Rhodes University is a public research university located in Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. It is one of four universities in the province. Established in 1904, Rhodes University is the province's oldest university, it is the fifth or sixth oldest South African university in continuous operation, being preceded by the University of the Free State, University of Witwatersrand, Stellenbosch University and the University of Cape Town. Rhodes was founded in 1904 as Rhodes University College, named after Cecil Rhodes, through a grant from the Rhodes Trust, it became a constituent college of the University of South Africa in 1918 before becoming an independent university in 1951. The university had an enrolment of over 8,000 students in the 2015 academic year, of whom just over 3,600 lived in 51 residences on campus, with the rest taking residence in digs or in their own homes in the town. Although a proposal to found a university in Grahamstown had been made as early as 1902, financial problems caused by the Frontier Wars in the Eastern Cape prevented the proposal from being implemented.
In 1904 Leander Starr Jameson issued £50 000 preferred stock to the university from the Rhodes Trust. With this funding Rhodes University College was founded by an act of parliament on 31 May 1904. University education in the Eastern Cape began in the college departments of four schools: St. Andrew's College; the four St Andrew's College professors, Arthur Matthews, George Cory, Stanley Kidd and G. F Dingemans became founding professors of Rhodes University College. At the beginning of 1905, Rhodes moved from cramped quarters at St Andrew's to the Drostdy building, which it bought from the British Government. Rhodes became a constituent college of the new University of South Africa in 1918 and it continued to expand in size; when the future of the University of South Africa came under review in 1947, Rhodes opted to become an independent university. Rhodes University was inaugurated on 10 March 1951. Sir Basil Schonland, son of Selmar Schonland, became the first Chancellor of his alma mater, Dr. Thomas Alty the first Vice-Chancellor.
In terms of the Rhodes University Private Act, the University College of Fort Hare was affiliated to Rhodes University. This mutually beneficial arrangement continued until the apartheid government decided to disaffiliate Fort Hare from Rhodes; the Rhodes Senate and Council objected to this, to the Separate University Education Bill, which they condemned as interference with academic freedom. However, the two bills were passed, Fort Hare's affiliation to Rhodes came to an end in 1959. In 1962 an honorary doctorate was conferred on the State President C. R. Swart, responsible for the repression of opposition political organisations; the award caused the resignation of the Chancellor, Sir Basil Schonland, although his reasons were not made public at the time. James Hyslop succeeded Alty in 1963. In 1971, Rhodes negotiated to purchase the closed teacher training college run by the sisters of the Community of the Resurrection of our Lord including the buildings and grounds and a number of adjacent buildings, facilitating further expansion.
During 2008 work began on construction of a new library building at a cost of R85 million, one of the largest infrastructure projects undertaken by the university, was completed in 2010. Rhodes has six faculties, listed below: Humanities Commerce Law Science Education PharmacyThe six faculties are further subdivided into 30 academic departments, of which 11 form part of the humanities faculty; the humanities faculty, being the largest in the university, consists of 40% of the student intake of undergraduate and postgraduate studies, enrolling 2669 students as of 2009. Rhodes University operates a Law Clinic, which operates as a firm of attorneys providing training to law students and free legal services for indigent people; the Law Clinic operates from one in Grahamstown and one in Queenstown. The Law Clinic came to national attention in July 2013 when it represented 15 members of Nelson Mandela's family in their litigation against Mandla Mandela concerning the location of family grave sites.
