A fire-control system is a number of components working together a gun data computer, a director, radar, designed to assist a weapon system in targetting and hitting its target. It performs the same task as a human gunner firing a weapon, but attempts to do so faster and more accurately; the original fire-control systems were developed for ships. The early history of naval fire control was dominated by the engagement of targets within visual range. In fact, most naval engagements before 1800 were conducted at ranges of 20 to 50 yards. During the American Civil War, the famous engagement between the USS Monitor and the CSS Virginia was conducted at less than 100 yards range. Rapid technical improvements in the late 19th century increased the range at which gunfire was possible. Rifled guns of much larger size firing explosive shells of lighter relative weight so increased the range of the guns that the main problem became aiming them while the ship was moving on the waves; this problem was solved with the introduction of the gyroscope, which corrected this motion and provided sub-degree accuracies.
Guns were now free to grow to any size, surpassed 10 inches calibre by the turn of the century. These guns were capable of such great range that the primary limitation was seeing the target, leading to the use of high masts on ships. Another technical improvement was the introduction of the steam turbine which increased the performance of the ships. Earlier screw-powered capital ships were capable of 16 knots, but the first large turbine ships were capable of over 20 knots. Combined with the long range of the guns, this meant that the ships moved a considerable distance, several ship lengths, between the time the shells were fired and landed. One could no longer eyeball the aim with any hope of accuracy. Moreover, in naval engagements it is necessary to control the firing of several guns at once. Naval gun fire control involves three levels of complexity. Local control originated with primitive gun installations aimed by the individual gun crews. Director control aims all guns on the ship at a single target.
Coordinated gunfire from a formation of ships at a single target was a focus of battleship fleet operations. Corrections are made for surface wind velocity, firing ship roll and pitch, powder magazine temperature, drift of rifled projectiles, individual gun bore diameter adjusted for shot-to-shot enlargement, rate of change of range with additional modifications to the firing solution based upon the observation of preceding shots; the resulting directions, known as a firing solution, would be fed back out to the turrets for laying. If the rounds missed, an observer could work out how far they missed by and in which direction, this information could be fed back into the computer along with any changes in the rest of the information and another shot attempted. At first, the guns were aimed using the technique of artillery spotting, it involved firing a gun at the target, observing the projectile's point of impact, correcting the aim based on where the shell was observed to land, which became more and more difficult as the range of the gun increased.
Between the American Civil War and 1905, numerous small improvements, such as telescopic sights and optical rangefinders, were made in fire control. There were procedural improvements, like the use of plotting boards to manually predict the position of a ship during an engagement. Sophisticated mechanical calculators were employed for proper gun laying with various spotters and distance measures being sent to a central plotting station deep within the ship. There the fire direction teams fed in the location and direction of the ship and its target, as well as various adjustments for Coriolis effect, weather effects on the air, other adjustments. Around 1905, mechanical fire control aids began to become available, such as the Dreyer Table and Argo Clock, but these devices took a number of years to become deployed; these devices were early forms of rangekeepers. Arthur Pollen and Frederic Charles Dreyer independently developed the first such systems. Pollen began working on the problem after noting the poor accuracy of naval artillery at a gunnery practice near Malta in 1900.
Lord Kelvin regarded as Britain's leading scientist first proposed using an analogue computer to solve the equations which arise from the relative motion of the ships engaged in the battle and the time delay in the flight of the shell to calculate the required trajectory and therefore the direction and elevation of the guns. Pollen aimed to produce a combined mechanical computer and automatic plot of ranges and rates for use in centralised fire control. To obtain accurate data of the target's position and relative motion, Pollen developed a plotting unit to capture this data. To this he added a gyroscope to allow for the yaw of the firing ship. Like the plotter, the primitive gyroscope of the time required substantial development to provide continuous and reliable guidance. Although the trials in 1905 and 1906 were unsuccessful, they showed promise. Pollen was encouraged in his efforts by the rising figure of Admiral Jackie Fisher, Admiral Arthur Knyvet Wilson and the Director of Naval Ordnance and Torpedoes, John Jellicoe.
