Canton of Glarus
The Canton of Glarus is a canton in east central Switzerland. The population speaks a variety of Alemannic German, the majority of the population identifies as Christian, about evenly split between the Protestant and Catholic denominations. From the 9th century, the area around Glarus was owned by Säckingen Abbey, the Alemanni began to settle in the valley from the early 8th century. The Alemannic German language took hold only gradually, and was dominant by the 11th century, by 1288, the Habsburgs had claimed all the abbeys rights. Glarus joined the Old Swiss Confederacy in 1352 as one of the eight cantons of the period of 1353–1481. The first recorded Landsgemeinde of Glarus took place in 1387, habsburgian attempts to reconquer the valley were repelled in the Battle of Näfels of 1388. A banner depicting Saint Fridolin was used to rally the people of Glarus at that battle, the County of Werdenberg was annexed to Glarus in 1517. Between 1506 and 1516 the reformer Huldrych Zwingli was priest in Glarus, but Glarus remained Catholic and this, did not end the struggles between the Protestants and the Catholics in the area.
To secure peace it was decided that each party should have its own assembly in 1623, between 1798 and 1803 Glarus was part of the Canton of Linth as established by Napoleon. In 1836 the constitution was adapted to unite the assemblies and establish a single Landsgemeinde, in the early 1840s, after several years of failed crops and as food became scarce, much of the canton found itself deep in poverty. With more workers than available jobs, emigration to the United States of America was seen as a solution, the Glarus Emigration Society was established in 1844, which offered loans to help residents purchase land in the New World. Many of the emigrants went to the state of Wisconsin. On May 6,2007 Glarus became the first Swiss canton to lower the age to 16. The canton of Glarus is dominated by the valley of the Linth River. Most of the area is mountainous, the highest peak in the Glarus Alps is the Tödi at 3,614 meters Other mountains include the Hausstock and the Glärnisch. The canton contains part of a thrust fault that was declared a geologic UNESCO world heritage site, under the name Swiss Tectonic Arena Sardona, famous outcrops in the Swiss Tectonic Arena Sardona include those at Lochsite near Glarus and in a mountain cliff called Tschingelhörner between Elm and Flims.
There is a lake called Walensee on the north. The total area of the canton of Glarus is 685 square kilometers, forestry is an important branch of industry in the canton
Direct democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide policy initiatives directly. This differs from the majority of democracies, which are representative democracies. Direct democracy is similar to, but distinct from, representative democracy, two leading forms of direct democracy are participatory democracy and deliberative democracy. Semi direct democracies in which representatives administer day-to-day governance, but the citizens remain the sovereign, the first two forms—referendums and initiatives—are examples of direct legislation. Compulsory referendum subjects the legislation drafted by political elites to a popular vote. This is the most common form of direct legislation, popular referendum empowers citizens to make a petition that calls existing legislation to a citizens vote. Institutions specify the frame for a valid petition and the number of signatures required. This form of direct democracy effectively grants the voting public a veto on laws adopted by the elected legislature, initiatives may be direct or indirect, With the direct initiative, a successful proposition is placed directly on the ballot to be subject to vote.
Such a form of initiative is utilized by Switzerland for constitutional amendments. Power of Recall gives the public the power to elected officials from office before the end of their term. Some of the most important modern thinkers who were inspired by the concept of democracy are Cornelius Castoriadis, Hannah Arendt. The earliest known direct democracy is said to be the Athenian democracy in the 5th century BC, although it was not a democracy, foreigners. There were only about 30,000 male citizens, but several thousand of them were active in each year. Modern democracies, being representative, not direct, do not resemble the Athenian system, relevant to the history of direct democracy is the history of Ancient Rome, specifically the Roman Republic, beginning around 509 BC. Rome displayed many aspects of democracy, both direct and indirect, from the era of Roman monarchy all the way to the collapse of the Roman Empire. As to direct democracy, the ancient Roman Republic had a system of citizen lawmaking, or citizen formulation and passage of law, and a citizen veto of legislature-made law.
