Shunyi District is an administrative district of Beijing, located to the northeast of the city's urban core. As of 2014, the population of the district is around 983,000, of which 601,000 have local residency permits; the Beijing Capital International Airport is located in the geographical boundaries of the district, though it is technically under the jurisdiction of Chaoyang district. Shunyi borders the Beijing districts of Pinggu to the east, Tongzhou to the south, Chaoyang to the southwest, Changping to the west, Huairou to the north, Miyun to the northeast, as well as Hebei province to the southeast. Shunyi has large communities of foreign expatriates. Shunyi District has an area of 1,020 square kilometres and a long-term resident population of 983,000 as of 2013; the district is divided into 5 subdistricts of the city of Shunyi, the Airport subdistrict, 19 towns. The urban area of Shunyi has an area of 19 km2 and has an estimated urban area population of 190,000. Other important urban areas are Tianzhu/Jichang, Houshayu and Mapo.
The Tianzhu Development Zone region abutting the airport to the west contains the largest international exhibition centre in China, the New China International Exhibition Center. The International School of Beijing is located in Shunyi District in the region known as the "Beijing Central Villas District" - the area to the south of the new International Exhibition Centre - and more just north of Yosemite Villas. Across the road from ISB is the new campus of the British School of Beijing which moved to this location during the summer of 2009. From west to east, the villas include EuroVillage, River Garden, Le Leman Lake, Capital Paradise, Gahood and Dragon Bay Villa and Rose & Gingko. In addition to having many different housing complexes there are several small shopping malls nearby including Europlaza, Pinnacle Plaza and Lakeview; the Beijing 2008 Olympics rowing and kayaking events were held at the newly built Shunyi Olympic Rowing-Canoeing Park. When Beijing Capital International Airport was first built, Shunyi was a subdistrict of Chaoyang.
When Shunyi was promoted to full districtship, Chaoyang maintained direct control over the airport, so although the airport is surrounded by Shunyi district, it is not administratively in Shunyi. There are 6 subdistricts and 19 towns with 7 towns of which carry the "area" label within the district: The district is linked to the city proper through a series of arterial roads; the Northern Approach Route of the Airport Expressway passes through Shunyi District. Shunyi district is served by Line 15 of the Beijing Subway; the urban center of Shunyi is near the north-eastern 6th Ring Road. Shunyi is served by two metro lines operated by Beijing Subway: Line 15 - China International Exhibition Center, Houshayu, Shimen, Fengbo Airport Express - Terminal 3 In 2017,the regional GDP of the district is 171.59 billion yuan,with GDP per capita at 152.1 thousand yuan. Air China has its headquarters in Zone A of the Tianzhu Airport Industrial Zone in the Shunyi District. Okay Airways has its headquarters in a separate Air China facility.
Beijing Hyundai Motor Company, a joint-venture with Korean auto manufacturer Hyundai Motor Company and the Beijing Automotive Industry Holding Co. has its head office and factory in the Linhe Industrial Development Zone in Shunyi District. Ritchie Bros Auctioneers Co. Ltd. a subsidiary of Ritchie Bros. Auctioneers of Canada, is an investor in the Tianzhu Free Trade Zone and is the first wholly foreign-owned auction company in China; the warehouse of the Embassy of the United States, Beijing is located in the Beijing Tianzhu Airport Industrial Zone in Shunyi. Public high schools: Beijing Shunyi District No. 1 High School Niulanshan No.1 High School Beijing Shunyi District Yangzhen No. 1 Middle School International schools located in Shunyi District include: International School of Beijing Shunyi Campus The British School of Beijing, Shunyi Dulwich College Beijing - Legend Garden Campus and Legend Early Years Campus International Montessori School of Beijing River Garden Campus and Champagne Cove Campus Beijing New Talent Academy Beijing International Bilingual Academy Springboard International Bilingual SchoolClosed: Swedish School Beijing - Gahood Villa Beijing REGO British School Pinnacle Plaza China International Exhibition Center Shunyi Olympic Rowing-Canoeing Park Greenshunyi Newshunyi
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
Chaoyang District, Beijing
Chaoyang District is a core district of Beijing. It borders the districts of Shunyi to the northeast, Tongzhou to the east and southeast, Daxing to the south, Fengtai to the southwest, Dongcheng and Haidian to the west, Changping to the northwest. Chaoyang is home to the majority of Beijing's many foreign embassies, the well-known Sanlitun bar street, as well as Beijing's growing central business district; the Olympic Green, built for the 2008 Summer Olympics, is in Chaoyang. Chaoyang extends west to Chaoyangmen on the eastern 2nd Ring Road, nearly as far east as the Ximazhuang toll station on the Jingtong Expressway. Within the urban area of Beijing, it occupies 475 square kilometres, making it the central city's largest district, with Haidian second; as of 2005, Chaoyang had a total population of 3,642,000, making it the most populous district in Beijing. The district has jurisdiction over 20 area offices. Chaoyang is home to Silk Street, many other market areas, shopping malls, restaurant strips.
