Auburn University is a land-grant and public research university in Auburn, United States. With more than 23,000 undergraduate students and a total enrollment of more than 30,000 with 1,260 faculty members, Auburn is the second largest university in Alabama. Auburn University is one of the state's two public flagship universities. Auburn was chartered on February 1, 1856, as East Alabama Male College, a private liberal arts school affiliated with the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. In 1872, under the Morrill Act, it became the state's first public land-grant university and was renamed as the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Alabama. In 1892, it became the first four-year coeducational school in Alabama, in 1899 was renamed Alabama Polytechnic Institute to reflect its changing mission. In 1960, its name was changed to Auburn University to acknowledge the varied academic programs and larger curriculum of a major university; the Alabama Legislature chartered the institution as the East Alabama Male College on February 1, 1856, coming under the guidance of the Methodist Church in 1859.
Its first president was Reverend William J. Sasnett, the school opened its doors in 1859 to a student body of eighty and a faculty of ten. Auburn's early history is inextricably linked with the Reconstruction-era South. Classes were held in "Old Main" until the college was closed due to the war, when most of the students and faculty left to enlist; the campus was a training ground for the Confederate Army, "Old Main" served as a hospital for Confederate wounded. To commemorate Auburn's contribution to the Civil War, a cannon lathe used for the manufacture of cannons for the Confederate Army and recovered from Selma, was presented to the college in 1952 by brothers of Delta Chapter of the Alpha Phi Omega fraternity, it sits today on the lawn next to Samford Hall. The school reopened in 1866 after the end of its only closure. In 1872, control of the institution was transferred from the Methodist Church to the State of Alabama for financial reasons. Alabama placed the school under the provisions of the Morrill Act as a land-grant institution, the first in the South to be established separately from the state university.
This act provided for 240,000 acres of Federal land to be sold to provide funds for an agricultural and mechanical school. As a result, in 1872 the school was renamed the Mechanical College of Alabama. Under the Act's provisions, land-grant institutions were supposed to teach military tactics and train officers for the United States military. In the late 19th century, most students at the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Alabama were enrolled in the cadet program, learning military tactics and training to become officers; each county in the state was allowed to nominate two cadets to attend the college free of charge. The university's original curriculum focused on agriculture; this trend changed under the guidance of William Leroy Broun, who taught classics and sciences and believed both disciplines were important for the growth of the university and the individual. In 1892, two historic events occurred: women were admitted to the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Alabama, football was played as a school sport.
Football replaced polo as the main sport on campus. The college was renamed the Alabama Polytechnic Institute in 1899 because of Broun's influence. On October 1, 1918, nearly all of Alabama Polytechnic Institute's able-bodied male students 18 or older voluntarily joined the United States Army for short-lived military careers on campus; the student-soldiers numbered 878, according to API President Charles Thach, formed the academic section of the Student Army Training Corps. The vocational section was composed of enlisted men sent to Auburn for training in radio and mechanics; the students received honorable discharges two months following the Armistice that ended World War I. API struggled through the Great Depression, having scrapped an extensive expansion program by then-President Bradford Knapp. Faculty salaries were cut drastically, enrollment decreased along with State appropriations to the college. By the end of the 1930s, Auburn had recovered, but faced new conditions caused by World War II.
As war approached in 1940, there was a great shortage of engineers and scientists needed for the defense industries. The U. S. Office of Education asked all American engineering schools to join in a "crash" program to produce what was called "instant engineers." API became an early participant in an activity that became Engineering and Management War Training. Funded by the government and coordinated by Auburn's Dean of Engineering, college-level courses were given in concentrated evening classes at sites across Alabama. Taken by thousands of adults – including many women – these courses were beneficial in filling the wartime ranks of civilian engineers and other technical professionals; the ESMWT benefited API by providing employment for faculty members when the student body was diminished by the draft and volunteer enlistment. During the war, API trained U. S. military personnel on campus. Following the end of World War II, API, like many colleges around the country, experienced a period of massive growth caused by returning military personnel taking advantage of their GI Bill offer of free education.