Pollen continued his work, with occasional tests carried out on Royal Navy warships. Meanwhile, a group led by Dreyer designed a similar system. Although both systems were ordered for new and existing ships of the Royal Navy, the Dreyer system found most favour with the Navy in its definitive Mar
The Littorio class known as the Vittorio Veneto class, was a class of battleship of the Regia Marina, the Italian navy. The class was composed of four ships—Littorio, Vittorio Veneto and Impero—but only the first three ships of the class were completed. Built between 1934 and 1942, they were the most modern battleships used by Italy during World War II, they were developed in response to the French Dunkerque-class battleships, were armed with 381-millimeter guns and had a top speed of 30 knots. The class's design was considered by the Spanish Navy, but the outbreak of World War II interrupted construction plans; the first two ships and Vittorio Veneto, were operational by the early months of Italy's participation in World War II. They formed the backbone of the Italian fleet, conducted several sorties into the Mediterranean to intercept British convoys, though without any notable success; the two ships were torpedoed throughout their careers: Littorio was hit by a torpedo during the attack on Taranto in November 1940 and again in June 1942.
Roma joined the fleet in June 1942, although all three ships remained inactive in La Spezia until June 1943, when all three were damaged in a series of Allied air attacks on the harbor. In September 1943, Italy signed an Armistice with the Allies. Littorio was renamed Italia; the three active battleships were transferred to Malta before they were to be interned in Alexandria. While en route to Malta, German bombers attacked the fleet with Fritz X radio-guided bombs, damaging Italia and sinking Roma. Italia and Vittorio Veneto reached Malta and were interned; the incomplete Impero was seized by the Germans after Italy withdrew from the war and used as a target, until she was sunk by American bombers in 1945. Italia and Vittorio Veneto were awarded to the United States and Britain as war prizes. Italia, Vittorio Veneto, Impero were broken up for scrap between 1952 and 1954; the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 allotted Italy an additional 70,000 long tons of total capital ship tonnage, which could be used in 1927–1929, while other powers were observing the "holiday" in battleship construction prescribed by the treaty.
France, given parity with Italy possessed 70,000 tons of capital ship tonnage. Both countries were put under significant pressure from the other signatories to use their allotted tonnage to build smaller battleships with reduced caliber main batteries; the first Italian design, prepared in 1928, called for a 23,000 long tons ship armed with a main battery of six 381 mm guns in twin turrets. They opted for this design; this would have allowed the Italian fleet to keep at least two units operational at any given time. Protection and radius of action were sacrificed for speed and heavy armament, though the Italians did not value range, as they operated in the confined waters of the Mediterranean. In 1928, the design staff prepared another ship, with a displacement of 35,000 long tons, armed with six 406 mm guns and protected against guns of the same caliber. At least one of these ships would have followed the three 23,000-ton ships once the building holiday expired in 1931. Funding was not allocated to begin construction, however, as the Italian Navy did not want to instigate an arms race with the French Navy.
The London Naval Treaty of 1930 extended the building holiday to 1936, though Italy and France retained the right to build 70,000 tons of new capital ships. Both countries rejected British proposals to limit new battleship designs to 25,000 long tons and 305 mm guns. After 1930, the Italian Navy abandoned the smaller designs altogether. By 1930, Germany had begun to build the three Deutschland-class ships, armed with six 280 mm guns, France had in turn laid down two Dunkerque-class battleships to counter them; the French vessels were armed with eight 330 mm guns. In late 1932, Italian constructors responded with a design similar to the Deutschland class, but armed with six 343 mm guns in triple turrets on a 18,000 long tons displacement; the Italian Navy decided that the smaller design was impractical, that a larger design should be pursued. A 26,500 long tons design was prepared, which mounted eight 343 mm guns in twin turrets; this was abandoned in favor of a 35,000 ton design to be armed with 406 mm guns.
