Shanghai is one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of the central government of the People's Republic of China, the largest city in China by population, the second most populous city proper in the world, with a population of 24.18 million as of 2017. It is a transport hub, with the world's busiest container port. Located in the Yangtze River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze in the middle portion of the East China coast; the municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the north and west, is bounded to the east by the East China Sea. As a major administrative and trading city, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to trade and recognition of its favourable port location and economic potential; the city was one of five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade following the British victory over China in the First Opium War. The subsequent 1842 Treaty of Nanking and 1844 Treaty of Whampoa allowed the establishment of the Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession.
The city flourished as a centre of commerce between China and other parts of the world, became the primary financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the 1930s. During the World War II, the city was the site of the major Battle of Shanghai. After the war, with the Communist Party takeover of the mainland in 1949, trade was limited to other socialist countries, the city's global influence declined. In the 1990s, the economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in an intense re-development of the city, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment to the city, it has since re-emerged as a hub for international finance. Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy of mainland China; the two Chinese characters in the city's name are 上 and 海, together meaning "Upon-the-Sea". The earliest occurrence of this name dates from the 11th-century Song dynasty, at which time there was a river confluence and a town with this name in the area. There are disputes as to how the name should be understood, but Chinese historians have concluded that during the Tang dynasty Shanghai was on the sea.
Shanghai is abbreviated 沪 in Chinese, a contraction of 沪渎, a 4th- or 5th-century Jin name for the mouth of Suzhou Creek when it was the main conduit into the ocean. This character appears on all motor vehicle license plates issued in the municipality today. Another alternative name for Shanghai is Shēn or Shēnchéng, from Lord Chunshen, a 3rd-century BC nobleman and prime minister of the state of Chu, whose fief included modern Shanghai. Sports teams and newspapers in Shanghai use Shen in their names, such as Shanghai Shenhua F. C. and Shen Bao. Huating was another early name for Shanghai. In AD 751, during the mid-Tang dynasty, Huating County was established by the Governor of Wu Commandery Zhao Juzhen at modern-day Songjiang, the first county-level administration within modern-day Shanghai. Today, Huating appears as the name of a four-star hotel in the city; the city has various nicknames in English, including "Pearl of the Orient" and "Paris of the East". During the Spring and Autumn period, the Shanghai area belonged to the Kingdom of Wu, conquered by the Kingdom of Yue, which in turn was conquered by the Kingdom of Chu.
During the Warring States period, Shanghai was part of the fief of Lord Chunshen of Chu, one of the Four Lords of the Warring States. He ordered the excavation of the Huangpu River, its former or poetic name, the Chunshen River, gave Shanghai its nickname of "Shēn". Fishermen living in the Shanghai area created a fish tool called the hù, which lent its name to the outlet of Suzhou Creek north of the Old City and became a common nickname and abbreviation for the city. During the Tang and Song dynasties, Qinglong Town in modern Qingpu District was a major trading port. Established in 746, it developed into what contemporary sources called a "giant town of the Southeast", with thirteen temples and seven pagodas; the famous Song scholar and artist Mi Fu served as its mayor. The port had a thriving trade with provinces along the Yangtze River and the Chinese coast, as well as foreign countries such as Japan and Silla. By the end of the Song dynasty, the center of trading had moved downstream of the Wusong River to Shanghai, upgraded in status from a village to a market town in 1074, in 1172 a second sea wall was built to stabilize the ocean coastline, supplementing an earlier dike.
From the Yuan dynasty in 1292 until Shanghai became a municipality in 1927, central Shanghai was administered as a county under Songjiang Prefecture, whose seat was at the present-day Songjiang District. Two important events helped promote Shanghai's development in the Ming dynasty. A city wall was built for the first time in 1554 to protect the town from raids by Japanese pirates, it measured 10 metres high and 5 kilometres in circumference. During the Wanli reign, Shanghai received an important psychological boost from the erection of a City God Temple in 1602; this honour was reserved for prefectural capitals and not given to a mere county seat such as Shang
Colorado is a state of the Western United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. It is the 8th most extensive and 21st most populous U. S. state. The estimated population of Colorado was 5,695,564 on July 1, 2018, an increase of 13.25% since the 2010 United States Census. The state was named for the Colorado River, which early Spanish explorers named the Río Colorado for the ruddy silt the river carried from the mountains; the Territory of Colorado was organized on February 28, 1861, on August 1, 1876, U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed Proclamation 230 admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state. Colorado is nicknamed the "Centennial State" because it became a state one century after the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence. Colorado is bordered by Wyoming to the north, Nebraska to the northeast, Kansas to the east, Oklahoma to the southeast, New Mexico to the south, Utah to the west, touches Arizona to the southwest at the Four Corners.