In the five-year period following the end of the war, enrollment at API more than doubled. Recognizing the school had moved beyond its agricultural and mechanical roots, it was granted university status by the Alabama Legi
Glendale is a city in Maricopa County, United States, located about nine miles northwest from Downtown Phoenix. According to the 2017 U. S. Census estimates, the population of the city is 246,709. In the late 1800s what is now known as Glendale, was all desert. William John Murphy, a native of New Hartford, New York, who resided in the town of Flagstaff in what was known as the territory of Arizona, was in charge of building a 40-mile-long Arizona Canal from Granite Reef to New River for the Arizona Canal Company. In 1885, he completed the canal. Murphy was deep in debt, since he had agreed to be paid in Arizona Canal Company stock and bonds and land instead of cash. In 1887, Murphy formed the Arizona Improvement Company, his objective was to sell the water rights south of the canal. Murphy had to raise capital from out of state sources in order to meet payroll and construction expenses. Murphy decided to refer to this land as "Glendale". In order to develop and interest potential investors and settlers in this new town, Murphy decided to provide a better way of access from Phoenix to Glendale and ending in the town of Peoria by building an 18-mile-long diagonal road which he named Grand Avenue.
In 1891, Burgess Hadsell worked with Murphy to bring 70 Brethren and River Brethren families to Glendale to form a temperance colony. Soon settlers, attracted by the town's ban on alcoholic beverages, continued to arrive. In 1895, Murphy platted the original town site and amended the plat to include a town park and some business lots, it was bounded by Lamar Road on the south, 55th Avenue on the east, Myrtle Avenue on the north, 59th Avenue on the west. The construction of a railroad from Prescott to Phoenix was made possible with an exchange of the right-of-way made by Murphy along Grand Avenue; the railroad allowed Glendale settlers to transport goods to the north and receive building materials. The construction and commercial applications of the Beet Sugar Factory in 1906 contributed to the growth of Glendale. Though the operations of the factory only lasted until 1913, it played an important role in the increase of immigrant and migrant settlers in the city. Glendale is located at 33°32′19″N 112°11′11″W.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 55.8 square miles, of which, 55.7 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 226,710 people, 79,114 households, 54,721 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,929.5 people per square mile. There were 79,667 housing units at an average density of 1,430.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 75.54% White, 6% Black or African American, 1.7% Native American, 3.9% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 16.95% from other races, 4.0% from two or more races. 35.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 79,114 households out of which 39.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.5% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.2% were non-families. 21.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.85 and the average family size was 3.33. In the city, the population was spread out with 30.1% under the age of 18, 10.8% from 18 to 24, 31.9% from 25 to 44, 19.9% from 45 to 64, 7.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $45,015, the median income for a family was $51,162. Males had a median income of $35,901 versus $27,736 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,124. About 8.8% of families and 11.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.3% of those under age 18 and 9.5% of those age 65 or over. Adobe Mountain Desert Park Glendale Chocolate Festival Glendale Folk & Heritage Festival Glendale Glitters Glendale Jazz and Blues Festival Historic Manistee Ranch Historic Sahuaro Ranch Cerreta Candy Co. factory tour Downtown Glendale featuring antique shops and restaurants Deer Valley Rock Art Center State Farm Stadium Gila River Arena Brelby Theatre Company Spotlight Youth Theatre Elsie McCarthy Sensory Garden Westgate Entertainment District Glendale is the site of two major sports venues: State Farm Stadium and Gila River Arena.
Both venues are part of the Glendale Sports and Entertainment District development plan, meant to spur growth in the sparsely inhabited Yucca district. Both venues are owned by the City of Glendale. State Farm Stadium has been the home field of the Arizona Cardinals in the National Football League since 2006, the annual Fiesta Bowl college football game since 2007. Both the Cardinals and bowl game moved from Sun Devil Stadium on the Arizona State University campus in Tempe. Since opening, the facility has brought two Super Bowls, three college football national championship games, the NCAA Men's Basketball Final Four, WrestleMania XXVI and International Champions Cup soccer to Glendale. Designed by architect Peter Eisenman, the stadium was featured on The History Channel TV series, Modern Marvels because of its roll-out natural grass field. Gila River Arena and Westgate City Center is adjacent to State Farm Stadium, is the home of the Arizona Coyotes of the National Hockey League, it was the home of the now defunct Arizona Sting of the National Lacrosse League.