The 406 mm gun in turn was abandoned in favor of the 381 mm gun because there were no designs for the larger gun, which would delay construction. Nine 381 mm guns in three triple turrets were adopted as the primary battery for the ships, on a displacement in excess of 40,000 long tons, despite the fact that this violated the established naval treaties. By the time these ships entered service, the international arms control system had fallen apart and the major naval powers had invoked the "escalator clause" that allowed for ships up to 45,000 long tons displacement; the ships of the class varied in dimensions. Littorio and Vittorio Veneto were 224.05 meters long between perpendiculars and 237.76 m long overall, while Roma and Impero were 240.68 m long overall. All four ships had a draft of 9.6 m and a beam of 32.82 m. Littorio displaced 40,724 metric tons as designed and 45,236 t (44,522 long tons.
The Nagato-class battleships were a pair of dreadnought battleships built for the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War I, although they were not completed until after the end of the war. Nagato, the lead ship of the class served as a flagship. Both ships carried supplies for the survivors of the Great Kantō earthquake in 1923, they were modernized in 1933–36 with improvements to their armor and machinery and a rebuilt superstructure in the pagoda mast style. Nagato and her sister ship Mutsu participated in the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937 and Nagato was the flagship of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto during the attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941 that began the Pacific War; the sisters participated in the Battle of Midway in June 1942. Mutsu saw more active service than her sister because she was not a flagship and participated in the Battle of the Eastern Solomons in August before returning to Japan in early 1943. One of Mutsu's aft magazines detonated in June, killing 1,121 crew and visitors and destroying the ship.
The IJN conducted a perfunctory investigation into the cause of her loss and concluded that it was the work of a disgruntled crewmember. They dispersed the survivors in an attempt to conceal the sinking to keep up morale in Japan. Much of the wreck was salvaged after the war and many artifacts and relics are on display in Japan. Nagato spent most of the first two years of the war training in home waters, she was transferred to Truk in mid-1943, but did not see any combat until the Battle of the Philippine Sea in mid-1944 when she was attacked by American aircraft. Nagato did not fire her main armament against enemy vessels until the Battle of Leyte Gulf in October 1944, she was damaged during the battle and returned to Japan the following month for repairs. The IJN was running out of fuel by this time and decided not to repair her. Nagato was assigned to coastal defense duties. After the war, the ship was a target for U. S. nuclear weapon tests during Operation Crossroads in mid-1946. She was sunk by the second test.
The IJN considered a battle fleet of eight modern battleships and eight modern armored cruisers necessary for the defense of Japan, the government adopted that policy in 1907. This was the genesis of the Eight-Eight Fleet Program, the development of a cohesive battle line of 16 capital ships less than eight years old. Advances in naval technology like the British battleship HMS Dreadnought and the battlecruiser HMS Invincible forced the IJN to several times re-evaluate the ships that it counted as modern. By 1910, the IJN considered none of its current ships to be modern and restarted the program in 1911 with orders for the Fusō-class dreadnoughts and the Kongō-class battlecruisers. By 1915, the IJN was halfway to its goal and wanted to order four more dreadnoughts, but the Diet rejected its plan, the 1916 budget authorized only one dreadnought named Nagato, two battlecruisers; that year, American President Woodrow Wilson announced plans for 10 additional battleships and six battlecruisers, the following year the Diet authorized three more dreadnoughts in response, one of which would be named Mutsu.