Colorado is noted for its vivid landscape of mountains, high plains, canyons, plateaus and desert lands. Colorado is part of the western and southwestern United States, is one of the Mountain States. Denver is most populous city of Colorado. Residents of the state are known as Coloradans, although the antiquated term "Coloradoan" is used. Colorado is notable for its diverse geography, which includes alpine mountains, high plains, deserts with huge sand dunes, deep canyons. In 1861, the United States Congress defined the boundaries of the new Territory of Colorado by lines of latitude and longitude, stretching from 37°N to 41°N latitude, from 102°02'48"W to 109°02'48"W longitude. After 158 years of government surveys, the borders of Colorado are now defined by 697 boundary markers and 697 straight boundary lines. Colorado and Utah are the only states that have their borders defined by straight boundary lines with no natural features; the southwest corner of Colorado is the Four Corners Monument at 36°59'56"N, 109°2'43"W.
This is the only place in the United States where four states meet: Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. The summit of Mount Elbert at 14,440 feet elevation in Lake County is the highest point in Colorado and the Rocky Mountains of North America. Colorado is the only U. S. state that lies above 1,000 meters elevation. The point where the Arikaree River flows out of Yuma County and into Cheyenne County, Kansas, is the lowest point in Colorado at 3,317 feet elevation; this point, which holds the distinction of being the highest low elevation point of any state, is higher than the high elevation points of 18 states and the District of Columbia. A little less than half of Colorado is flat and rolling land. East of the Rocky Mountains are the Colorado Eastern Plains of the High Plains, the section of the Great Plains within Nebraska at elevations ranging from 3,350 to 7,500 feet; the Colorado plains are prairies but include deciduous forests and canyons. Precipitation averages 15 to 25 inches annually. Eastern Colorado is presently farmland and rangeland, along with small farming villages and towns.
Corn, hay and oats are all typical crops. Most villages and towns in this region boast both a grain elevator. Irrigation water is available from subterranean sources. Surface water sources include the South Platte, the Arkansas River, a few other streams. Subterranean water is accessed through artesian wells. Heavy use of wells for irrigation caused underground water reserves to decline. Eastern Colorado hosts considerable livestock, such as hog farms. 70% of Colorado's population resides along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the Front Range Urban Corridor between Cheyenne and Pueblo, Colorado. This region is protected from prevailing storms that blow in from the Pacific Ocean region by the high Rockies in the middle of Colorado; the "Front Range" includes Denver, Fort Collins, Castle Rock, Colorado Springs, Pueblo and other townships and municipalities in between. On the other side of the Rockies, the significant population centers in Western Colorado are the cities of Grand Junction and Montrose.
The Continental Divide of the Americas extends along the crest of the Rocky Mountains. The area of Colorado to the west of the Continental Divide is called the Western Slope of Colorado. West of the Continental Divide, water flows to the southwest via the Colorado River and the Green River into the Gulf of California. Within the interior of the Rocky Mountains are several large parks which are high broad basins. In the north, on the east side of the Continental Divide is the North Park of Colorado; the North Park is drained by the North Platte River, which flows north into Nebraska. Just to the south of North Park, but on the western side of the Continental Divide, is the Middle Park of Colorado, drained by the Colorado River; the South Park of Colorado is the region of the headwaters of the South Platte River. In southmost Colorado is the large San Luis Valley, where the headwaters of the Rio Grande are located; the valley sits between the Sangre De Cristo Mountains and San Juan Mountains, consists of large desert lands that run into the mountains.