The inaugural Street League Ska
Orange is a city located in Orange County, California. It is 3 miles north of the county seat, Santa Ana. Orange is unusual in this region because many of the homes in its Old Town District were built before 1920. While many other cities in the region demolished such houses in the 1960s, Orange decided to preserve them; the small city of Villa Park is surrounded by the city of Orange. The population was 139,812 as of 2014. Members of the Tongva and Juaneño/Luiseño ethnic group long inhabited this area. After the 1769 expedition of Gaspar de Portolá, an expedition out of San Blas, Mexico, led by Father Junípero Serra, named the area Vallejo de Santa Ana. On November 1, 1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano became the area's first permanent European settlement in Alta California, New Spain. In 1801, the Spanish Empire granted 62,500 acres to José Antonio Yorba, which he named Rancho San Antonio. Yorba's great rancho included the lands where the cities of Olive, Villa Park, Santa Ana, Costa Mesa and Newport Beach stand today.
Smaller ranchos evolved from this large rancho, including the Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana. Don Juan Pablo Grijalva, a retired known Spanish soldier and the area's first landowner, was granted permission in 1809 by the Spanish colonial government to establish a rancho in "the place of the Arroyo de Santiago." After the Mexican–American War, Alta California was ceded to the United States by México with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, though many Californios lost titles to their lands in the aftermath, Grijalva's descendants retained ownership through marriages to Anglo-Americans. Since at least 1864, Los Angeles attorneys Alfred Chapman and Andrew Glassell together and separately, held about 5,400 acres along both sides of the Santiago Creek. Water was the key factor for the location of their townsite. Glassell needed a spot he could irrigate, bringing water down from the Santa Ana Canyon and the quality of the soil may have influenced his choice; the community was named Richland, but in 1873 Richland got a new name.
In the book, "Orange, The City'Round The Plaza" by local historian Phil Brigandi, it states, "In 1873 the town had grown large enough to require a post office, so an application was sent to Washington. It was refused, however, as there was a Richland, California in Sacramento County. Undaunted, the Richlanders proposed a new name – Orange." The small town was incorporated on April 1888, under the general laws of the state of California. Orange was the only city in Orange County to be planned and built around a plaza, earned it the nickname Plaza City. Orange was the first developed town site to be served by the California Southern Railroad when the nation's second transcontinental rail line reached Orange County; the town experienced its first growth spurt during the last decade of the 19th century, thanks to ever-increasing demands for California-grown citrus fruits, a period some refer to as the "Orange Era." Southern California's real estate "boom" of 1886–1888, fueled by railroad rate wars contributed to a marked increase in population.
Like most cities in Orange County, agriculture formed the backbone of the local economy, growth thereafter was slow and steady until the 1950s, when a second real estate boom spurred development. Inspired by the development of a region-wide freeway system which connected Los Angeles' urban center with outlying areas like Orange, large tracts of housing were developed from the 1950s to the early 1970s, this continues today, albeit at a much slower pace, at the eastern edge of the city; the city has a total area of 25.2 square miles, 24.8 square miles of, land and 0.4 square miles of, water. The total area is 1.75% water. Southern California is well known for year-round pleasant weather: – On average, the warmest month is August. – The highest recorded temperature was 113 °F in June 2016. – On average, the coolest month is December. – The lowest recorded temperature was 29 °F in December 1990. – The maximum average precipitation occurs in January. The period of April through November is warm to hot and dry with average high temperatures of 74 to 84 °F and lows of 52 to 64 °F.
Due to the moderating effect of the ocean, temperatures are cooler than more inland areas of Orange County, where temperatures exceed 90 °F and reach 100 °F. The period of November through March is somewhat rainy; the Orange County area is subject to the phenomena typical of a microclimate. As such, the temperatures can vary as much as 18 °F between inland areas and the coast, with a temperature gradient of over 1 °F per mile from the coast inland. California has a weather phenomenon called "June Gloom" or "May Gray," which sometimes brings overcast or foggy skies in the morning on the coast, but gives way to sunny skies by noon, during late spring and early summer; the Orange County area averages 15 in of precipitation annually, which occurs during the winter and spring with light rain showers, but sometimes as heavy rainfall and thunderstorms. Coastal Torrance receives less rainfall, while the mountains receive more. Snowfall is rare in the city basin, but the mountains within city limits receive snowfall every winter.
