William Harry Evans
Brigadier William Harry Evans CSI CIE DSO was a lepidopterist and British Army officer who served in India. He documented the butterfly fauna of India and Ceylon in a series of articles in the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Brigadier Evans was interested in the taxonomy and systematics of the butterfly families Lycaenidae and Hesperiidae an example being his A revision of the Arhopala group of Oriental Lycaenidae Bull. British Mus. Ent. vol. 5: pp. 85–141. Evans was the third son of Sir Horace Moule Evans and Elizabeth Anne, daughter of Surgeon General J. T. Tressider, his mother kindled an interest in nature and, when he was sent to King's School, Canterbury, he was interested in butterflies and moths. He was posted with the Royal Engineers. In 1898 he began collecting butterflies in Chitral, he was sent on duty with the Somaliland Expedition, he injured his knee. He served in France from 1914 to 1918 and was awarded the D. S. O. and a brevet. Exposure to poison gas, caused him permanent chest problems.
He returned to India in 1919 with his final post in the Western Command at Quetta as a Chief Engineer. He travelled to London via Australia, his home was close to the Natural History Museum and he continued to work on Military service and was attached with the Non-Intervention Committee during the Spanish Civil War and took up work as an Air Raid Warden. He was at a window in the Natural History Museum, facing South on to Cromwell Road when a German V1 flying bomb burst on the road 100 yards away, he was injured and his hearing was permanently impaired. His wife lived in Bournemouth during the air raids. Evans, stayed in London to complete his Revision of the Hesperiidae of the world, as he stated "before he died". Evans collected butterflies throughout his career in India and was knowledgeable on distribution patterns, his favourite collection areas included Kodaikanal, Simla, Darjeeling and Baluchistan. He travelled to Australia to collect the endemic subfamily Trapezitinae, he did not preserve specimens in cabinets and preferred paper covers.
From 1923 he published keys to the identification of Indian butterflies in the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Evans examined over half a million specimens of Hesperiidae in the museum. Evans was influenced by the works of Bernhard Rensch, Ernst Mayr and Thomas Huxley, but he was not comfortable with the ideas of phylogenetic classification, his only son, Dr. J. W. Evans, continued in Entomology as a Director of the Australian Museum, Sydney, his collection is in London. 1937. A Catalogue of the African Hesperiidae. British Museum, London. 1949. A Catalogue of the Hesperiidae From Europe and Australia in the British Museum. 1951. A Catalogue of the American Hesperiidae Indicating the Classification and Nomenclature Adopted in the British Museum. Part I. Pyrrhophyginae. British Museum, London. 1952. A Catalogue of the American Hesperiidae Indicating the Classification and Nomenclature Adopted in the British Museum. Part II. Pyrginae. Section I. British Museum, London. 1953. A Catalogue of the American Hesperiidae Indicating the Classification and Nomenclature Adopted in the British Museum.
Part III. Pyrginae. Section II. British Museum, London. 1955. A Catalogue of the American Hesperiidae Indicating the Classification and Nomenclature Adopted in the British Museum. Part IV. Hesperiinae and Megathyminae. British Museum, London. 1932. The Identification of Indian Butterflies. H. D. P. 1957: Entomologist 90, 24. Remington, C. L. 1956: Lepidopt. News 10, 101. Riley, N. D. & Remington, C. L. 1956: Lepidopt. News 10, 193–199, Portrait. PDF Sachtleben, H. 1957: Beitr. Ent. 7, 200–201
Bombay Natural History Society
The Bombay Natural History Society, founded on 15 September 1883, is one of the largest non-governmental organisations in India engaged in conservation and biodiversity research. It supports many research efforts through grants and publishes the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Many prominent naturalists, including the ornithologists Sálim Ali and S. Dillon Ripley, have been associated with it; the society is known by its initials, BNHS. BNHS is the partner of BirdLife International in India, it has been designated as a'Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation' by the Department of Science and Technology. It's headquarter is in Mumbai and has one regional centre at Wetland Research and Training Centre, near Chilika Lake, Odisha. On 15 September 1883 eight men interested in natural history met at Bombay in the Victoria and Albert Museum and: constituted themselves as the Bombay Natural History Society, they proposed to meet monthly and exchange notes, exhibit interesting specimens and otherwise encourage each other.