Allocated project number A-102, the Nagato class was designed before Commander Yuzuru Hiraga was reassigned to the Navy Technical Department responsible for ship design, although Hiraga is credited with the design of these ships. In contrast to earlier designs, the Nagato class used the American "all or nothing" armor scheme that maximized the armor thickness protecting the core of the ship by eliminating armor elsewhere; the design had two armored decks of medium thickness rather than the single thicker deck used formerly. The ships used a new type of underwater protection system that resisted penetration by 200-kilogram torpedo warheads in full-scale trials, it consisted of a deep water-tight compartment adjacent to the hull, backed by a thick torpedo bulkhead that connected to the side and deck armor plates, with a deep fuel oil tank behind it. Although the United States Navy planned to arm its Colorado class with 16-inch guns before the Nagato class was designed, Nagato's 410-millimeter guns made her the first dreadnought, launched armed with guns larger than 15 inches.
On 12 June 1917, well before Mutsu was laid down, Hiraga proposed a revised design for the ship that reflected the lessons from the Battle of Jutland that had occurred the previous year, incorporated advances in boiler technology. Given project number A-125, his design added an extra twin main-gun turret, using space and weight made available by the reduction of the number of boilers from 21 to 12, while the power remained the same, he reduced the secondary armament from 20 guns to 16, although they were raised in height to improve their ability to fire during heavy weather and to improve their arcs of fire. To increase the ship's protection he proposed angling the belt armor outwards to improve its resistance to horizontal fire, increasing the thickness of the lower deck armor and the torpedo bulkhead. Hiraga planned to add anti-torpedo bulges to improve underwater protection, he estimated that his ship would displace as much as Nagato, although it would cost about a million yen more. Hiraga's changes would have delayed Mutsu's completion and were rejected by the Navy Ministry.
The ships had a length of 201.17 meters between 215.8 meters overall. They had a draft of 9.08 meters. The Nagato-class ships displaced 32,720 metric tons at standa
King George V-class battleship (1939)
The King George V-class battleships were the most modern British battleships in commission during World War II. Five ships of this class were built: HMS King George V, HMS Prince of Wales, HMS Duke of York, HMS Howe and HMS Anson; the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 limited all of the number and armament of warships built following its ratification, this was extended by the First London Naval Treaty but these treaties were due to expire in 1936. With increased tension between Britain, the United States, Japan and Italy, it was supposed by the designers of these battleships that the treaty might not be renewed and the ships of the King George V class were designed with this possibility in mind. All five ships saw combat during World War II, with King George V and Prince of Wales being involved in the action on 24 May to 27 May 1941 that resulted in the German battleship Bismarck being sunk. Following this on 25 October 1941, Prince of Wales was sent to Singapore arriving on 2 December and becoming the flagship of Force Z.
On 10 December, Prince of Wales was attacked by Japanese bombers and sank with the loss of 327 of its men. In the aftermath of the sinking, King George V, Duke of York and Anson provided escort duty to convoys bound for Russia. On 1 May 1942, King George V collided with the destroyer HMS Punjabi, resulting in King George V being sent to Gladstone docks for repairs on 9 May, before returning to escort duty on 1 July 1942. In October 1942 Duke of York was sent to Gibraltar as the new flagship of Force H and supported the Allied landings in North Africa in November. Anson and Howe would provide cover for multiple convoys bound for Russia from late 1942 until 1 March 1943, when Howe provided convoy cover for the last time. In May 1943 King George V and Howe were moved to Gibraltar in preparation for Operation Husky; the two ships bombarded Trapani naval base and Favignana on 11–12 July and provided cover for Operation Avalanche on 7 September to 14 September. During this time Duke of York and Anson participated in Operation Gearbox, designed to draw attention away from Operation Husky.
Duke of York was instrumental in sinking the German battleship Scharnhorst on 25 December 1943. This battle was the last time that British and German capital ships fought each other. In late March 1945, King George V and Howe were sent to the Pacific with other Royal Navy vessels as a separate group to function with the U. S. Navy's Task Force 57. On 4 May 1945, King George V and Howe led a forty-five-minute bombardment of Japanese air facilities in the Ryukyu Islands. King George V fired her guns in anger for the last time in a night bombardment of Hamamatsu on 29 July and 30 July 1945. Duke of York and Anson were dispatched to the Pacific, but arrived too late to participate in hostilities. On 15 August Duke of York and Anson accepted the surrender of Japanese forces occupying Hong Kong and along with King George V were present for the official Japanese surrender in Tokyo Bay. Following the end of World War II, the ships were phased out of service and by 1957 all of the ships had been sold off for scrap, a process, completed by 1958.