Old Towne, Orange Historic District
Tempe known as Hayden's Ferry during the territorial times of Arizona, is a city in Maricopa County, United States, with the Census Bureau reporting a 2017 population of 185,038. The city is named after the Vale of Tempe in Greece. Tempe is located in the East Valley section of metropolitan Phoenix. Tempe is the location of the main campus of Arizona State University; the Hohokam built canals to support their agriculture. They abandoned their settlements during the 15th century, with a few individuals and families remaining nearby. Fort McDowell was established 25 mi northeast of present downtown Tempe on the upper Salt River in 1865 allowing for new towns to be built farther down the Salt River. US military service members and Hispanic workers were hired to grow food and animal feed to supply the fort, less than a year had set up small camps near the river that were the first permanent communities in the Valley after the fall of the Hohokam; the two settlements were'Hayden's Ferry', named after a ferry service operated by Charles T. Hayden, and'San Pablo', were located west and east of Hayden Butte respectively.
The ferry became the key river crossing in the area. The Tempe Irrigating Canal Company was soon established by William Kirkland and James McKinney to provide water for alfalfa, barley and cotton. Pioneer Darrell Duppa is credited with suggesting Tempe's name, adopted in 1879, after comparing the Salt River valley near a 300-foot -tall butte, to the Vale of Tempe near Mount Olympus in Greece. From its founding in 1871 until the early 1960s, Tempe was a sundown town where African Americans were permitted to work but encouraged to live elsewhere. In 1885, the 13th Arizona Territorial Legislature chose Tempe for the site of the Territorial Normal School, which became Arizona Normal School, Arizona State Teachers College, Arizona State College and Arizona State University; the Maricopa and Phoenix Railroad, built in 1887, crossed the Salt River at Tempe, linking the town to the nation's growing transportation system. The Tempe Land and Improvement Company was formed to sell lots in the booming town.
Tempe became an economic hub for the surrounding agricultural area. The city incorporated in 1894; the completion of Roosevelt Dam in 1911 guaranteed enough water to meet the growing needs of Valley farmers. On his way to dedicate the dam, former President Theodore Roosevelt applauded the accomplishments of the people of central Arizona and predicted that their towns would be prosperous cities in the future. Less than a year Arizona was admitted as the 48th state, the Salt River Valley continued to develop. In the 20th and 21st centuries, Tempe has expanded as a suburb of Phoenix, as a center of education and commerce. Tempe is an inner suburb, located between the rest of the East Valley. Due to this as well as being the home of the main campus of Arizona State University, Tempe has a dense, urbanized development pattern in the northern part of the city with a growing skyline. Going south, development becomes less dense, consisting of single-family homes, strip malls and lower-density office parks.
Within Tempe are the Tempe Buttes. The Salt River runs west through the northern part of Tempe. According to the United States Census Bureau, the landlocked city has a total area of 40.2 square miles. The city of Tempe is bordered by Mesa to the east and the Salt River Pima–Maricopa Indian Community to the north and Guadalupe to the west, Chandler to the south. 40.1 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. The total area is 0.32% water including Tempe Town Lake. Tempe is flat, except for Hayden Butte, located next to Sun Devil Stadium, Twin Buttes and Bell Butte on the western edge of Tempe, Papago Park northwest of Tempe, inside Phoenix. Elevation ranges from 1,140 feet at Tempe Town Lake to 1,495 feet atop Hayden Butte; as of the 2010 census, there were 161,719 people, 63,602 households, 33,645 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,959.4 people per square mile. There were 67,068 housing units at an average density of 1,674.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 77.51% White, 5.9% Black or African American, 2.9% Native American, 5.7% Asian, 0.4% Pacific Islander, 8.49% from other races, 3.9% from two or more races.
21.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 63,602 households out of which 24.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.4% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 47.1% were non-families. 28.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.05. In the city, the population was spread out with 19.8% under the age of 18, 21.3% from 18 to 24, 33.2% from 25 to 44, 18.5% from 45 to 64, 7.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $42,361, the median income for a family was $55,237. Males had a median income of $36,406
Arizona State University
Arizona State University is a public metropolitan research university on five campuses across the Phoenix metropolitan area, four regional learning centers throughout Arizona. ASU is one of the largest public universities by enrollment in the U. S; as of fall 2018, the university had about 80,000 students attending classes across its metro campuses, including 66,000-plus undergraduates and more than 12,000 postgraduates. The university is organized into 17 colleges, featuring more than 170 cross-discipline centers and institutes. ASU offers 350 degree options for undergraduates students, as well as more than 400 graduate degree and certificate programs. ASU has nearly 600 ASU scholar-athletes across 26 varsity-level sports; the Arizona State Sun Devils compete in the Pac-12 Conference and have won 59 Pac-10/Pac-12 championships dating to 1979, have captured 24 NCAA championships dating to its first title in 1965. In addition to its athletic program, the university is home to over 1,100 registered student organizations.
