Port of Tianjin
The Port of Tianjin known as the Port of Tanggu, is the largest port in Northern China and the main maritime gateway to Beijing. The name "Tianjin Xingang", which speaking refers only to the main seaport area, is sometimes used to refer to the whole port; the port is on the western shore of the Bohai Bay, centred on the estuary of the Haihe River, 170 km southeast of Beijing and 60 km east of Tianjin city. It is the largest man-made port in mainland China, one of the largest in the world, it covers 121 square kilometers of land surface, with over 31.9 km of quay shoreline and 151 production berths at the end of 2010. Tianjin Port handled 500 million tonnes of cargo and 13 million TEU of containers in 2013, making it the world's fourth largest port by throughput tonnage and the ninth in container throughput; the port trades with more than 600 ports in 180 territories around the world. It is served by over 115 regular container lines. Run by 60 liner companies, including all the top 20 liners. Expansion in the last two decades has been enormous, going from 30 million tonnes of cargo and 490,000 TEU in 1993 to well beyond 400 million tonnes and 10 million TEU in 2012.
Capacity is still increasing at a high rate, with 550–600 Mt of throughput capacity expected by 2015. The port is part of the Binhai New Area district of Tianjin Municipality, the main special economic zone of northern China, it lies directly east of the TEDA; the Port of Tianjin is at the core of the ambitious development program of the BNA and, as part of that plan, the port aims to become the primary logistics and shipping hub of North China. On 12 August 2015, at least two explosions within 30 seconds of each other occurred at a container storage station at the Port of Tianjin in the Binhai New Area of Tianjin, China; the cause of the explosions was not known, but initial reports pointed to an industrial accident. Chinese state media said that at least the initial blast was from unknown hazardous materials in shipping containers at a plant warehouse owned by Ruihai Logistics, a firm specializing in handling hazardous materials; the Port of Tianjin is on the coast of Tianjin Municipality, in the former county of Tanggu, on the coast between the estuaries of the Haihe to the south and the New Yongding River to the north.
To the west, the port borders the city of Tanggu and the TEDA. To the east, the port opens up to the Bohai Bay. Tianjin Port is divided into nine port areas: the three core areas of Beijiang and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the coastal area of Tianjin municipality before development was dominated by mudflats, salt marshes, coastal shallows. This littoral zone is wide and slopes gently: The 0 m isobath extends to 3–8 km from shore at a slope of 0.71–1.28%, the −5 m isobath extends 14–18 km from shore, the −10 m isobath reaches 22–36 km from shore. These features make deep water navigation dependent on extensive dredging, it means that land reclamation is a cost-effective option for construction. Tianjin Port is by necessity man-made through dredging and reclamation; the lower course and estuary of the Haihe is the main stem of a large navigable basin, as well as the westernmost seashore of the North China Plain, there have been major ports on the area at least since the late Eastern Han Dynasty.
The river port at the junction of the Grand Canal served as both an inland port and seaport supplying the northeast border of Chinese states. Since 1153, it was the critical supply hub for. However, it was not until after the conclusion of the Second Opium War in 1860 that the port of Tanggu became an important transshipment center, allowing oceangoing ships to lighter their cargoes to cross the shallow sandbar barring the entrance to Haihe, the Taku Bar. After the Boxer Rebellion, the whole of Tanggu came under foreign occupation, those foreign powers developed an extensive network of quays on the riverside; the capacity of the Tanggu and Tianjin river port was limited, so the Japanese occupation forces started in 1940 the construction of the Tanggu Xingang seaport outside the river estuary. By the end of the war, the new port was incomplete, damage during the Chinese Civil War left it unusable by the time of its capture in 1949; the Communists reconstructed the Tanggu New Port slowly. On 17 October 1952, it reopened for traffic.