Chaoyang is divided into 24 subdistricts, 19 townships of which carry the "area" label: The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Culture are headquartered in the district. In 2017,the regional GDP of the district is 563.55 billion yuan, with GDP per capita at 150.7 thousand yuan. China National Aviation Holdings Company, SOHO China, CITIC Group, Qihoo 360, Beijing Capital Airlines have their headquarters in Chaoyang District. Renren Inc. has its headquarters on the 23rd floor of the Jing An Center in Chaoyang District. Wanda Group has its headquarters in the Wanda Plaza. Wanda Cinemas is headquartered in the same complex. China Resources Beverage, the distributor of C'estbon water, has its north China regional office in the district. According to Chaoyang's official website, the district "is home to more than 60 percent of the foreign business agencies in Beijing, over 3,000 foreign companies, 167 international news agencies, two-thirds of the 158 of the global top 500 transnational companies that have invested in Beijing."
Some of these are: ABB Group, Air France, All Nippon Airways, Halliburton, IBM, KBR, Kerr-McGee China Petroleum Ltd. Korean Air, Kroll Inc. Lummus Technology, a subsidiary of CB&I, Asiana Airlines, Standard & Poor's, Swire Group, Etihad Airways, EVA Air, Qatar Airways; the Hong Kong-based company Swire Properties has two locations in Chaoyang. Beijing Hyundai Motor Company, a 50–50 joint venture of the Beijing Automotive Industry Holding Co. and Hyundai Motor Company, has its sales offices in the Hyundai Motor Tower in Chaoyang District. Chaoyang serves as Beijing's diplomatic district. All foreign embassies to China are located in the district except for those of Russia and Luxembourg, which are both in Dongcheng. Chaoyang has three embassy areas in the Sanlitun and Liangmahe neighborhoods. Chaoyang District is one of the fastest growing districts in the Beijing Metropolitan Area. There are several subway lines running through the district; the Beijing Capital Airport, although surrounded by the Shunyi District, is an exclave of Chaoyang District.
The municipality as well as the Chinese national government spend a half million USD per day on developing this district. Chaoyang is served by thirteen metro lines of the Beijing Subway: Line 1 – Yong'anli, Guomao 10, Dawanglu 14, Sihui Batong, Sihui East Batong Line 2 – Jianguomen 1, Chaoyangmen 6 Line 5 – Lishuiqiao 13, Lishuiqiao South, Beiyuanlu North, Datunlu East 15, Huixinxijie Beikou, Huixinxijie Nankou 10, Hepingxiqiao Line 6 – Chaoyangmen 2, Hujialou 10, Jintailu 14, Qingnianlu, Huangqu, Caofang Line 7 – Jiulongshan 14, Baiziwan, Nanlouzizhuang, Happy Valley Scenic Area, Jiaohuachang Line 8 – Lincuiqiao, South Gate of Forest Park, Olympic Green 15, Olympic Sports Center, Beitucheng 10, Anhuaqiao Line 10 – Jiandemen, Beitucheng 8, Huixinxijie Nankou 5, Shaoyaoju 13, Sanyuanqiao Airport, Agricultural Exhibition Center, Hujialou 6, Guomao 1, Jinsong, Shilihe 14, Fenzhongsi Line 13 – Lishuiqiao 5, Wangjing West 15, Shaoyaoju 10, Liufang Line 14 – Shilihe 10, Beigongda Ximen, Jiulongshan 7, Dawanglu 1, Jintailu 6, Dongfengbeiqiao, Wangjing South, Wangjing 15, Laiguangying, Shangezhuang Line 15 – Olympic Green 8, Datunlu East 5, Wangjing West 13, Wangjing 14, Maquanying, Sunhe Airport Express – Sanyuanqiao 10, Terminal 2 Batong line – Sihui 1, Sihui East 1, Communication University of China, Guanzhuang, Baliqiao Yizhuang line – Xiaocun, Xiaohongmen University of International Business and Economics Beijing International Studies University Communication University of China Beijing University of Technology No.80 High School of Beijing Beijing Ritan High School High School Attached to Beijing University of Technology Beijing No. 17 High School Beijing No. 94 High School Beijing Chen Jing Lun High School Beijing Hepingjie No.1 Middle School (北京
Beijing Capital International Airport
Beijing Capital International Airport is the main international airport serving Beijing. It is located 32 km northeast of Beijing's city centre, in an enclave of Chaoyang District and the surroundings of that enclave in suburban Shunyi District; the airport is owned and operated by the Beijing Capital International Airport Company Limited, a state-controlled company. The airport's IATA Airport code, PEK, is based on Peking. Beijing Capital has ascended in rankings of the world's busiest airports in the past decade, it had become the busiest airport in Asia in terms of passenger traffic and total traffic movements by 2009. It has been the world's second busiest airport in terms of passenger traffic since 2010; the airport registered 557,167 aircraft movements, ranking 6th in the world in 2012. In terms of cargo traffic, Beijing airport has witnessed rapid growth. By 2012, the airport had become the 13th busiest airport in the world by cargo traffic, registering 1,787,027 tons. Beijing Airport was opened on 2 March 1958.