The King George V class was the result of a design process that began in 1928. Under the terms of the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922, a "holiday" from building capital ships was in force through to 1931; the battleships of the British Navy consisted of only those old battleships, kept after the end of World War I, plus the two new, but slow Nelson-class battleships. In 1928, the Royal Navy started considering the requirements for the warships that it expected to start building in 1931; the First London Naval Treaty of 1930 extended the "shipbuilding holiday" through to 1937. Planning began again in 1935; the new class would be built up to the Treaty maximum displacement of 35,000 tons. Alternatives with 16-inch, 15-inch and 14-inch main guns were considered and the 15-inch armament was chosen. Most designs were intended to steam at 27 knots with full power, it was decided that the decisive range in a battle would be from 12,000 to 16,000 yards. Armour and torpedo protection formed a much greater portion of the design than that of the previous Royal Navy battleships.
In October 1935, the decision was made to use 14-inch guns. At the time, the United Kingdom was negotiating for a continuation of the Naval Treaties with the other parties of the London Treaty; the British Government favoured a reduction in the maximum calibre of battleship gun to 14 inches and in early October, the government learned that the United States would support this position if the Japanese could be persuaded to do so. Since the large naval guns needed to be ordered by the end of the year, the British Admiralty decided on 14-inch guns for the King George V class; the Second London Naval Treaty, a result of the Second London Naval Conference begun in December 1935, was signed in March 1936 by the United States and Britain and this set a main battery of 14-inch naval guns as the limit. The King George Vs were the first British battleships to alternate engine rooms and boilers in the machinery spaces, which reduced the likelihood of one hit causing the loss of all power; the machinery was arranged in four engine rooms and four boiler rooms, with the 8 machinery compartments alternating in pairs of engine or boiler rooms.
Each pair of boiler rooms formed a unit with a pair of engine rooms. Nominal full power was 110,000 shaft horsepower at 230 rpm with 400 pounds per square inch steam at 700 °F; the machinery was designed to operate at an overload power of 125,000 shp and Prince of Wales' "...main machinery steamed at overload powers of 128,000 to 134,000 shaft horsepower with no difficulti
New Mexico-class battleship
The New Mexico-class battleships of the United States Navy, all three of whose construction began in 1915, were improvements on the design introduced three years earlier with the Nevada class. The twelve-gun main battery of the preceding Pennsylvania class was retained, but with longer 14-inch /50 caliber guns in improved triple turrets. Hull design was upgraded with a'clipper' bow for better seakeeping and a sleeker look. One ship, New Mexico, was fitted with turbo-electric propulsion. Though eight secondary battery guns were located in wet bow and stern positions and were soon removed, the rest of the ships' 5-inch /51 caliber guns were mounted in the superstructure, a great improvement over earlier U. S. Navy battleships' arrangements. Completed during and soon after World War I, the New Mexicos were active members of the Battle Fleet during the decades between the World Wars. All were rebuilt between 1931 and 1934, receiving new superstructures, modern controls for their guns, new engines and improved protection against air and surface attack.