ASU's charter, approved by the board of regents in 2014, is based on the "New American University" model created by ASU President Michael M. Crow upon his appointment as the institution's 16th president in 2002, it defines ASU as "a comprehensive public research university, measured not by whom it excludes, but rather by whom it includes and how they succeed. Since 2005, ASU has been ranked among the top research universities in the U. S. public and private, based on research output, development, research expenditures, number of awarded patents and awarded research grant proposals. The 2019 university ratings by U. S. News & World Report rank ASU No. 1 among the Most Innovative Schools in America for the fourth year in a row. U. S. News & World Report shows 84% of the student applications get accepted. A diverse faculty of more than 4,400 scholars includes 4 Nobel laureates, 6 Pulitzer Prize winners, 4 MacArthur Fellows Program "Genius Grant" members and 19 National Academy of Sciences members.
Additionally, among the faculty are 180 Fulbright Program American Scholars, 72 National Endowment for the Humanities fellows, 38 American Council of Learned Societies fellows, 36 members of the Guggenheim Fellowship, 21 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 9 National Academy of Engineering members and 3 National Academy of Medicine members. The National Academies has bestowed "highly prestigious" recognition on 227 ASU faculty members. Arizona State University was established as the Territorial Normal School at Tempe on March 12, 1885, when the 13th Arizona Territorial Legislature passed an act to create a normal school to train teachers for the Arizona Territory; the campus consisted of a single, four-room schoolhouse on a 20-acre plot donated by Tempe residents George and Martha Wilson. Classes began with 33 students on February 8, 1886; the curriculum evolved over the years and the name was changed several times. In 1923, the school stopped offering high school courses and added a high school diploma to the admissions requirements.
In 1925, the school became the Tempe State Teachers College and offered four-year Bachelor of Education degrees as well as two-year teaching certificates. In 1929, the 9th Arizona State Legislature authorized Bachelor of Arts in Education degrees as well, the school was renamed the Arizona State Teachers College. Under the 30-year tenure of president Arthur John Matthews, the school was given all-college student status; the first dormitories built in the state were constructed under his supervision in 1902. Of the 18 buildings constructed while Matthews was president, six are still in use. Matthews envisioned an "evergreen campus," with many shrubs brought to the campus, implemented the planting of 110 Mexican Fan Palms on what is now known as Palm Walk, a century-old landmark of the Tempe campus. During the Great Depression, Ralph Waldo Swetman was hired to succeed President Matthews, coming to Arizona State Teachers College in 1930 from Humboldt State Teachers College where he had served as president.
He served a three-year term. During his tenure, enrollment at the college doubled. Matthews conceived of a self-supported summer session at the school at Arizona State Teachers College, a first for the school. In 1933, Grady Gammage president of Arizona State Teachers College at Flagstaff, became president of Arizona State Teachers College at Tempe, beginning a tenure that would last for nearly 28 years, second only to Swetman's 30 years at the college's helm. Like President Arthur John Matthews before him, Gammage oversaw the construction of several buildings on the Tempe campus, he guided the development of the university's graduate programs. During his presidency, the school's name was changed to Arizona State College in 1945, to Arizona State University in 1958. At the time, two other names were considered: Tempe University and State University at Tempe. Among Gammage's greatest achievements in Tempe was the Frank Lloyd Wright-desig
Auburn is a city in Lee County, United States. It is the largest city in eastern Alabama with a 2016 population of 63,118, it is a principal city of the Auburn-Opelika Metropolitan Area. The Auburn-Opelika, AL MSA with a population of 158,991, along with the Columbus, GA-AL MSA and Tuskegee, comprises the greater Columbus-Auburn-Opelika, GA-AL CSA, a region home to 501,649 residents. Auburn is the home of Auburn University, it is Alabama's fastest-growing metropolitan area and the nineteenth fastest-growing metro area in the United States since 1990. U. S. News ranked Auburn among its top ten list of best places to live in the United States for the year 2009; the city's unofficial nickname is “The Loveliest Village On The Plains,” taken from a line in the poem The Deserted Village by Oliver Goldsmith: “Sweet Auburn! Loveliest village of the plain...” Inhabited in antiquity by the Creek, the land on which Auburn sits was opened to settlement in 1832 with the Treaty of Cusseta. The first settlers arrived in the winter of 1836 from Georgia.