According to E. H. Aitken, Dr G. A. Maconochie was the fons et origo of the society; the other founders were Dr D. MacDonald, Col. C. Swinhoe, Mr J. C. Anderson, Mr J. Johnston, Dr Atmaram Pandurang and Dr Sakharam Arjun. Mr H. M. Phipson was a part of the founding group, he lent a part of his wine shop at 18 Forbes Street to the BNHS as an office. In 1911, R. C. Wroughton a BNHS member and forest officer organised a survey of mammals making use of the members spread through the Indian subcontinent to provide specimens; this was the first collaborative natural history study in the world. It resulted in a collection of 50,000 specimens in 12 years. Several new species were discovered, 47 publications were published, the understanding of biogeographic boundaries was improved. In the early years, the Journal of the BNHS reviewed contemporary literature from other parts of the world; the description of ant-bird interactions in German by Erwin Stresemann was reviewed in a 1935 issue leading to the introduction of the term anting into English.
Today the BNHS is headquartered in the specially constructed'Hornbill House' in southern Mumbai. It sponsors studies in Indian wildlife and conservation, publishes a four-monthly journal, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, as well as a quarterly magazine, Hornbill; the BNHS logo is the great hornbill, inspired by a great hornbill named William, who lived on the premises of the Society from 1894 until 1920, during the honorary secretaryships of H. M. Phipson until 1906 and W. S. Millard from 1906 to 1920; the logo was created in the silver-jubilee year of the Society's founding. According to H. M. Phipson, William was born in May 1894 and presented to the Society three months by H. Ingle of Karwar, he reached his full length (4.25 feet by the end of his third year. His diet consisted of fruit, of live mice and plain raw meat, which he ate with relish, he did not drink water, nor use it for bathing. William was known for catching tennis balls thrown at him from a distance of some 30 feet with his beak.
In his obituary of W. S. Millard, Sir Norman Kinnear made the following remarks about William: IT consultancy firm Accenture and the Bombay Natural History Society have developed Internet of Birds platform that identifies bird species found in India using Artificial Intelligence technology, including machine learning and computer vision, from digital photos that are uploaded by the public; each time a picture is contributed to the system by public, it teaches itself, increasing accuracy in the recognition of bird species. Conservation in India Conservation Education Centre of the BNHS Ali, Salim. "Bombay Natural History Society — The Founders, the Builders and the Guardians. Part 1". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 75: 559–569. Ali, Salim. "Bombay Natural History Society — The Founders, the Builders and the Guardians. Part 2". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 78: 232–239. Official website Conservation Education Centre -- Education wing of the BNHS Wild enthusiasm Sarika Mehta, 18 March 2005, The Hindu Business Line
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Fauna of India
India has some of the world's most biodiverse regions. The political boundaries of India encompass a wide range of ecozones—desert, high mountains, highlands and temperate forests, plains, areas surrounding rivers, as well as island archipelago, it hosts 4 biodiversity hotspots:the Himalayas, the Western Ghats, the Indo-Burma region and the Sundaland. These hotspots have numerous endemic species. India, for the most part, lies within the Indomalaya ecozone, with the upper reaches of the Himalayas forming part of the Palearctic ecozone. India displays significant biodiversity. One of seventeen megadiverse countries, it is home to 7.6% of all mammalian, 12.6% of all avian, 6.2% of all reptilian, 4.4% of all amphibian, 11.7% of all fish, 6.0% of all flowering plant species. The region is heavily influenced by summer monsoons that cause major seasonal changes in vegetation and habitat. India forms a large part of the Indomalayan biogeographical zone and many of the floral and faunal forms show Malayan affinities with only a few taxa being unique to the Indian region.