Anti-torpedo bulges increased their width to 106 feet 3 inches and displacement went up by a thousand tons or more. The New Mexico class was part of the standard-type battleship concept of the U. S. Navy, a design concept which gave the Navy a homogeneous line of battle; the standard-type battleship concept included long-range gunnery, moderate speed of 21 knots, a tight tactical radius of 700 yards and improved damage control. The other standard-type battleships were the Nevada, Pennsylvania and Colorado classes. In order to counter the German threat, these ships—operating together as Battleship Division 3—were transferred from the Pacific to the Atlantic in 1941, leaving the U. S. Pacific Fleet inferior in battleship strength to the Japanese Navy. Sent back to the Pacific after the Pearl Harbor raid devastated the Pacific Fleet's powerful battle line, they were active in the war with Japan until final victory was achieved in August 1945, they provided naval gunfire support for many of the amphibious invasions that marked the Pacific conflict, Mississippi took part in the Battle of Surigao Strait, the last time in history that battleships fought each other.
New Mexico and Idaho were disposed of soon after the war ended, but Mississippi was converted to a training and weapons trials ship and served for another decade. The U. S. Navy's first generation of ship-launched guided missiles went to sea aboard this old former battleship. Designated as Battleship 1916, the design history is marked by the incipient test firing of the 16-inch /45 caliber U. S. naval gun. The gun promised to deliver twice the energy of a 12-inch /50 caliber Mark 7 gun and 1.5 times the energy of a 14-inch /45 caliber gun. The problem was. If the gun failed the design would have to wait for new 14-inch turrets to be fabricated; the first design offered to the Bureau of Construction and Repair was no less than 10 16-inch guns and 8 torpedo tubes. The design included upgrading the armor as well as extending it. A secondary battery of 6-inch guns was incorporated into the design; the General Board arguing that the increasing range of torpedoes required the increase of caliber. In August 1914 the 16-inch gun was test fired silencing that question but that would happen after the design was in front of SecNav.
The rise in displacement and the rise in the cost of the new design presented issues. The General Board pushed for the advancement with C&R wanting to repeat the Pennsylvania class. Both the Secretary of the Navy, Josephus Daniels, the House of Representatives rose up against the cost; the General Board was convinced that the major sea powers would jump to 15-inch or 16-inch naval guns as a main armament and asked for designs based on the 16-inch gun. A series of designs was laid out with the last being a design with 8 16-inch guns on the 31,000 long tons design of the earlier Pennsylvania design. No one reviewing the design was at all happy with it. Strangely enough, this would except in small details, become the blueprint of the Colorado-class battleships. On July 30, the Secretary of the Navy ordered that, except for the inclusion of individual slides for the main guns, clipper bows for improved seakeeping and, in New Mexico, an experimental turbo-electric propulsion system, the New Mexico class would be a reproduction of the preceding Pennsylvania class.
A third ship, was added with funding from the proceeds of the sale of the obsolescent pre-dreadnoughts Mississippi and Idaho to Greece. Media related to New Mexico class battleships at Wikimedia Commons Initially based on the public domain article published by the Department of the Navy's Naval Historical Center Gardiner, Robert. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1906–1921. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-87021-907-8. OCLC 12119866
BL 14-inch Mk VII naval gun
The BL 14-inch Mk VII naval gun was a breech loading gun designed for the battleships of the Royal Navy in the late 1930s. This gun armed the King George V-class battleships during the Second World War; the choice of calibre was limited by the Second London Naval Treaty, an extension of the Washington Naval Treaty which set limits on the size armament and number of battleships constructed by the major powers. After disappointing experiences with the combination of high velocity but light shell in the BL 16 inch /45 naval gun of the Nelson-class battleships, the British reverted to the combination of lower velocities and heavier shells in this weapon; the built-up gun was of an all-steel construction. The resulting gun was lighter, less prone to droop, more accurate and had a longer barrel life; the estimated barrel life was 340 effective full charges. The new 14-inch Armour Piercing 1,590-pound shell had, relative to its size, superior ballistic performance and armour-penetration compared to previous British shells, due to improvements in design and material which had taken place since World War I.