The Rio Grande drains due south into New Mexico and Texas. Across the Sangre de Cristo Range to the east of the S
Chaoyang District, Beijing
Chaoyang District is a core district of Beijing. It borders the districts of Shunyi to the northeast, Tongzhou to the east and southeast, Daxing to the south, Fengtai to the southwest, Dongcheng and Haidian to the west, Changping to the northwest. Chaoyang is home to the majority of Beijing's many foreign embassies, the well-known Sanlitun bar street, as well as Beijing's growing central business district; the Olympic Green, built for the 2008 Summer Olympics, is in Chaoyang. Chaoyang extends west to Chaoyangmen on the eastern 2nd Ring Road, nearly as far east as the Ximazhuang toll station on the Jingtong Expressway. Within the urban area of Beijing, it occupies 475 square kilometres, making it the central city's largest district, with Haidian second; as of 2005, Chaoyang had a total population of 3,642,000, making it the most populous district in Beijing. The district has jurisdiction over 20 area offices. Chaoyang is home to Silk Street, many other market areas, shopping malls, restaurant strips.
Chaoyang is divided into 24 subdistricts, 19 townships of which carry the "area" label: The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Culture are headquartered in the district. In 2017,the regional GDP of the district is 563.55 billion yuan, with GDP per capita at 150.7 thousand yuan. China National Aviation Holdings Company, SOHO China, CITIC Group, Qihoo 360, Beijing Capital Airlines have their headquarters in Chaoyang District. Renren Inc. has its headquarters on the 23rd floor of the Jing An Center in Chaoyang District. Wanda Group has its headquarters in the Wanda Plaza. Wanda Cinemas is headquartered in the same complex. China Resources Beverage, the distributor of C'estbon water, has its north China regional office in the district. According to Chaoyang's official website, the district "is home to more than 60 percent of the foreign business agencies in Beijing, over 3,000 foreign companies, 167 international news agencies, two-thirds of the 158 of the global top 500 transnational companies that have invested in Beijing."
Some of these are: ABB Group, Air France, All Nippon Airways, Halliburton, IBM, KBR, Kerr-McGee China Petroleum Ltd. Korean Air, Kroll Inc. Lummus Technology, a subsidiary of CB&I, Asiana Airlines, Standard & Poor's, Swire Group, Etihad Airways, EVA Air, Qatar Airways; the Hong Kong-based company Swire Properties has two locations in Chaoyang. Beijing Hyundai Motor Company, a 50–50 joint venture of the Beijing Automotive Industry Holding Co. and Hyundai Motor Company, has its sales offices in the Hyundai Motor Tower in Chaoyang District. Chaoyang serves as Beijing's diplomatic district. All foreign embassies to China are located in the district except for those of Russia and Luxembourg, which are both in Dongcheng. Chaoyang has three embassy areas in the Sanlitun and Liangmahe neighborhoods. Chaoyang District is one of the fastest growing districts in the Beijing Metropolitan Area. There are several subway lines running through the district; the Beijing Capital Airport, although surrounded by the Shunyi District, is an exclave of Chaoyang District.
The municipality as well as the Chinese national government spend a half million USD per day on developing this district. Chaoyang is served by thirteen metro lines of the Beijing Subway: Line 1 – Yong'anli, Guomao 10, Dawanglu 14, Sihui Batong, Sihui East Batong Line 2 – Jianguomen 1, Chaoyangmen 6 Line 5 – Lishuiqiao 13, Lishuiqiao South, Beiyuanlu North, Datunlu East 15, Huixinxijie Beikou, Huixinxijie Nankou 10, Hepingxiqiao Line 6 – Chaoyangmen 2, Hujialou 10, Jintailu 14, Qingnianlu, Huangqu, Caofang Line 7 – Jiulongshan 14, Baiziwan, Nanlouzizhuang, Happy Valley Scenic Area, Jiaohuachang Line 8 – Lincuiqiao, South Gate of Forest Park, Olympic Green 15, Olympic Sports Center, Beitucheng 10, Anhuaqiao Line 10 – Jiandemen, Beitucheng 8, Huixinxijie Nankou 5, Shaoyaoju 13, Sanyuanqiao Airport, Agricultural Exhibition Center, Hujialou 6, Guomao 1, Jinsong, Shilihe 14, Fenzhongsi Line 13 – Lishuiqiao 5, Wangjing West 15, Shaoyaoju 10, Liufang Line 14 – Shilihe 10, Beigongda Ximen, Jiulongshan 7, Dawanglu 1, Jintailu 6, Dongfengbeiqiao, Wangjing South, Wangjing 15, Laiguangying, Shangezhuang Line 15 – Olympic Green 8, Datunlu East 5, Wangjing West 13, Wangjing 14, Maquanying, Sunhe Airport Express – Sanyuanqiao 10, Terminal 2 Batong line – Sihui 1, Sihui East 1, Communication University of China, Guanzhuang, Baliqiao Yizhuang line – Xiaocun, Xiaohongmen University of International Business and Economics Beijing International Studies University Communication University of China Beijing University of Technology No.80 High School of Beijing Beijing Ritan High School High School Attached to Beijing University of Technology Beijing No. 17 High School Beijing No. 94 High School Beijing Chen Jing Lun High School Beijing Hepingjie No.1 Middle School (北京