At the time, the main channel was dredged to 6 m depth, could handle ships of up to 7,000 DWT and had an annual throughput of only 800,000 tonnes — less than 1/500 of present capacity. The port remained small throughout the Maoist era, although it pioneered the first container routes and dedicated container terminal in China; the export boom that followed the post-1979 Reform and Opening period put enormous pressure on the rickety port infrastructure of China. Congestion became serious enough to force reform by the central government: On 1 June 1984, the Port of Tianjin was transferred from direct control of the Ministry of Communications to a "dual" system of shared central and local control. Production increased in leaps and bounds. In 1988 throughput passed the 20 million tonnes milestone, in the ten years from 1993, annual throughput growth averaged 10 million tonnes every year. In December 2001, th
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
Port of Jebel Ali
Jebel Ali (also sometime written "Mina Jebel Ali" is a deep port located in Jebel Ali, United Arab Emirates. Jebel Ali is the world's ninth busiest port, the largest man-made harbour, the biggest and by far the busiest port in the Middle-East. Port Jebel Ali was constructed in the late 1970s to supplement the facilities at Port Rashid. Jebel Ali port is located 35 km southwest of Dubai, in the Persian Gulf. Jebel Ali Port, credited to the efforts of Rashid bin Saeed Al-Maktoum, was constructed in the late 1970s and opened in 1979 to supplement the facilities at Port Rashid; the village of Jebel Ali was constructed for port workers, it has a population of 300 people. Covering over 134 square kilometres, it is home to over 5,000 companies from 120 countries of the world. With 67 berths and a size of 134.68 square kilometres, Jebel Ali is the world's largest man-made harbour and the biggest port in the Middle-East. The port of Jebel Ali has become the port most visited by ships of the United States Navy outside the United States.
Due to the depth of the harbour and size of the port facilities, a Nimitz-class aircraft carrier and several ships of the accompanying battle group can be accommodated pier-side. Due to the frequency of these port visits, semi-permanent liberty facilities have been erected adjacent to the carrier berth. Port Jebel Ali encompass over one million square metres of container yard, it contains space for medium- and long-term general cargo storage, including seven Dutch barns with a total of 19 thousand square metres and 12 covered sheds covering with 90.5 square metres. In addition, Port Jebel Ali consist of 960 thousand square metres of open storage. Port Jebel Ali is linked to Dubai’s expressway system and to the Dubai International Airport Cargo Village; the Cargo Village facilities capable of handling cargoes, making four-hour transit from ship to aircraft possible. The DPA’s commercial trucking service transport container and general cargo transport between Port Jebel Ali, Port Rashid, the rest of UAE every day.
Jebel Ali port is one of DP World's flagship facilities and have been ranked as 9th in Top Container Port Worldwide having handled 7.62 million TEUs in 2005, which represents a 19% increase in throughput, over 2004. Jebel Ali Port was ranked 7th in the world's largest ports in 2007. Jebel Ali port is managed by state-owned Dubai Ports World; the expansion of Jebel Ali port commenced in 2001, the master plan of the port. The project comprises 15 stages; the stage one was completed in 2007, which has increased the storage and handling capacity by 2.2 million TEUs and a Quay length of 1,200 m. The entire project includes 2.4 km of new berths, the container yard behind the berths and the supporting infrastructure and buildings necessary for a functioning terminal. The new port will be on reclaimed land extending seaward from the existing port and situated to the west of the Jumeirah Palm Island complex; the current plan is expected to multiply the total capacity of Jebel Ali port by more than seven, making it the world’s biggest container port, surpassing the ports of Shanghai and Singapore.
On 9 April 2011 Port of Jebel Ali won the Golden Award for Best Seaport Overall from the Higher Committee for UAE Civil Seaports and Airports Security. List of East Asian ports Dubai Ports World Shipping to Jebel Ali
Port of Hong Kong
The Port of Hong Kong, located by the South China Sea, is a deepwater seaport dominated by trade in containerised manufactured products, to a lesser extent raw materials and passengers. A key factor in the economic development of Hong Kong, the natural shelter and deep waters of Victoria Harbour provide ideal conditions for berthing and the handling of all types of vessels, it is one of the busiest ports in the world, in the three categories of shipping movements, cargo handled and passengers carried. Responsibility for administering the port is vested in the Director of Marine; the Port Operations Committee advises him on all matters affecting the efficient operations of the port, except those matters that are the responsibility of the Pilotage Advisory Committee and the Provisional Local Vessels Advisory Committee. The Hong Kong Maritime and Port Board advises the Government on matters related to port planning and development and promoting Hong Kong as a regional hub port and a leading container port in the world as well as on measures to further develop Hong Kong's maritime industry and to promote Hong Kong's position as an international maritime centre.