Rhodes is a small residential university. For most undergraduates and second years of study are done while living in campus residences. Rhodes' academic program operates on a semester calendar, beginning in early-February to early-June, the second semester beginning in late-July and ending late-November. Undergraduate tuition for the first year of study in 2011 towards a bachelor of arts and bachelor of science degree was R26,590 and R27,720 and the cost of board was between R35,700 and R37,600. Rhodes admitted 1592 students in 2012; the tables below show the gender composition of the university for that year. Rhodes holds fourteen of the national research chairs appointed under the South African Research Chairs Initiative; this accounts for 7% of the total awarded nationally in South Africa, a significant proportion given the University's small size. Critical Studies in Sexualities and Reproduction: Human and Social Dynamics Marine Ecosystems Radio Astronomy Techniques and Technologies Medicinal Chemistry and Nanotechnology Mathematics Education Numeracy Intellectualisation of African Languages and Education Insects in Sustainable Agricultural Ecosystems Interdisciplinary Science in Land and Natural Resource Use for Su
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology is a university in Kumasi, Ghana. The Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology is the public university established in the country, as well as the largest university in the Kumasi Metropolis and in the Ashanti Region. KNUST has its roots in the plans of the King Asantehene Agyeman Prempeh I to establish a university in Kumasi as part of his drive towards modernization of his Ashanti kingdom; this plan never came to fruition due to the clash between British empire expansion and the desire for King Prempeh I to preserve his Ashanti kingdom's independence. However, his younger brother and successor, King Asantehene Agyeman Prempeh II, upon ascending to the Golden Stool in 1935, continued with this vision. Events in the Gold Coast in the 1940s played into his hands. First there was the establishment of the University College of the Gold Coast. Second there were the 1948 riots and the consequent Watson Commission report which recommended that a university of sciences be established in Kumasi.
Thus, in 1949, the dream of the Prempehs became a reality when building started on what was to be called the Kumasi College of Technology. The Kumasi College of Technology offered admission to its first students to the engineering faculty in 1951, an Act of Parliament gave the university its legal basis as the Kumasi College of Technology in 1952; the nucleus of the college was formed from 200 teacher training students transferred from Achimota bin the Greater Accra Region. The college was affiliated to the University of London. In 1961, the college was granted full university status; the main university campus, about seven square miles in area, is about eight miles to the east of Kumasi, the Ashanti Regional capital. The Kumasi College of Technology opened on 22 January 1952 with 200 teacher training students transferred from Achimota, to form the nucleus of the new college. In October 1952, the School of Engineering and the Department of Commerce were established and the first students were admitted.
A Pharmacy Department was established in January 1953, with the transfer of the former School of Pharmacy from Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, to the college. The department ran a two-year comprehensive course in Pharmacy leading to the award of the Pharmacy Board Certificate. A Department of Agriculture was opened in the same year to provide ad hoc courses of varying duration, from a few terms to three years, for the Ministry of Agriculture. A Department of General Studies was instituted to prepare students for the Higher School Certificate Examinations in Science and Arts subjects and to give instruction in subjects as requested by the other departments. From 1952 to 1955, the School of Engineering prepared students for professional qualifications only. In 1955, the school embarked on courses leading to the University of London Bachelor of Engineering External Degree Examinations. In 1957, the School of Architecture, Town Planning and Building was inaugurated, its first students were admitted for professional courses.
As the college expanded, it was decided to make the Kumasi College of Technology a purely science and technology institution. In pursuit of this policy, the Teacher Training College, with the exception of the Art School, was transferred in January 1958, to the Winneba Training College. In December 1960, the Government of Ghana appointed a University Commission to advise it on the development of university education, in connection with the proposal to transform the University College of Ghana and the Kumasi College of Technology into an independent University of Ghana. Following the report of the commission which came out early 1961, the government decided to establish two independent universities in Kumasi and Legon, Accra; the Kumasi College of Technology was thus transformed, under the supervision of R. P. Baffour, into a full-fledged University Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology by an Act of Parliament on 22 August 1961; the name honors Kwame Nkrumah, the first prime minister and president of Ghana.
The name was changed to University of Science and Technology after the Revolution of 24 February 1966. The University of Science and Technology was inaugurated on Wednesday, 20 November 1961. However, another act of Parliament changed the name back to its original version, the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi; the principal officers of the university are the chancellor, chairman of the University Council and vice-chancellor. As of 2018, the position of chancellor was held by the Asantehene Otumfuo Osei Tutu II. Governance is carried out by the University Council through the Academic Board, responsible for: formulating and carrying out the academic policy of the university devising and regulating the courses of instruction and study, supervising research regulating the conduct of examinations and the award of degrees and certificates advising the University Council on the admission of students and the award of scholarships reporting on such matters as may be referred to it by the University Council Students participate in the administration of the university through their representatives serving on the University Council, Academic Board, the Welfare Services Board and Departmental Boards, Residence Committee, Library Committee and on the Hall Councils.