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Paradise is an unincorporated town and census-designated place in Clark County, United States, adjacent to the city of Las Vegas. The population was 223,167 at the 2010 census, making it the most populous unincorporated community in Nevada; as an unincorporated town, it is governed by the Clark County Commission with input from the Paradise Town Advisory Board. Paradise was formed on December 8, 1950. Paradise contains the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Paradise contains most tourist attractions excluding downtown. Despite this, the name Paradise remains unknown because all of the ZIP Codes serving Paradise are assigned the default place name "Las Vegas"; the southern part of the Las Vegas Valley was referred to as Paradise Valley as early as 1910, owing to a high water table that made the land fertile for farming. County commissioners established a Paradise school district in 1914. In 1950, mayor Ernie Cragin of Las Vegas, looking to fund an ambitious building agenda and pay down the city's rising debt, sought to expand the city's tax base by annexing the Las Vegas Strip, unincorporated territory.
A group of casino executives, led by Gus Greenbaum of the Flamingo, lobbied the county commissioners for town status, which would prevent the city from annexing the land without the commission's approval. The commission voted to create the unincorporated town of Paradise on December 8, 1950; the town encompassed a strip one mile wide and four miles long, from the southern city limits of Las Vegas to just south of the Flamingo. The town board consisted of five casino managers, chaired by Greenbaum. A month after its establishment, the town was expanded to include the residential areas of Paradise Valley, giving it a total area of 54 square miles. Paradise was split into two parts, Paradise Town A and Paradise Town B. In 1953, Town A was renamed as Winchester, Town B became known as Paradise. In 1975, Nevada enacted a law. Before it could take effect, the bill was struck down as unconstitutional by the Nevada Supreme Court. According to the United States Census Bureau, the census-designated place of Paradise has a total area of 46.7 square miles, all of it land.
At the census of 2010, there were 223,167 people residing in Paradise. The racial makeup was 59.8% White, 8.9% African American, 0.8% Native American, 9.5% Asian, 1.0% Pacific Islander, 5.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino races made up 31.2% of the population, 46.3% of the population was non-Hispanic White. As of the census of 2000, there were 186,070 people, 77,209 households, 43,314 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 3,947.3 people per square mile. There were 85,398 housing units at an average density of 1,811.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 72.51% White, 6.59% African American, 0.77% Native American, 6.52% Asian, 0.59% Pacific Islander, 8.37% from other races, 4.65% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 23.47% of the population. There were 77,209 households out of which 24.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.7% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 43.9% were non-families.
31.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 3.04. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 21.2% under the age of 18, 10.8% from 18 to 24, 33.3% from 25 to 44, 23.6% from 45 to 64, 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 109.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 110.0 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $39,376, the median income for a family was $46,578. Males had a median income of $31,412 versus $25,898 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $21,258. 11.8% of the population and 8.1% of families were below the poverty line. 15.3% of those under the age of 18 and 7.6% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. At about 225,000 people, if Paradise were to be an incorporated city it would be the fourth or fifth largest city in the state, after Las Vegas and North Las Vegas.
Akhob by James Turrell The Art of Richard MacDonald Bellagio Gallery of Fine Art Bliss Dance Chihuly Art Gallery Las Vegas Little Theater Las Vegas Philharmonic Orchestra Martin Lawrence Galleries Nevada Ballet Theatre P3 Art Studio National Atomic Testing Museum Liberace Museum Marjorie Barrick Museum of Art T-Mobile Arena MSG Sphere Las Vegas The Clark County School District serves Paradise as well as all of Clark County. The township is home to the University of Las Vegas. Paradise is home to Las Vegas's first major league sports team, the Vegas Golden Knights of the National Hockey League, which began play in the 2017–18 season at T-Mobile Arena; the number of professional sports teams will grow to two in 2020 when the soon-to-be-constructed Las Vegas Stadium will feature the relocated Raiders of the National Football League, along with the UNLV Rebels football program. The Las Vegas Aces of the WNBA started playing at Mandalay Bay Events Center in 2018. Since 2004, the Las Vegas Summer League, organized by the National Basketball Association, is played in the Thomas & Mack Center and in the Cox Pavilion.