The shell carried a large bursting charge of 48.5 lb Length of bore: 630 inches. Weight of gun (without breech or counterbalance: 77 tons 14 cwt 84 lbs. Weight of gun with counterbalance: 89 tons 2 cwt 84 lbs. Weight of breech mechanism: 1 ton 17 cwt. Rifling: polygroove, 72 grooves plain section, uniform right-hand twist of 1 turn in 30 calibres; the standard propellant charge: 338 lb of cordite. The choice of mounting was a mechanically complex, quadruple turret. Although the class of battleships was designed with 3 quadruple turrets, it proved impossible to include this amount of firepower and the desired level of protection without exceeding the 35,000 ton displacement treaty limit, furthermore the weight of the superimposed quadruple "B" turret brought the stability of the vessel into question, hence the "B" turret was changed to a smaller twin mount so the weight savings could be freed up for increased armour protection; the turret and ammunition-handling facilities incorporated many anti-flash measures and interlocks, improving safety but adding to complexity.
Revolving weight of mountings: quadruple Mk III 1,582 tons, twin Mk II 915 tons. In service, the quad turrets proved to be less reliable. Wartime haste in building, insufficient clearance between the rotating and fixed structure of the turret, insufficient full calibre firing exercises and extensive arrangements to prevent flash from reaching the magazines lead to problems during prolonged actions. In order to bring ammunition into the turret at any degree of train, the design included a transfer ring between the magazine and turret; these defects were addressed, improved clearances, improved mechanical linkages, better training led to greater reliability in the quadruple turrets but they remained controversial. On entering operational service the turrets gained an initial reputation for unreliability, with individual guns and entire turrets jamming in action. However, it has been argued that these jams were caused by errors in drill, either due to lack of gun crew training, as was the case when the newly commissioned HMS Prince of Wales engaged the Bismarck in the Battle of the Denmark Strait, or due to crew fatigue resulting from the prolonged nature of the engagement, as was the case when HMS King George V engaged Bismarck in 1941 and HMS Duke of York engaged Scharnhorst in the Battle of North Cape.
During the battle against Bismarck a close-range hit from a 14-inch shell fired by King George V penetrated the 340 mm -thick armour of the barbette of Bismarck's'B' turret, causing an internal explosion which blew the rear face of the turret away. Underwater survey shows that the 350 mm vertical armour of the conning tower of Bismarck was penetrated by 14-inch shells. In the Battle of North Cape, Duke of York fired 52 broadsides of these 31 straddled the Scharnhorst, a fast and manoeuvring target, a further 16 fell within 200 yards - an excellent performance when radar-control is taken into account; the effects of the 14-inch shellfire on Scharnhorst degraded her fighting abilities: Duke of York's first salvo put'A' turret out of action,'B' turret soon followed, a subsequent hit penetrated the German ship's armour, detonating in one of the boiler rooms and reducing the vessel's speed. This reduction in speed meant that the Scharnhorst could not escape pursuit, was responsible for her eventual destruction.
By being instrumental in the destruction of two modern enemy battleships, the 14-inch Mark VII gun was, one of the most successful battleship main armaments of World War II. In World War II two guns, nicknamed Winnie and Pooh, were mounted as coastal artillery near Dover to engage German batteries across the Channel in occupied France. Penetration at a muzzle velocity of 2483 ft/s, guns with new linings or with no significant wear: Belt 729 mm @ 0 m 531 mm @ 9,144 m 452 mm @ 13,716 m 389 mm @ 18,288 m Decks 33 mm @ 9,144 m 51 mm @ 13,716 m 69 mm @ 18,288 m 89 mm @ 22,860 m 107 mm @ 25,603 m Reproduced from Nav weapons.com List of naval guns Brown, D K. Nelson to Vanguard: Warship Design and Development 1923–1945. Chatham Publishing. Burt, R. A.. British
Radar is a detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, terrain. A radar system consists of a transmitter producing electromagnetic waves in the radio or microwaves domain, a transmitting antenna, a receiving antenna and a receiver and processor to determine properties of the object. Radio waves from the transmitter reflect off the object and return to the receiver, giving information about the object's location and speed. Radar was developed secretly for military use by several nations in the period before and during World War II. A key development was the cavity magnetron in the UK, which allowed the creation of small systems with sub-meter resolution; the term RADAR was coined in 1940 by the United States Navy as an acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging The term radar has since entered English and other languages as a common noun, losing all capitalization.