KNUST has, since January 2005, transformed from its previous centralized system of administration into a decentralized collegiate university. Under this system, the faculties have been condensed into six colleges; the universit
Enugu is the capital of Enugu State in Nigeria. It is located in southeastern Nigeria; the city had a population of 722,664 according to the 2006 Nigerian census. The name Enugu is derived from the two Igbo words Énú Ụ́gwụ́ meaning "hill top" denoting the city's hilly geography; the city was named after Enugwu Ngwo. Since the 17th century the location of present-day Enugu has been inhabited by the Nike subgroup of the Igbo people. In 1900 the Southern Nigeria Protectorate was established by the colonial administration of the British Empire; the discovery of coal by the colonialists led to the building of the Eastern Line railway to carry coal from the inland city to the port of Port Harcourt, a city created for this purpose located 151 miles south of what was called Enugu Coal Camp. Enugu was renamed Enugu and developed as one of the few cities in West Africa created from European contact. By 1958 Enugu had over 8,000 coal miners; as of 2005 there are no significant coal mining activities left in the city.
Enugu became the capital of the Eastern Region after Nigeria's independence in 1960. On 30 May 1967 Enugu was declared the capital of the short-lived Republic of Biafra. After Enugu was captured by the Nigerian armed forces, the Biafran capital was moved to Umuahia. Industries in the city include bottling industries. Enugu is one of the filming locations for directors of the Nigerian movie industry, dubbed "Nollywood". Enugu's main airport is the Akanu Ibiam International Airport; the main educational establishment in the city is the Enugu campus of the University of Nigeria based in Nsukka, a town north of Enugu and in the same state. The first settlement in the Enugu area was the small Nike village of Ogui, present since the era of the Atlantic Slave Trade. Nike in the Igbo language means "with strength or power." It was through slave raiding that the Nike people acquired most of their lands, which were unsettled. The Nike used slaves for a defence strategy, placing slave camps at the edge of their territories so that it was harder for an enemy to access the free born.
The Nike people were allied to the Aro people who formed the Aro Confederacy, an Igbo organisation that controlled slave trading in the Enugu area. Along with the Aro people who came to trade from Arochukwu in the south were the Hausa people who came to trade from the north; the Hausa traders provided horses to the Nike. Both the Aro and Hausa migrated back and forth to what is now the city of Enugu and were considered foreigners to the area. A British campaign to invade Arochukwu and open up the hinterland for British military and political rule was carried out in 1901. A war between the British and Aro started on 1 December 1901 lasting till 24 March 1902 when the Aro were defeated; the Aro Confederacy ended and the rest of Aro dominated areas was added to The Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria, declared in 1900. Europeans first arrived in the Enugu area in 1903 when the British/Australian geologist Albert Ernest Kitson led an exploration of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate to search for valued mineral resources under the supervision of the Imperial Institute, London.
By 1909 coal was found under the village of Enugwu Ngwo in the Udi and Okoga areas and by 1913 the coal was confirmed to be in quantities that would be viable commercially. By 1914 the colonial government had merged the Northern and Southern Nigeria Protectorate to form the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. In 1915 the British began talks with the indigenous people of the land that would become Enugu about its acquisition in order to lay the Eastern Line railway and to build a colliery; the first houses built in the area were in a temporary settlement consisting of Igbo traditional mud housing inhabited by a W. J. Leck and some other Europeans on Milliken Hill. Another settlement known as Ugwu Alfred or "Alfred's Camp", inhabited by an Alfred Inoma and his labourers, was located on a hillside. After the land acquisition by the British, Frederick Lugard, the Governor-General of Nigeria at the time, named the colliery built at the bottom of the Udi Hills Enugu Coal Camp to distinguish it from Enugwu Ngwo which overlooks the city from atop a scarp on Enugu's west.