The unique forms includes the snake family Uropeltidae found only in the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka. Fossil taxa from the Cretaceous show links to the Seychelles and Madagascar chain of islands; the Cretaceous fauna include reptiles and fishes and an extant species demonstrating this phylogeographical link is the purple frog. The separation of India and Madagascar is traditionally estimated to have taken place about 88 million years ago. However, there are suggestions that the links to Madagascar and Africa were present at the time when the Indian subcontinent met Eurasia. India has been suggested as a ship for the movement of several African taxa into Asia; these taxa include five frog families, three caecilian families, a lacertid lizard and freshwater snails of the family Potamiopsidae. A thirty million year old Ologocene era fossil tooth from the Bugti Hills of central Pakistan has been identified as from a lemur-like primate, prompting controversial suggestions that the lemurs may have originated in Asia.
Lemur fossils from India in the past led to theories of a lost continent called Lemuria. This theory however was dismissed when continental drift and plate tectonics became well established; the flora and fauna of India have been studied and recorded from early times in folk traditions and by researchers following more formal scientific approaches. Game laws are reported from the third century BC. A little under 5% of this total area is formally classified under protected areas. India is home to several well-known large mammals, including the Asian elephant, Bengal tiger, Asiatic lion and Indian rhinoceros; some of these animals are engrained in culture being associated with deities. These large mammals are important for wildlife tourism in India, several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries cater to these needs; the popularity of these charismatic animals have helped in conservation efforts in India. The tiger has been important, Project Tiger, started in 1972, was a major effort to conserve the tiger and its habitats.
Project Elephant, though less known, works for elephant protection. Most of India's rhinos today survive in the Kaziranga National Park; some other well-known large Indian mammals are: ungulates such as the water buffalo, nilgai and several species of deer and antelope. Some members of the dog family such as the Indian wolf, Bengal fox, golden jackal and the dhole or wild dogs are widely distributed, it is home to the striped hyaena. Many smaller animals such as macaques and mongoose species are well known due to their ability to live close to or inside urban areas Adhu. There is insufficient information about the invertebrate and lower forms of India, with significant work having been done only in a few groups of insects, notably the butterflies, hymenoptera, the larger coleoptera and heteroptera. Few concerted attempts to document the biodiversity have been made since the publication of The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma series. There are about 2,546 species of fishes found in Indian waters.
About 197 species of amphibians and more than 408 reptile species are found in India. Among these groups the highest levels of endemism are found in the amphibians. There are about 1,250 species of birds from India, with some variations, depending on taxonomic treatments, accounting for about 12% of the world species. There are about 410 species of mammals known from India, about 8.86% of the world species. India has the greatest number of cat species than any other country; the World Conservation Monitoring Centre gives an estimate of about 15,000 species of flowering plants in India. The Western Ghats are a chain of hills, their proximity to the ocean and through orographic effect, they receive high rainfall. These regions have moist deciduous rain forest; the region shows high species diversity as well as high levels of endemism. Nearly 77% of the amphibians and 62% of the reptile species found here are found nowhere else; the region shows biogeographical affinities to the Malayan region, the Satpura hypothesis proposed by Sunder Lal Hora suggests that the hill chains of Central India may have once formed a connection with the forests of northeastern India and into the Indo-Malayan region.
Hora used torrent stream fishes to support the theory, bu
The Eastern Himalayas extend from eastern Nepal across northeastern India, the Tibet Autonomous Region to Yunnan in China and northern Myanmar. The climate of this region is influenced by the monsoon of South Asia from June to September, it is considered a biodiversity hotspot, with notable biocultural diversity. The Eastern Himalayas have a much more sophisticated geomorphic history and pervasive topographic features than the Central Himalayas. In the southwest of the Sub-Himalayas lies the Singalila Ridge, the western end of a group of uplands in Nepal. Most of the Sub-Himalayas are in Nepal; the Buxa range of Indo-Bhutan is a part of the ancient rocks of the Himalayas. The ancient folds, running along an east-west axis, were worn down during a long period of denudation lasting into cretaceous times over a hundred million years. During this time the carboniferous and permian rocks disappeared from the surface, except in its north near Hatisar in Bhutan and in the long trench extending from Jaldhaka River to Torsa River, where limestone and coal deposits are preserved in discontinuous basins.
