rooted in oral history. The clan system of the Diné is integral to their society, as the rules of behavior found within the system extend to the manner of refined culture that the Navajo people call "to walk in Beauty"; the philosophy and clan system from before the Spanish colonial occupation of Dinetah, through to the July 25, 1868, Congressional ratification of the Navajo Treaty with President Andrew Johnson, signed by Barboncito and other chiefs and headmen present at Bosque Redondo. The Navajo people have continued to transform their conceptual understandings of government since it joined the United States by the Treaty of 1868. Social and political academics continue to debate the nature of the modern Navajo governance and how it has evolved to include the systems and economies of the "western world". In the mid-19th century, most Navajo were forced from their lands by the US Army, were marched on the Long Walk to imprisonment in Bosque Redondo.
The Treaty of 1868 established the "Navajo Indian Reservation" and the Navajos left Bosque Redondo. The borders were defined as the 37th parallel in the north; as drafted in 1868, the boundaries were defined as: the following district of country, to wit: bounded on the north by the 37th degree of north latitude, south by an east and west line passing through the site of old Fort Defiance, in Canon Bonito, east by the parallel of longitude which, if prolonged south, would pass through old Fort Lyon, or the Ojo-de-oso, Bear Spring, west by a parallel of longitude about 109' 30" west of Greenwich, provided it embraces the outlet of the Canon-de-Chilly, which canyon is to be all included in this reservation, shall be, the same hereby, set apart for the use and occupation of the Navajo tribe of Indians, for such other friendly tribes or individual Indians as from time to time they may be willing, with the consent of the United States, to admit among them. Though the treaty had provided for one hundred miles by one hundred miles in the New Mexico Territory, the size of the territory was 3,328,302 acres —slightly more than half.
This initial piece of land is represented in the design of the Navajo Nation's flag by a dark-brown rectangle. As no physical boundaries or signposts were set in place, many Navajo ignored these formal boundaries and returned to where they had been living prior to captivity. A significant number of Navajo had never lived in the Hwéeldi near, they remained or moved to near the Little Colorado and Colorado rivers, on Naatsisʼáán and some with Apache bands. The first expansion of the territory occurred on October 28, 1878, when President Rutherford Hayes signed an executive order pushing the reservation boundary 20 miles to the west. Further additions followed throu
Denver Botanic Gardens
The Denver Botanic Gardens is a public botanical garden located in the Cheesman Park neighborhood of Denver, Colorado. The 23-acre park contains a conservatory, a variety of theme gardens and a sunken amphitheater, which hosts various concerts in the summer. There are three diverse locations; the main location, the formal garden, is the York Street location in east-central Denver. Denver Botanic Gardens at Chatfield features natural meadow and riparian areas, as well as a historic farm and homestead. Mt. Goliath, on the route to Mount Evans, is an alpine wildflower garden; the Denver Botanic Gardens, along with nearby Cheesman Park and Congress Park, sit atop what used to be Prospect Hill cemetery. Although the majority of bodies were removed in 1893, the interred continued to be removed as late as the 1950s; as as 2010, graves were uncovered during renovation of the park's irrigation and sprinkler systems. Denver Botanic Gardens features North America's largest collection of plants from cold temperate climates around the world, as well as 7 diverse gardens that include plants from Colorado and neighboring states.
The world's first Xeriscape Demonstration Garden was created at the Gardens in 1986, 2 years its name was changed to Dryland Mesa. It was based on the "7 Principles" of Xeriscape, includes drought-tolerant plants from the arid West and Mediterranean areas; the Japanese Garden is called Shofu-en—the Garden of Wind and Pines. It was designed by Koichi Kawana in collaboration with Kai Kwahara; the York Street location of the Botanic Gardens opened Denver's 1st publicly accessible green roof. Boettcher Memorial Tropical Conservatory List of botanical gardens in the United States Official Website
University of Alaska Fairbanks
The University of Alaska Fairbanks is a public research university in College, Alaska. It is a flagship campus of the University of Alaska system and a land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant institution. UAF was established in 1917 and opened for classes in 1922. Named the Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines, it became the University of Alaska in 1935. Fairbanks-based programs became the University of Alaska Fairbanks in 1975. UAF is home to several major research units, including the Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station. Located just 200 miles south of the Arctic Circle, the Fairbanks campus' unique location favors Arctic and northern research. UAF's research specialties are renowned worldwide, most notably Arctic biology, Arctic engineering, geophysics and Alaska Native studies; the University of Alaska Museum of the North is on the Fairbanks campus. In addition to the Fairbanks campus, UAF encompasses six rural and urban campuses: Bristol Bay Campus in Dillingham. UAF is the home of eLearning and Distance Education, an independent learning and distance delivery program.
In fall 2017, UAF enrolled 8,720 students. Of those students, 58% were female and 41% were male; as of May 2018, 1,352 students had graduated during the preceding summer and spring semesters. The University of Alaska Fairbanks was established in 1917 as the Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines, but its origins lie in the creation of a federal agricultural experiment station in Fairbanks in 1906; the station set the tone for the research-oriented university that developed later. In the spring of 1915, the U. S. Congress approved legislation that reserved about 2,250 acres of land for a campus around the research station, it allowed the federal government to give the college land, surveyed and unclaimed in the Tanana Valley. However, because most of the land in Tanana Valley remained unsurveyed for years, the college only received 12,000 acres. In 1929, Congress attempted to remedy the situation by granting the college an additional 100,000 acres anywhere in Alaska, but those rights were extinguished in 1959 when Alaska became a state.
Four months after Congress approved the legislation for the campus land in 1915, a cornerstone for the college was laid by Territorial Delegate James Wickersham on a bluff overlooking the lower Chena River valley. The ridge, which the indigenous Athabaskan people called Troth Yeddha', soon became known as College Hill. Charles E. Bunnell was appointed the university’s chief executive and served the university for 28 years. Classes began at the new institution on September 18, 1922, it offered 16 different courses to a student body of six on opening day. In 1923, the first commencement produced John Sexton Shanly. In 1935, the Alaska Legislature passed a bill that changed the name of the college to the University of Alaska; when William R. Wood became the university’s president in 1960, he divided the academic departments of the university into six select colleges: Arts and Letters. From that point on, both the university’s student population and research mission grew tremendously. With the appointment of Chancellor Howard A. Cutler in 1975, the University of Alaska became the University of Alaska Fairbanks.
The two other primary UA institutions are the University of Alaska Anchorage and the University of Alaska Southeast in Juneau. The Alaska Constitutional Convention was held in the freshly constructed Student Union Building on the Fairbanks campus from November 1955 to February 1956. While the convention progressed, the building became known as Constitution Hall, where the 55 delegates drafted the legal foundation of the 49th state; the campus’ old library and gymnasium was renamed Signers’ Hall after the Alaska Constitution was signed there in February 1956. UAF has nine academic schools and colleges: College of Engineering and Mines College of Liberal Arts College of Natural Science and Mathematics College of Rural and Community Development Graduate School School of Education College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences School of Management School of Natural Resources and Extension There are 190 different degree and certificate programs available in more than 120 disciplines; the UAF Honors Program was created in 1983 and provides additional opportunities for students to prepare for professional school admission.
Students complete core curriculum courses for their degrees in the Honors Program, maintain at least a 3.25 grade-point average in all courses, complete a thesis project. Elmer E. Rasmuson Library The Alaska Film Archives, housed in the library's Alaska and Polar Regions Collections and Archives, holds the largest collection of film-related material about Ala