The first coal mine in the Enugu area was the Udi mine opened in 1915, shut down two years and replaced with the Iva Valley mine. Enugu became the only significant one in West Africa; the Eastern Line railway connecting Enugu with Port Harcourt was completed in 1916 in order to export the coal through its seaport of which the city was created for this purpose. Enugu became one of the few cities in West Africa created out of contact with Europeans. By 1916 parts of Enugu reserved for Europeans were set up by the colonial government; the area now known as the Government Reserved Area became the European Quarters located north of the Ogbete River. The built-up area of Enugu comprised these two areas, by 1917 the city gained township status. On the African side of the city a rapid influx of migrant workers sparked the development of squatter camps on the Udi Hills near the coal mines and the Iva Valley. In 1938 Enugu became the administrative capital of the Eastern Region; the number of employed co
Lagos Business School
Lagos Business School is the graduate business school of the Pan-Atlantic University, Nigeria. LBS offers academic programmes, executive programmes and short focused programmes in Management that have been ranked among the best in Africa; the LBS main campus is located in Lagos. The school was established in 1991, is committed to teaching management with a humanistic approach, delivering general management education to high potential professionals, across all levels in organisations, in a wide range of industry sectors; the ultimate vision of the school is to be recognised as the world’s top business school operating out of an emerging market, to be the business school with the greatest impact on the knowledge and practice of management in Africa. A premier business school in Africa’s largest country, LBS is uniquely positioned to develop visionary business leaders capable of maximising the high growth opportunities in key industry sectors to move Africa to economic prosperity. Over the years, LBS has collaborated with other business schools in Africa and around the world on programmes to develop responsible business leaders for Africa and the world.
LBS is a member of the Association of African Business Schools, the Global Business School Network, the Principles for Responsible Management Education and AACSB International – Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. For 12 consecutive years, LBS has been ranked among the top business schools in open enrolment executive education and for three years in the custom executive education by the Financial Times of London, it is the first institution in West Africa to appear on this list. On 1 December 2016, LBS received accreditation from AACSB, becoming the first institution in West Africa to be thus accredited. Lagos Business School proved its standards in management education as the International Accreditation Advisory Board of the Association of MBAs accredited the MBA programmes offered by the school on 8 December 2016. LBS has been ranked every year since 2007 by the Financial Times of London among the top 70 business schools in the world in the area of open enrollment executive education and custom executive education.
LBS is one of only four schools in Africa to appear on the list. LBS is in relationship with top multinationals in Africa. In January 2017, LBS joined 220 other leading business schools across the globe to become an affiliate of the Graduate Management Admission Council, a non-profit organisation of leading graduate business schools in the world, owner and administrator of the GMAT exam. By virtue of its AACSB accreditation, LBS became a member of the MBA Career Services & Employer Alliance in September 2017. Membership of the global body provided LBS access to tools and opportunities to build relationships with MBA/graduate business career centers and employers. LBS is in partnership with international business schools, with which it carries out periodic exchange programmes, they include: IESE Business School – Spain IESEG School of Management – France IPADE Business School – Mexico Nanyang Business School – Singapore Strathmore Business School – Kenya University of Cape Town Graduate School of Business – South Africa University of Stellenbosch Business School – South Africa Full-time MBA Executive MBA Modular Executive MBA Lagos Business School offers a range of programmes designed for professionals who are keen on improving their performance and transforming their leadership model for optimum results.
Drawing over 3,000 participants from multinational and indigenous companies yearly, these programmes are lauded for transferring practical knowledge through expert teaching. These classes are taught by full-time faculty; the open enrollment programmes are: Chief Executive Programme Advanced Management Programme Senior Management Programme Owner Manager Programme Agribusiness Management Programme Management Acceleration Programme Open Seminars Customised Programmes LBS, through its specialised centres, provides platforms for players across sectors to build capacity and implement strategies all in line with the goal of impacting management practice across Africa and beyond. Christopher Kolade Centre for Research in Leadership and Ethics LBS Sustainability Centre Centre for Infrastructure Policy Regulation and AdvancementIn line with the vision of developing responsible leaders, the LBS Young Talent Programme is for high-performing graduates and undergraduates; the objective is to build a pipeline of bright academics for the African continent.
University of South Africa
The University of South Africa, colloquially Unisa, is the largest university system in both South Africa and Africa by enrollment. It attracts a third of all higher education students in South Africa. Through various colleges and affiliates, UNISA has over 300,000 students, including international students from 130 countries worldwide, making it one of the world's mega universities and the only such university in Africa; as a comprehensive university, Unisa offers both vocational and academic programmes, many of which have received international accreditation, as well as an extensive geographical footprint, giving their students recognition and employability in many countries the world over. Founded in 1873 as the University of the Cape of Good Hope, the University of South Africa spent most of its early history as an examining agency for Oxford and Cambridge universities and as an incubator from which most other universities in South Africa are descended. In 1946, it was given a new role as a distance education university and today it offers certificate and degree courses up to doctoral level.