The airport consisted of one small terminal building, which still stands to this day for the use of VIPs and charter flights. On 1 January 1980, a newer, larger Terminal 1 – green in colour – opened, with docks for 10 to 12 aircraft; the terminal was larger than the one built in the 1950s, but by the mid-1990s, its size became inadequate. The first International flight to China and Beijing Capital International Airport was of Pakistan International Airlines from Islamabad. In late 1999, to mark the 50th anniversary of the founding of the PRC, the airport experienced a new round of expansion as Terminal 2 opened on 1 November of that year. Terminal 1 was temporarily closed for renovation after the opening of Terminal 2. 20 September 2004 saw the opening of a renovated Terminal 1, which at that time handled China Southern Airlines' domestic and international flights from Beijing. Other airlines' domestic and international flights still operated in Terminal 2. Another round of expansion started in 2007.
A third runway opened on 29 October 2007. Terminal 3 was completed in time for the Beijing Olympics; this colossal expansion included a rail link to the city-center. At its opening, the new Terminal 3 was the largest man made structure in the world in terms of area covered, a major landmark representing Beijing as the growing and developing Chinese capital; the expansion was funded by a 30 billion yen loan from Japan and a 500-million-euro loan from the European Investment Bank. The loan is the largest granted by the EIB in Asia. Fresh from hosting the 2008 Summer Olympics and adding its new terminal building, Beijing Capital has overtaken Tokyo Haneda to be the busiest airport in Asia based on scheduled seat capacity. Due to limited capacity at Beijing Capital International Airport, a new airport in Daxing is being planned; the project was given final approval on 13 January 2013. Construction began in late 2014 and is expected to be completed in 2019, it is not yet clear. The airport has three terminals.
Terminal 1 serves the domestic routes of its subsidiaries. Terminal 2 serves China Eastern Airlines, SkyTeam. Terminal 3, the newest terminal, serves Air China, Star Alliance, Oneworld members, plus Skyteam members- Alitalia and China Airlines, some other domestic and international flights that do not operate from either Terminals 1 or 2. Terminal 1, with 60,000 m2 of space, opened on 1 January 1980, replaced the smaller existing terminal, in operation since 1958. Terminal 1 was closed for renovation from 1 November 1999 to 20 September 2004, during which all airlines operated from Terminal 2. Featuring 16 gates, it was the operational base for the domestic routes of China Southern Airlines and a few other airlines such as XiamenAir and Chongqing Airlines, was planned to handle domestic traffic excluding those to Hong Kong and Macau. With the opening of Terminal 3, the terminal was closed for light refurbishment, its airlines were moved to Terminal 2 on 20 May 2008. Terminal 1 reopened for a second time on 27 June 2008, became the operational base for all domestic flights operated by the HNA Group including those of Hainan Airlines, Grand China Air, Beijing Capital Airlines and Tianjin Airlines, while all HNA Group's international flights as well as those to Hong Kong and Taiwan remain in Terminal 2.