The modern uses of radar are diverse, including air and terrestrial traffic control, radar astronomy, air-defense systems, antimissile systems, marine radars to locate landmarks and other ships, aircraft anticollision systems, ocean surveillance systems, outer space surveillance and rendezvous systems, meteorological precipitation monitoring and flight control systems, guided missile target locating systems, ground-penetrating radar for geological observations, range-controlled radar for public health surveillance. High tech radar systems are associated with digital signal processing, machine learning and are capable of extracting useful information from high noise levels. Radar is a key technology that the self-driving systems are designed to use, along with sonar and other sensors. Other systems similar to radar make use of other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. One example is "lidar". With the emergence of driverless vehicles, Radar is expected to assist the automated platform to monitor its environment, thus preventing unwanted incidents.
As early as 1886, German physicist Heinrich Hertz showed that radio waves could be reflected from solid objects. In 1895, Alexander Popov, a physics instructor at the Imperial Russian Navy school in Kronstadt, developed an apparatus using a coherer tube for detecting distant lightning strikes; the next year, he added a spark-gap transmitter. In 1897, while testing this equipment for communicating between two ships in the Baltic Sea, he took note of an interference beat caused by the passage of a third vessel. In his report, Popov wrote that this phenomenon might be used for detecting objects, but he did nothing more with this observation; the German inventor Christian Hülsmeyer was the first to use radio waves to detect "the presence of distant metallic objects". In 1904, he demonstrated the feasibility of detecting a ship in dense fog, but not its distance from the transmitter, he obtained a patent for his detection device in April 1904 and a patent for a related amendment for estimating the distance to the ship.
He got a British patent on September 23, 1904 for a full radar system, that he called a telemobiloscope. It operated on a 50 cm wavelength and the pulsed radar signal was created via a spark-gap, his system used the classic antenna setup of horn antenna with parabolic reflector and was presented to German military officials in practical tests in Cologne and Rotterdam harbour but was rejected. In 1915, Robert Watson-Watt used radio technology to provide advance warning to airmen and during the 1920s went on to lead the U. K. research establishment to make many advances using radio techniques, including the probing of the ionosphere and the detection of lightning at long distances. Through his lightning experiments, Watson-Watt became an expert on the use of radio direction finding before turning his inquiry to shortwave transmission. Requiring a suitable receiver for such studies, he told the "new boy" Arnold Frederic Wilkins to conduct an extensive review of available shortwave units. Wilkins would select a General Post Office model after noting its manual's description of a "fading" effect when aircraft flew overhead.
Across the Atlantic in 1922, after placing a transmitter and receiver on opposite sides of the Potomac River, U. S. Navy researchers A. Hoyt Taylor and Leo C. Young discovered that ships passing through the beam path caused the received signal to fade in and out. Taylor submitted a report, suggesting that this phenomenon might be used to detect the presence of ships in low visibility, but the Navy did not continue the work. Eight years Lawrence A. Hyland at the Naval Research Laboratory observed similar fading effects from passing aircraft. Before the Second World War, researchers in the United Kingdom, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, the Soviet Union, the United States, independently and in great secrecy, developed technologies that led to the modern version of radar. Australia, New Zealand, South Africa followed prewar Great Britain's radar development, Hungary generated its radar technology during the war. In France in 1934, following systematic studies on the split-anode magnetron, the research branch of the Compagnie Générale de Télégraphie Sans Fil headed by Maurice Ponte with Henri Gutton, Sylvain Berline and M. Hugon, began developing an obstacle-locatin