In January 2004, Unisa merged with Technikon Southern Africa and incorporated the distance education component of Vista University. The combined institution retained the name University of South Africa, it is now organised by school. Unisa's Muckleneuk Campus is a major landmark of the capital city, it was in 1972 that Unisa moved into its new home on Muckleneuk Ridge having vacated the old quarters in central Pretoria. The complex of buildings was designed by Bryan Sandrock Architects in the 1960s and expresses an international style characterised by monumental proportions and engineering feats like the cantilevered structures; the most striking feature is the long projection from the brow of the hill, supported by a giant steel girder resting on a massive column. In Pretoria is the Sunnyside campus, the main area of student activity; the Florida campus in Johannesburg is Unisa's science campus. The College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences and some departments of the College of Science and Technology is housed here.
The science campus contains a library, two auditoriums and a large study area. It includes a horticultural centre and a multipurpose research and training facility designed to meet the education and research needs of students in a range of programmes including agriculture, ornamental horticulture and nature conservation; the university has seven regional centres in servicing students in all nine provinces. These are: Eastern Cape Gauteng Kwazulu-Natal Limpopo Province Midlands Mpumalanga Western Cape According to data extracted from the final audited Higher Education Management Information System submissions to the Department of Higher Education and Training, Unisa had 355,240 students enrolled in 2013 from South Africa and other international states; the largest portion of these students are South African, being 91.4% of the sum of the student enrollments. The College of Economic and Management Sciences is the largest of the eight colleges, with 26.7% of the total student enrollments. According to the same HEMIS submission, Unisa had 5,575 staff members in 2013.
The staff complement consisted of 2,593 males. 2011 figures from the Department of Institutional Statistics and Analysis at the university show that the majority of the staff employed are non-professional administrative staff, being 56.8%. The number of institutional/research professionals are 33.2% of the sum of the staff employed. As one of the world's mega universities, Unisa presents academic offerings associated with both technological and traditional universities; these include, but are not limited to, a combination of career-orientated courses associated with a university of technology, formative academic programmes linked to a traditional university. College of Accounting Sciences College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences College of Education College of Economic and Management Sciences College of Graduate Studies College of Human Sciences College of Law College of Science and Technology Graduate School of Business Leadership In addition to the eight colleges and SBL, Unisa has numerous bureaus, institutes and units supporting academic development and research.
In 2015, the University of South Africa was ranked the 6th best university in South Africa by the Times Higher Education. This makes the university the 6th best university in Africa, out of 30. Unisa received a Royal Charter in 1877, it operates under the Statute of the University of South Africa issued in terms of the Higher Education Act, is accredited by the South African Department of Education and the Council on Higher Education. Its qualifications are registered with the South African Qualifications Authority. Unisa is inter alia listed in the following publications: International Handbook of Universities published by the United Nations Education and Cultural Organization and verified by the International Association of Universities. In other cases the publication of an institution’s name in specific authoritative publications forms the basis of accreditation. Students must
Morogoro is a town with a population of 315,866 in the eastern part of Tanzania, 196 kilometres west of Dar es Salaam, the country's largest city and commercial centre, 260 kilometres east of Dodoma, the country's capital city. Morogoro is the capital of the Morogoro Region, it is known informally as "Mji kasoro bahari", which translates as "city short of an ocean/port". Morogoro is a centre of agriculture in the region; the Sokoine University of Agriculture is based in the city. A number of missions are located in the city, providing schools and hospitals. Morogoro is the home of Salim Abdullah, the founder of the Cuban Marimba jazz band, the Morogoro Jazz Band, another well-known band established in 1944. From the mid-1960s to the 1970s, Morogoro was home to one of Tanzania's most influential and celebrated musicians, Mbaraka Mwinshehe, a lead guitarist and singer-songwriter. Morogoro is home to the Amani Centre, which has helped over 3,400 disabled people in the surrounding villages. Morogoro is served by a station on the Central Railway of Tanzania Railways.