Terminal 2 opened on 1 November 1999, with a floor area of 336,000 m2. This terminal was used to replace Terminal 1 while the latter was undergoing renovation, cramping all airlines despite being far bigger than Terminal 1, it can handle twenty aircraft at docks connecting directly to the terminal building. Prior to the opening of Terminal 3, all international flights operated from this terminal; this terminal now houses China Eastern Airlines, China Southern Airlines, Hainan Airlines, SkyTeam, Oneworld me
Shanghai Pudong International Airport
Shanghai Pudong International Airport is one of two international airports of Shanghai and a major aviation hub of China. Pudong Airport serves international flights, while the city's other major airport Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport serves domestic and regional flights. Located about 30 kilometres east of the city center, Pudong Airport occupies a 40-square-kilometre site adjacent to the coastline in eastern Pudong; the airport is operated by Shanghai Airport Authority. The airport is the main hub for China Eastern Airlines and Shanghai Airlines, a major international hub for Air China, as well as secondary hub of China Southern Airlines, it is the hub for owned Juneyao Airlines and Spring Airlines, an Asia-Pacific cargo hub for UPS and DHL. The DHL hub, opened in July 2012, is said to be the biggest express hub in Asia. Pudong Airport has two main passenger terminals, flanked on both sides by four operational parallel runways. A third passenger terminal has been planned since 2015, in addition to a satellite terminal and two additional runways, which will raise its annual capacity from 60 million passengers to 80 million, along with the ability to handle six million tons of freight.
Pudong Airport is a fast-growing hub for both cargo traffic. With 3,703,431 metric tons handled in 2017, the airport is the world's third-busiest airport by cargo traffic. Pudong Airport served a total of 70,001,237 passengers in 2017, making it the second-busiest airport in China, fifth-busiest in Asia, the ninth-busiest in the world, it is the busiest international gateway of mainland China, with 35.25 million international passengers. By the end of 2016, Pudong Airport hosted 104 airlines serving more than 210 destinations. Shanghai Pudong is the busiest international hub of China, about half of its total passenger traffic is international. Pudong Airport is connected to Shanghai Hongqiao Airport by Shanghai Metro Line 2 and the Shanghai Maglev Train via Pudong International Airport Station. There are airport buses connecting it with the rest of the city. Prior to the establishment of Pudong International Airport, Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport was the primary airport of Shanghai. During the 1990s, the expansion of Hongqiao Airport to meet growing demand became impossible as the surrounding urban area was developing and an alternative to assume all international flights had to be sought.
After deliberation, the municipal government decided to adopt the suggestion from Professor Chen Jiyu of East China Normal University, who wrote a letter to the Mayor of Shanghai Xu Kuangdi suggesting that the new airport should be constructed on the tidal flats of the south bank of the Yangtze River estuary, on the coast of the Pudong development zone to the east of Shanghai. Construction of the first phase of the new Shanghai Pudong International Airport began in October 1997, took two years to build at a cost of RMB 12 billion, was opened on October 1, 1999 It covers an area of 40 square kilometres and is 30 kilometres from downtown Shanghai; the first phase of the airport has one 4E category runway along with two parallel taxiways, an 800,000-square-metre apron, seventy-six aircraft positions and a 50,000 m2 cargo warehouse. A second runway was opened on March 17, 2005, construction of phase two began in December 2005 and started operation on March 26, 2008, in time for the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics.
In November 2011, Pudong Airport received approval from the national government for a new round of expansion which includes two runways. The 3,800-metre fourth runway, along with an auxiliary taxiway and traffic control facilities, is projected to cost 2.58 billion yuan. The 3,400-metre fifth runway, along with a new traffic tower, will cost 4.65 billion yuan. Construction has doubled the capacity of the airport. Pudong International Airport started the third phase of the Pudong International Airport expansion with the construction on a new south satellite terminal on December 29, 2015; the new satellite terminal will be the world's largest single satellite terminal with a total construction area of 622,000 square meters, larger than the Pudong International Airport T2 terminal building. The satellite terminal is composed of S1 and S2, forming an H-shaped structure, it will have an annual design capacity of 38 million passengers, The total cost of the project is estimated to be about 20.6 billion yuan.
Halls S1 and S2 will have 83 gates. A high capacity People mover connecting T1 to SI and T2 to S2 will be constructed. After the completion of the satellite terminal in 2019, Pudong International Airport will have an annual passenger capacity of 80 million passengers, ranking among the top ten airports in the world; the airport has 70 boarding bridges along with 218 parking positions. Five runways are parallel to the terminals: one 4,000-metre runway with 4E rating, two 3,800-metre runways with 4F rating, two 3,400-metre runways with 4F rating. Pudong airport has 5 runways. Rwy 35L/17R and Rwy 34R/16L are used for landing while Rwy 35R/17L and Rwy 34L/16R are used for takeoff. Runway 15/33 is not in operation. Terminal 1 was opened on October 1999 along with a 4000-metre runway and a cargo hub, it was built to handle the demand for tra