Las Vegas Monorail Paradise Town Advisory
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, known informally as Schiphol Airport, is the main international airport of the Netherlands. It is located 9 kilometres southwest of Amsterdam, in the municipality of Haarlemmermeer, North Holland, it is the third busiest airport in Europe in terms of passenger volume. The airport is built as a single-terminal concept: one large terminal split into three large departure halls. Schiphol is the hub for KLM and its regional affiliate KLM Cityhopper as well as for Corendon Dutch Airlines, Transavia and TUI fly Netherlands; the airport serves as a European hub for Jet Airways and as a base for EasyJet, LEVEL, Vueling. Schiphol opened on 16 September 1916 as a military airbase; the end of the First World War saw the beginning of civilian use of Schiphol Airport and the airport lost its military role completely. By 1940, Schiphol had four asphalt runways at 45-degree angles; the airport was renamed Fliegerhorst Schiphol. The airport was destroyed through bombing but at the end of the war the airfield was restored quickly.
In 1949, it was decided. Schiphol Airport is an important European airport, ranking as Europe's third busiest and the world's eleventh busiest by total passenger traffic in 2017, it ranks as the world's fifth busiest by international passenger traffic and the world's sixteenth busiest for cargo tonnage. 63,625,664 passengers passed through the airport in 2016. Schiphol's main competitors in terms of passenger traffic and cargo throughput are London-Heathrow, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Istanbul-Atatürk and Madrid–Barajas. In 2010, 65.9% of passengers using the airport flew to and from Europe, 11.7% to and from North America and 8.8% to and from Asia. In 2010, 106 carriers provided a total of 301 destinations on a regular basis. Passenger destinations were offered by 91 airlines. Direct destinations grew by 9 to a total of 274. Regular destinations serviced by full freighters grew by eight to a total of twenty-seven; the airport is built as one large terminal, split into three large departure halls, which connect again once airside.
The most recent of these was completed in 1994 and expanded in 2007 with a new section, called Terminal 4, although it is not considered a separate building. A new pier is to be opened in 2019 with a terminal extension planned to be operational by 2023. Plans for further terminal and gate expansion exist, including the construction of a separate new terminal between the Zwanenburgbaan and Polderbaan runways that would end the one-terminal concept; because of intense traffic and high landing fees, some low-cost carriers decided to move their flights to smaller airports, such as Rotterdam The Hague Airport and Eindhoven Airport. Many low-cost carriers, such as EasyJet and Transavia, continue to operate at Schiphol, using the low-cost H pier. Lelystad Airport is being expanded aimed at accommodating some of the low-cost and leisure flights operating out of Schiphol taking up to 45,000 flights a year. Before 1852, the entire Haarlemmermeer polder in which the airport lies was a large lake with some shallow areas.
There are multiple stories of. The most popular story is. Winds were strong in the Schiphol area since the prevailing wind direction is from the south-west, Schiphol lies in the north-eastern corner of the lake. In English, Schiphol translates to "Ships Hell", a reference to many ships lost in the lake; when the lake was reclaimed, however, no shipwrecks were found. Another possible origin of the name is the word scheepshaal. A scheepshaal is a ditch or small canal. A third explanation would be; this is a low-lying area of land from. After the lake was dredged in the mid 1800s, a fortification named Fort Schiphol was built in the area, part of the Stelling van Amsterdam defence works. Schiphol opened on 16 September 1916 as a military airbase, with a few barracks and a field serving as platform and runways; when civil aircraft started to use the field, it was called Schiphol-les-bains. The Fokker aircraft manufacturer started a factory near Schiphol airport in 1919; the end of the First World War saw the beginning of civilian use of Schiphol Airport and the airport lost its military role completely.