Limestone deposits appear in Bhutan on the southern flanks of the Lower Himalayas. The rocks of the highlands are sandstones of the Devonian age, with limestones and shales of the same period in places; the core of the mountain is exposed across the centre, where Paleozoic rocks Cambrian and Silurian slates and Takhstasang gneiss outcrops are visible in the northwest and northeast, the latter extending to western Arunachal Pradesh in India. In the Mesozoic era the whole of the worn-down plateau was under sea. In this expansive shallow sea, which covered most of Assam and Bhutan, chalk deposits formed from seawater tides oscillating between land and sea levels. During subsequent periods, tertiary rocks were laid down; the Paro metamorphic belt may be found overlying Chasilakha-Soraya gneiss in some places. Silurian metamorphics in other places suggest long denudation of the surface; this was the time of Alpine mountain and large number of "active volcanoes" formation which act as backbone of the Himalayas and much of the movement in the palaeozoic region was connected with it.
The Chomolhari tourmaline granites of Bhutan, stretching westwards from the Paro chu and adds much depth below the present surface, were formed during this period of uplift and subsidence. The climate of the Eastern Himalayas is of a tropical montane ecosystem; the tropical rainforest climate is hot and wet all year round, with no dry season in the foothills in Köppen Climate Classification System, chilly winters on higher elevations. The hot season commences around the middle of April reaching its maximum temperature in June, finishing by the end of August; the average summer temperature is 20 °C. The average annual rainfall is 10,000 mm. A large amount of snowfall is rare, it is uncommon at higher elevations; this belt of Himalayas is wetter. In the valleys of Rangeet and Chumbi most precipitation during winter takes the form of snowfall. Snow accumulation in the valleys reduces the area's wintertime temperature; the northeast monsoon is the predominant feature of the Eastern Himalayan region's weather, while on the southern slopes cold season precipitation is more important.
Agricultural conditions vary throughout the region. In the highlands the soil is morainic, the hill slopes are cut by the locals into successive steps or terraces only a few meters broad, thus preventing water run-off and allowing spring crops to thrive; the region's economy relied on Shifting cultivation agriculture, supplemented by hunting and barter trade. Agricultural does not produce sufficient yields to meet local needs; the region's economy remained stagnant and at subsistence levels for centuries due to the lack of capital, investor access, or entrepreneurial knowledge. Inhabitants relied on wild and semi-cultivated species for food and herbal medicines; the Eastern Himalayas consist of 6 distinct political/national territories: Nepali Himalaya Darjeeling Sub-Himalaya Sikkim Himalaya Assam Sub-Himalaya Bhutan Himalaya Arunachal Pradesh Himalaya The Eastern Himalayas sustain a diverse array of wildlife, including many rare species of fauna and flora. Nepal features, among other rare Nepali animal species, snow leopards in its Himalayan region, one-horned rhinos, Asian elephants and Water Buffaloes in its southern region, making the country one of the world's greatest Biodiversity hotspots.