The HKMPB replaced the former Hong Kong Maritime Industry Council and Hong Kong Port Development Council and is chaired by the Secretary for Transport and Housing, as they both were. The Marine Department is responsible for ensuring that conditions exist to enable ships to enter the port, work their cargoes and leave as and as safely as possible, it is concerned with many aspects of safety standards for all classes and types of vessels, from the largest oil-carrying tankers to the smallest passenger-carrying sampans. It maintains aids to navigation and mooring buoys for seagoing ships, manages three cross-boundary ferry terminals and administers eight public cargo working areas. Hong Kong is one of several hub ports serving the South-East and East Asia region, is an economic gateway to mainland China. Hong Kong set a record in its container throughput in 2007 by handling 23.9 million TEUs, maintaining its status as the largest container port serving southern China and one of the busiest ports in the world.
Some 456,000 vessels arrived in and departed from Hong Kong during the year, carrying 243 million tonnes of cargo and about 25 million passengers. The average turnaround time for container vessels in Hong Kong is about 10 hours. For conventional vessels working in mid-stream at buoys or anchorages, it is 42 and 52 hours respectively; the port has been one of the busiest container ports in the world for many years, at times the busiest. It was the world's busiest container port from 1987 to 1989, from 1992 to 1997, from 1999 to 2004; the amount of container ships that went through Hong Kong's container port was 25 869 in 2016, with a net register tonnage of 386,853 tonnes in 2016. There are nine container terminals situated at Kwai Chung, Stonecutters Island and Tsing Yi. Substantial container throughput is handled by the River Trade Terminal at Tuen Mun and by mid-stream; the Kwai Tsing Container Terminals, located in the north-western part of the harbour, has nine container terminals with 24 berths of about 8,500 metres of frontage.
It covers a total terminal area of about 2.7 km² which includes container yards and container freight stations. The nine container terminals have a total handling capacity of over 18 million twenty-foot equivalent units; these terminals are operated by five companies, namely: Modern Terminals Ltd. Hongkong International Terminals Ltd. COSCO Information & Technology Ltd. Dubai Port International Terminals Ltd. Asia Container Terminals Ltd; the existing 9 terminals occupy 2.17 square kilometres of land, providing 18 berths and 6,592 metres deep water frontage. These terminals handle about 60% of total container traffic handled in Hong Kong. Planning is underway for a potential Container Terminal 10, with possible sites narrowed down to either southwest Tsing Yi or northwest Lantau, to the west of the airport; the River Trade Terminal at Tuen Mun involves the consolidation of containers, break bulk and bulk cargo shipped between the Hong Kong port and ports in the Pearl River Delta. The terminal is located near Pillar Point in Tuen Mun, New Territories, is operated by River Trade Terminal Company Ltd.
The 65-hectare terminal, completed in November 1999, has about 3,000 metres of quay, according to Hong Kong Port Development Council data. Mid-stream operation involves loading and unloading containers to and from ships while at sea, with barges or dumb steel lighters performing the transfer, distributing or landing the containers to piers nearby. Due to high handling fees at the container terminals, Hong Kong has become the only place in the world with at-sea loading and unloading operations. There are 11 different yard sites for mid-stream operations, occupying a total land area of 27.5 hectares and waterfrontage of 3,197 metres. The Hong Kong-Macau Ferry Terminal between Central and Sheung Wan and the China Ferry Terminal in Tsim Sha Tsui provide centralised ferry services to Macau and 24 ports on mainland China. About 100 vessels high-speed passenger craft such as jetfoils and hoverferries, operate from these terminals. In 2001, over 17 million passengers passed through the terminals, comprising 11.2 million passenger trips to/from Macau and 6.5 million passenger trips to/from mainland ports.
There are over 600 vessels of different sizes in the government fleet. About 152 vessels are major mechanised vessels serving under 16 government departments such as the Marine
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Port of Los Angeles
The Port of Los Angeles called America's Port, is a port complex that occupies 7,500 acres of land and water along 43 miles of waterfront and adjoins the separate Port of Long Beach. The port is located in San Pedro Bay in the San Pedro and Wilmington neighborhoods of Los Angeles 20 miles south of downtown. A department of the City of Los Angeles, the Port of Los Angeles supports employment for 517,000 people throughout the LA County Region and 1.6 million worldwide. The cargo coming into the port represents 20% of all cargo coming into the United States; the Port's Channel Depth is 53 feet. The port has 27 cargo terminals, 86 container cranes, 8 container terminals, 113 miles of on-dock rail; the LA Port imports furniture, electronics, automobile parts, plastics. The Port exports wastepaper and animal feed, scrap metal and soybeans; the port's major trading partners are China, Hong Kong, South Korea and Vietnam. For public safety, the Port of Los Angeles utilizes the Los Angeles Port Police for police service in the port and to its local communities, the Los Angeles Fire Department to provide fire and EMS services to the port and its local communities, the U.