By 1940, Schiphol had four asphalt runways at all 1,020 metres or less. One was extended to become today's runway 04/22; the airport was renamed Fliegerhorst Schiphol. A large amount of anti-aircraft defences were installed in the vicinity of the airport and fake decoy airfields were constructed in the vicinity near Bennebroek and Vogelenzang to try to confuse allied bombers. A railway connection was built. Despite these defences, the airfield was still bombed intensively. After that, it served only as an emergency landing field, until the Germans themselves d
Nevada is a state in the Western United States. It is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, California to the west, Arizona to the southeast and Utah to the east. Nevada is the 7th most extensive, the 32nd most populous, but the 9th least densely populated of the U. S. states. Nearly three-quarters of Nevada's people live in Clark County, which contains the Las Vegas–Paradise metropolitan area where three of the state's four largest incorporated cities are located. Nevada's capital, however, is Carson City. Nevada is known as the "Silver State" because of the importance of silver to its history and economy, it is known as the "Battle Born State", because it achieved statehood during the Civil War. Nevada is desert and semi-arid, much of it within the Great Basin. Areas south of the Great Basin are within the Mojave Desert, while Lake Tahoe and the Sierra Nevada lie on the western edge. About 86% of the state's land is managed by various jurisdictions of the U. S. federal government, both civilian and military.
Before European contact, Native Americans of the Paiute and Washoe tribes inhabited the land, now Nevada. The first Europeans to explore the region were Spanish, they called the region Nevada because of the snow. The area formed part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, became part of Mexico when it gained independence in 1821; the United States annexed the area in 1848 after its victory in the Mexican–American War, it was incorporated as part of Utah Territory in 1850. The discovery of silver at the Comstock Lode in 1859 led to a population boom that became an impetus to the creation of Nevada Territory out of western Utah Territory in 1861. Nevada became the 36th state on October 31, 1864, as the second of two states added to the Union during the Civil War. Nevada has a reputation for its libertarian laws. In 1940, with a population of just over 110,000 people, Nevada was by far the least-populated state, with less than half the population of the next least-populated state. However, legalized gambling and lenient marriage and divorce laws transformed Nevada into a major tourist destination in the 20th century.
Nevada is the only U. S. state where prostitution is legal, though it is illegal in Clark County, Washoe County and Carson City. The tourism industry remains Nevada's largest employer, with mining continuing as a substantial sector of the economy: Nevada is the fourth-largest producer of gold in the world; the name "Nevada" comes from meaning "snow-covered", after the Sierra Nevada. Most Nevadans pronounce the second syllable of their state name using the TRAP vowel. Many from outside the Western United States pronounce it with the PALM vowel. Although the latter pronunciation is closer to the Spanish pronunciation, it is not the pronunciation preferred by most Nevadans. State Assemblyman Harry Mortenson proposed a bill to recognize the alternate pronunciation of Nevada, though the bill was not supported by most legislators and never received a vote; the Nevadan pronunciation is the de facto official one, since it is the one used by the state legislature. At one time, the state's official tourism organization, TravelNevada, stylized the name of the state as "Nevăda", with a breve mark over the a indicating the locally preferred pronunciation, available as a license plate design.
Nevada is entirely within the Basin and Range Province, is broken up by many north-south mountain ranges. Most of these ranges have endorheic valleys between them, which belies the image portrayed by the term Great Basin. Much of the northern part of the state is within the Great Basin, a mild desert that experiences hot temperatures in the summer and cold temperatures in the winter. Moisture from the Arizona Monsoon will cause summer thunderstorms; the state's highest recorded temperature was 125 °F in Laughlin on June 29, 1994. The coldest recorded temperature was −52 °F set in San Jacinto in 1972, in the northeastern portion of the state; the Humboldt River crosses the state from east to west across the northern part of the state, draining into the Humboldt Sink near Lovelock. Several rivers drain from the Sierra Nevada eastward, including the Walker and Carson rivers. All of these rivers are endorheic basins, ending in Walker Lake, Pyramid Lake, the Carson Sink, respectively. However, not all of Nevada is within the Great Basin.
Tributaries of the Snake River drain the far north, while the Colorado River, which forms much of the boundary with Arizona, drains much of southern Nevada. The mountain ranges, some of which have peaks above 13,000 feet, harbor lush forests high above desert plains, creating sky islands for endemic species; the valleys are no lower in elevation than 3,000 feet, while some in central Nevada are above 6,000 feet. The southern third of the state, where the Las Vegas area is situated, is within the Mojave Desert; the area is closer to the Arizona Monsoon in the summer. The terrain is lower below 4,000 feet, creating conditions for hot summer days and cool to chilly winter nights. Nevada and California have by far the longest diagonal line as a state boundary at just over 400 miles; this line begins in Lake Tahoe nearly