These settlers, led by Judge John J. Harper, intended to build a town that would be the religious and educational center for the area. Auburn was incorporated on February 2, 1839, in what was Macon County, covering an area of 2 square miles. By that time and Baptist churches had been established, a school had been built and had come into operation. In the mid-1840s, separate academies for boys and girls were established in addition to the primary school; this concentration of educational institutions led to a rapid influx of families from the planter class into Auburn in the 1840s and 1850s. By 1858, of the 1,000 free residents of Auburn, some 500 were students. In 1856, the state legislature chartered a Methodist college, the East Alabama Male College in Auburn; this college, now Auburn University, opened its doors in 1859, offering a classical and liberal education. With the advent of the Civil War in 1861, Auburn emptied. All of the schools closed, most businesses shuttered. Auburn was the site of a hospital for Texan Confederate soldiers, but only saw direct combat with the raids of Rousseau in 1864 and Wilson in 1865.
After the Civil War, Auburn's economy entered a prolonged depression that would last the remainder of the century. Public schools did not reopen until the mid-1870s, most businesses remained closed. A series of fires in the 1860s and 1870s gutted the downtown area. East Alabama Male College was turned over to the state in 1872, with funds from the federal Morrill Act was renamed Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical College with a new mission as a land grant college. Passage of the Hatch Act in 1887 allowed for expansion of agricultural research facilities on campus. In 1892, the college became the first four-year college in Alabama to admit women. This, combined with increased interest in scientific agriculture and engineering and new funding from business licenses, allowed the city to start expanding again. By 1910, Auburn's population had returned to its antebellum level. SIAA Conference championships won by the Auburn college's football team brought attention and support to Auburn, helped fill the city's coffers.
Fortunes were reversed with the collapse of cotton prices in the early 1920s and the subsequent Great Depression a decade later. Due to these events, the state government became unable to fund the college, and—as Auburn's economy was derived from the college—residents were forced into a barter economy to support themselves. Money began to flow into Auburn again with America's entry into World War II. Auburn's campus was turned into a training ground for technical specialists in the armed forces. After the war, Auburn was flooded by soldiers returning to school on the G. I. Bill. Due to this influx of students, Auburn began a period of growth that lasted through the 1950s and 1960s. A considerable amount of residential and business construction pushed Auburn's growth outside of the original boundaries of the city, leading to a series of large annexations which expanded Auburn to nearly 24 square miles. Construction of Interstate 85 beginning in 1957 connected Auburn to the major cities of the state.
This allowed for Auburn University to schedule more home football games in Auburn rather than in larger cities, creating a strong tourism component in Auburn's economy. Auburn Mall opened as "Village Mall" in 1973. Growth slowed somewhat in the 1970s, a series of budget cuts made it clear that Auburn's sole economic reliance on Auburn University put the city in a tenuous position. Backlash against what was seen as an ineffectual city council led to the election of Jan Dempsey as mayor in 1980 and the removal of the previous city government system in favor of a council-manager system. With a new government in place, the city began aggressively pursuing industry, leading to a nearly 1,200% increase in the number of industrial jobs over the next twenty years; as public satisfaction with the city administration reached record levels, Auburn began rapid residential growth. A series of reports in the 1980s and 1990s ranking the Auburn public school system among the top in the state and nation convinced thousands of new residents to move to Auburn over the past 25 years.
Between 1980 and 2003, Auburn's population grew by 65%, Auburn's economy expanded by 220%. With growth came issues of urban sprawl, which has become the primary political issue in Auburn at the turn of the 21st century; the city of Auburn lies in western Lee County and is bordered by the city of Opelika to the northeast and by Chambers County to the north. The city stretches south to the Macon County line in the southwest. Auburn sits on the Fall Line at the juncture of the piedmon
Flagstaff is a city in and the county seat of Coconino County in northern Arizona, in the southwestern United States. In 2015, the city's estimated population was 70,320. Flagstaff's combined metropolitan area has an estimated population of 139,097; the city is named after a ponderosa pine flagpole made by a scouting party from Boston to celebrate the United States Centennial on July 4, 1876. Flagstaff lies near the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau, along the western side of the largest contiguous ponderosa pine forest in the continental United States. Flagstaff is next to Mount Elden, just south of the San Francisco Peaks, the highest mountain range in the state of Arizona. Humphreys Peak, the highest point in Arizona at 12,633 feet, is about 10 miles north of Flagstaff in Kachina Peaks Wilderness. Flagstaff's early economy was based on the lumber and ranching industries. Today, the city remains an important distribution hub for companies such as Nestlé Purina PetCare, is home to Lowell Observatory, The U.