In 2017, a new station on the standard gauge railway was proposed. Public transport buses called dala dala are available for transport within the town, the fare are most around Tsh 400 from town to nearby area Eighty percent of the Morogoro's water supply comes from the Mindu Dam on the Ngerengere River; the dam project, begun in 1978, has been controversial. The lake behind the dam has led to high rates of bilharzia infection, mercury run-off from gold mining nearby the dam has polluted the city's water supply; the dam is being silted due to deforestation in the surrounding areas. In 2012-13 a $8.31m USAID/MCC-funded programme was implemented for the Morogoro Water Supply Authority to rehabilitate drinking water resources from the Uluguru Mountains with an inlet and treatment plant near the Regional Governance offices at the high end of the Boma Road. Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro Muslim University, st Joseph and Jordan University College are located in Morogoro. Mzumbe University is located 26 km south of the town on the highway to Iringa.
There are other famous colleges like Ardhi Institute Morogoro, Morogoro Teachers College, LITI. One of the oldest secondary schools in the country, Kilakala Girls High School, is found in the municipality. Other secondary schools within the municipality are Morogoro Secondary School, Forest Hill Secondary, Jabal Hira Muslim Secondary, Kigurunyembe Secondary, Lutheran Junior Seminary, Lupanga Practising Secondary School; the city is represented in the Tanzanian Premier League by football club Mtibwa Sugar F. C; the city of Milwaukee in the state of Wisconsin in the United States is a sister city of Morogoro as designated by Sister Cities International. Morogoro is twinned with Linköping in Sweden and Vaasa in Finland. Media related to Morogoro at Wikimedia Commons
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent, being behind Asia in both categories. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west; the continent includes various archipelagos. It contains 54 recognised sovereign states, nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition; the majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Africa's average population is the youngest amongst all the continents. Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, Nigeria is its largest by population. Africa central Eastern Africa, is accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade, as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors as well as ones that have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster—the earliest Homo sapiens, found in Ethiopia, date to circa 200,000 years ago.
Africa encompasses numerous climate areas. Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities and languages. In the late 19th century, European countries colonised all of Africa. African nations cooperate through the establishment of the African Union, headquartered in Addis Ababa. Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of then-known northern Africa to the west of the Nile river, in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean; this name seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe, an ancestor of modern Berbers. The name had been connected with the Phoenician word ʿafar meaning "dust", but a 1981 hypothesis has asserted that it stems from the Berber word ifri meaning "cave", in reference to cave dwellers; the same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, a Berber tribe from Yafran in northwestern Libya. Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province it named Africa Proconsularis, following its defeat of the Carthaginians in the Third Punic War in 146 BC, which included the coastal part of modern Libya.
The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land. The Muslim region of Ifriqiya, following its conquest of the Byzantine Empire's Exarchatus Africae preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while "Asia" was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east. A definite line was drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy, indicating Alexandria along the Prime Meridian and making the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between Asia and Africa; as Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of "Africa" expanded with their knowledge. Other etymological hypotheses have been postulated for the ancient name "Africa": The 1st-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus asserted that it was named for Epher, grandson of Abraham according to Gen. 25:4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya. Isidore of Seville in his 7th-century Etymologiae XIV.5.2. Suggests "Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning "sunny".
Massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning "to turn toward the opening of the Ka." The Ka is the energetic double of every person and the "opening of the Ka" refers to a womb or birthplace. Africa would be, for the Egyptians, "the birthplace." Michèle Fruyt in 1976 proposed linking the Latin word with africus "south wind", which would be of Umbrian origin and mean "rainy wind". Robert R. Stieglitz of Rutgers University in 1984 proposed: "The name Africa, derived from the Latin *Aphir-ic-a, is cognate to Hebrew Ophir." Ibn Khallikan and some other historians claim that the name of Africa came from a Himyarite king called Afrikin ibn Kais ibn Saifi called "Afrikus son of Abrahah" who subdued Ifriqiya. Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species originating from the continent. During the mid-20th century, anthropologists discovered many fossils and evidence of human occupation as early as 7 million years ago.
Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis (radiometrically dated to 3.9–3.0 million years BP, Paranthropus boisei and Homo ergaster have been discovered. After the evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens 150,000 to 100,000 years BP in Africa, the continent was populated by groups of hunter-gatherers; these first modern humans left Africa and populated the rest of the globe during the Out of Africa II migration dated to 50,000 years BP, exiting the continent eith