S. Coast Guard for water way security at the port, Homeland Security to protect federal land at the port, the Los Angeles County Lifeguards to provide lifeguard services for open water outside the harbor while Los Angeles City Recreation & Parks Department lifeguards patrol the inner Cabrillo Beach. In 1542, Juan Rodriquez Cabrillo discovered the "Bay of Smokes." The south-facing San Pedro Bay was a shallow mudflat, too soft to support a wharf. Visiting ships had two choices: stay far out at anchor and have their goods and passengers ferried to shore, or beach themselves; that sticky process is described in Two Years Before the Mast by Richard Henry Dana, Jr., a crew member on an 1834 voyage that visited San Pedro Bay. Phineas Banning improved shipping when he dredged the channel to Wilmington in 1871 to a depth of 10 feet; the port handled 50,000 tons of shipping that year. Banning owned a stagecoach line with routes connecting San Pedro to Salt Lake City and Yuma, in 1868 he built a railroad to connect San Pedro Bay to Los Angeles, the first in the area.
After Banning's death in 1885, his sons pursued their interests in promoting the port, which handled 500,000 tons of shipping in that year. The Southern Pacific Railroad and Collis P. Huntington wanted to create Port Los Angeles at Santa Monica and built the Long Wharf there in 1893. However, the Los Angeles Times publisher Harrison Gray Otis and U. S. Senator Stephen White pushed for federal support of the Port of Los Angeles at San Pedro Bay; the Free Harbor Fight was settled when San Pedro was endorsed in 1897 by a commission headed by Rear Admiral John C. Walker. With U. S. government support, breakwater construction began in 1899, the area was annexed to Los Angeles in 1909. The Los Angeles Board of Harbor Commissioners was founded in 1907. In 1912 the Southern Pacific Railroad completed its first major wharf at the port. During the 1920s, the port surpassed San Francisco as the West Coast's busiest seaport. In the early 1930s, a massive expansion of the port was undertaken with the construction of a breakwater three miles out and over two miles in length.
In addition to the construction of this outer breakwater, an inner breakwater was built off Terminal Island with docks for seagoing ships and smaller docks built at Long Beach. It was this improved harbor. During World War II, the port was used for shipbuilding, employing more than 90,000 people. In 1959, Matson Navigation Company's Hawaiian Merchant delivered 20 containers to the port, beginning the port's shift to containerization; the opening of the Vincent Thomas Bridge in 1963 improved access to Terminal Island and allowed increased traffic and further expansion of the port. In 1985, the port handled one million containers in a year for the first time. In 2000, the Pier 400 Dredging and Landfill Program, the largest such project in America, was completed. By 2013, more than half a million containers were moving through the Port every month. Since 2018, the SpaceX BFR, designed for human missions to Mars, is being produced in a factory at the port; the port district is an independent, self-supporting department of the government of the City of Los Angeles.
The port is under the control of a five-member Board of Harbor Commissioners appointed by the mayor and approved by the city council, is administered by an executive director. The port maintains the highest rating attainable for self-funded ports; the port has about a dozen pilots, including two chiefs. Pilots have specialized knowledge of San Pedro Bay, they meet the ships waiting to enter the harbor and provide advice as the vessel is steered through the congested waterway to the dock. The port's container volume was 9.3 million twenty-foot equivalent units in calendar year 2017, a 5.5% increase over 2016's record-breaking year of 8.8 million TEU. It's the most cargo moved annually by a Western Hemisphere port; the port is the busiest port in the United States by container volume, the 19th-busiest container port in the world, the 10th-busiest worldwide when combined with the neighboring Port of Long Beach. The port is the number-one freight gateway in the United States when ranked by the value of shipments passing through it.
The port's top trading partners in 2016 were: China/Hong Kong Japan Vietnam South Korea Tai