S. Naval Observatory, the United States Geological Survey Flagstaff Station, Northern Arizona University. Flagstaff has a strong tourism sector, due to its proximity to Grand Canyon National Park, Oak Creek Canyon, the Arizona Snowbowl, Meteor Crater, historic Route 66; the city is a growing center for medical and biotechnology manufacturing, home to corporations such as SenesTech and W. L. Gore and Associates. There are several legends about the origin of the city's name. Surveyors and investors had traveled through the area in the mid- to late-19th century, the act of stripping a pine tree to fly an American flag has been attributed to several individuals over a twenty-year span, it is said that, because of the flag, raised, the area surrounding it became known as Flagstaff. The first permanent settlement was in 1876, when Thomas F. McMillan built a cabin at the base of Mars Hill on the west side of town. During the 1880s, Flagstaff began to grow, opening its first post office and attracting the railroad industry.
The early economy was based on timber and cattle. The Arizona Lumber and Timber Company was prominent. By 1886, Flagstaff was the largest city on the railroad line between Albuquerque and the west coast of the United States. A circa 1900 diary entry by journalist Sharlot Hall described the houses in the city as a "third rate mining camp", with unkempt air and high prices of available goods. In 1894, Massachusetts astronomer Percival Lowell hired A. E. Douglass to scout an ideal site for a new observatory. Douglass, impressed by Flagstaff's elevation, named it as an ideal location for the now famous Lowell Observatory, saying: "other things being equal, the higher we can get the better". Two years the specially designed 24-inch Clark telescope that Lowell had ordered was installed. In 1930, Pluto was discovered using one of the observatory's telescopes. In 1955 the U. S. Naval Observatory joined the growing astronomical presence, established the United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, where Pluto's satellite, was discovered in 1978.
During the Apollo program in the 1960s, the Clark Telescope was used to map the moon for the lunar expeditions, enabling the mission planners to choose a safe landing site for the lunar modules. In homage to the city's importance in the field of astronomy, asteroid 2118 Flagstaff is named for the city, 6582 Flagsymphony for the Flagstaff Symphony Orchestra; the Northern Arizona Normal School was established in 1899, renamed Northern Arizona University in 1966. Flagstaff's cultural history received a significant boost on April 11, 1899, when the Flagstaff Symphony made its concert debut at Babbitt's Opera House; the orchestra continues today as the Flagstaff Symphony Orchestra, with its primary venue at the Ardrey Auditorium on the campus of Northern Arizona University. The city grew primarily due to its location along the east–west transcontinental railroad line in the United States. In the 1880s, the railroads purchased land in the west from the federal government, sold to individuals to help finance the railroad projects.
By the 1890s, Flagstaff found itself along one of the busiest railroad corridors in the U. S. with 80–100 trains travelling through the city every day, destined for Chicago, Los Angeles, elsewhere. Route 66 ran through Flagstaff. Flagstaff was incorporated as a city in 1928, in 1929, the city's first motel, the Motel Du Beau, was built at the intersection of Beaver Street and Phoenix Avenue; the Daily Sun described the motel as "a hotel with garages for the better class of motorists." The units rented for $2.60 to $5.00 each, with baths, double beds and furniture. Flagstaff went on to become a popular tourist stop along Route 66 due to its proximity to the Grand Canyon. Flagstaff prospered through the 1960s. During the 1970s and 1980s, many businesses started to move from the city center, the downtown area entered an economic and social decline. Sears and J. C. Penney left the downtown area in 1979 to open up as anchor stores in the new Flagstaff Mall, joined in 1986 by Dillard's. By 1987, the Babbitt Brothers Trading Company, a retail fixture in Flagstaff since 1891, closed its doors at Aspen Avenue and San Francisco Street.
The Railroad Addition Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. In 1987, the city drafted a new master plan known as the Growth Management Guide 2000, which would transform downtown Flagstaff from a shopping and trade center into a regional center for finance, office use, government; the city built a new city hall and the Coconino County Admin