Three major river basins of Nepal, namely the Karnali and Koshi Basins, feature dense forests and shelter no less than 5% of the world's butterfly species and 8% of the world's bird species. Preserving this diverse wilderness is essential for the area's and the world's biodiversity; the area has many ecological projects intended to ensure the growth of many species. The most diverse cloud forest is in India and Bhutan, which occurs at 2,000 – 3,300 m above sea level, tropical rainforest on the lower slopes up to 900 m in the foothills. At higher altitudes, wet páramo grasslands occur up to 4,500 m, above this altitude snow and ice occupies the space. Himalayan pumas, Himalayan black bears, Himalayan griffon vultures, Bactrian camels, Llamas and Bengal foxes are animals which are common around higher altitudes, occur on the Tibetan plateau. Munzala and Rhesus macaque are some of the primates which are found in the tropical cloud forests, alongside variou
Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which includes moths. Adult butterflies have large brightly coloured wings, conspicuous, fluttering flight; the group comprises the large superfamily Papilionoidea, which contains at least one former group, the skippers, the most recent analyses suggest it contains the moth-butterflies. Butterfly fossils date to the Paleocene, about 56 million years ago. Butterflies have the typical four-stage insect life cycle. Winged adults lay eggs on the food plant; the caterpillars grow, sometimes rapidly, when developed, pupate in a chrysalis. When metamorphosis is complete, the pupal skin splits, the adult insect climbs out, after its wings have expanded and dried, it flies off; some butterflies in the tropics, have several generations in a year, while others have a single generation, a few in cold locations may take several years to pass through their entire life cycle. Butterflies are polymorphic, many species make use of camouflage and aposematism to evade their predators.
Some, like the monarch and the painted lady, migrate over long distances. Many butterflies are attacked by parasites or parasitoids, including wasps, protozoans and other invertebrates, or are preyed upon by other organisms; some species are pests because in their larval stages they can damage domestic trees. Larvae of a few butterflies eat harmful insects, a few are predators of ants, while others live as mutualists in association with ants. Culturally, butterflies are a popular motif in the literary arts; the Oxford English Dictionary derives the word straightforwardly from Old English butorflēoge, butter-fly. A possible source of the name is the bright yellow male of the brimstone; the earliest Lepidoptera fossils are of a small moth, Archaeolepis mane, of Jurassic age, around 190 million years ago. Butterflies evolved from moths, so while the butterflies are monophyletic, the moths are not; the oldest butterflies are from the Palaeocene MoClay or Fur Formation of Denmark 55 million years old.
The oldest American butterfly is the Late Eocene Prodryas persephone from the Florissant Fossil Beds 34 million years old. Traditionally, the butterflies have been divided into the superfamily Papilionoidea excluding the smaller groups of the Hesperiidae and the more moth-like Hedylidae of America. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the traditional Papilionoidea is paraphyletic with respect to the other two groups, so they should both be included within Papilionoidea, to form a single butterfly group, thereby synonymous with the clade Rhopalocera. Butterfly adults are characterized by their four scale-covered wings, which give the Lepidoptera their name; these scales give butterfly wings their colour: they are pigmented with melanins that give them blacks and browns, as well as uric acid derivatives and flavones that give them yellows, but many of the blues, greens and iridescent colours are created by structural coloration produced by the micro-structures of the scales and hairs. As in all insects, the body is divided into three sections: the head and abdomen.
The thorax is composed of each with a pair of legs. In most families of butterfly the antennae are clubbed, unlike those of moths which may be threadlike or feathery; the long proboscis can be coiled. Nearly all butterflies are diurnal, have bright colours, hold their wings vertically above their bodies when at rest, unlike the majority of moths which fly by night, are cryptically coloured, either hold their wings flat or fold them over their bodies; some day-flying moths, such as the hummingbird hawk-moth, are exceptions to these rules. Butterfly larvae, have a hard head with strong mandibles used for cutting their food, most leaves, they have cylindrical bodies, with ten segments to the abdomen with short prolegs on segments 3–6 and 10. Many are well camouflaged; the pupa or chrysalis, unlike that of moths, is not wrapped in a cocoon. Many butterflies are sexually dimorphic. Most butterflies have the ZW sex-determination system where females are the heterogametic sex and males homogametic. Butterflies are distributed worldwide except Antarctica.
Of these, 775 are Nearctic. The monarch butterfly is native to the Americas, but in the nineteenth century or before, spread across the world, is now found in Australia, New Zealand, other parts of Oceania, the Iberian Peninsula, it is not clear.