Many historians mark the end of the Republic with the passage of a law named the Lex Titia,27 November 43 BC, modern-era citizen lawmaking began in the towns of Switzerland in the 13th century. In 1847, the Swiss added the statute referendum to their national constitution and they soon discovered that merely having the power to veto Parliaments laws was not enough
Canton of Jura
The Republic and Canton of the Jura, known as the canton of Jura or canton Jura, is the newest of the 26 Swiss cantons, located in the northwestern part of Switzerland. It shares borders with the canton of Basel-Landschaft, the canton of Bern, the canton of Neuchatel, the canton of Solothurn, the King of Burgundy donated much of the land that today makes up canton Jura to the Bishop of Basel in 999. The area was a state within the Holy Roman Empire for more than 800 years. After the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 the Jura had close ties with the Swiss Confederation, at the Congress of Vienna, the Jura region became part of the canton of Bern. The Jura was French-speaking and Roman Catholic, whereas the canton of Bern was mostly German-speaking, after World War II, a separatist movement campaigned for a secession of Jura from the canton of Bern. After a long and partly militant struggle, which included some arson attacks by a youth organisation Les Béliers, in 1978 the split was made official when the Swiss people voted in favour, and in 1979 the Jura joined the Swiss Confederation as a full member.
The canton celebrated its independence from the canton of Bern on 23 June, the area is now known as Bernese Jura. The word Jura, may refer either to canton Jura, or to the territory of canton Jura. Switzerland as a whole presents the latter from a touristic standpoint with documentation easily available in French or German. On creation, the canton adopted the title Republic and canton of the Jura, other cantons in Switzerland using the title Republic and Canton are Ticino, canton of Geneva, and canton of Neuchâtel. In each case, the title refers to the autonomy of the canton, since 1994, the question of the Jura region has again been controversial. In 2004, a federal commission proposed that the French-speaking southern Jura be reunited with the canton of Jura, Canton Jura lies in the northwest of Switzerland. It consists of parts of the Jura mountains in the south, the Jura plateau is hilly and almost entirely limestone. The districts of Ajoie and Franches-Montagnes lie in this region, the term Jurassic is derived from the Jura Alps, strata of which date to that era.
To the north and the west of the canton lies France, the canton of Solothurn and Basel-Landschaft are to east of the canton, while the canton of Bern bounds the Jura to the south. The rivers Doubs and the Birs drain the lands, the Doubs joins the Saône and the Rhône, whereas the Birs is a tributary to the Rhine. Jura is divided into 3 districts, Delémont - capital, Delémont Porrentruy - capital, Porrentruy Franches-Montagnes - capital, ^a FDP before 2009, FDP. The Liberals after 2009 ^b * indicates that the party was not on the ballot in this canton. ^c Part of the canton of Bern The population is almost entirely French-speaking, just one municipality is German-speaking, Ederswiler
Canton of St. Gallen
The canton of St. Gallen is a canton of Switzerland. Located in Northeastern Switzerland, the canton has an area of 2,026 km² and it was formed in 1803 as a conflation of the city of St. Gallen, the territories of the Abbey of St. Gall and various former subject territories of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The canton of St. Gallen is a construct of various historical territories. About half of the area corresponds to the acquisitions of the abbey of St. Gallen over centuries. The city of St. Gallen became independent of the Abbey in 1405, at the same time, the Abbey lost control of the Appenzell. Conversely, the Toggenburg was acquired by the Abbey in 1468, both the City and the Abbey were associates of the Old Swiss Confederacy, but unlike Appenzell never joined as full members. The territories at Lake Zürich and Rheintal remained independent until 1798, in the Helvetic Republic, the northern parts of the modern canton together with Appenzell became the Canton of Säntis, while its southern parts together with Glarus became the canton of Linth.
The founding of St. Gallen is based on the Irish monk Gallus, around 720, one hundred years after Galluss death, the Alemannic priest Othmar built an abbey and gave it the name Abbey of St. Gallen. In 926 Hungarian raiders attacked the abbey and surrounding town, about 1205 the abbot became a prince of the church in the Holy Roman Empire. In 1311 St. Gallen became a Free imperial city, by about 1353 the guilds, headed by the cloth-weavers guild, gained control of the civic government. In 1415 the city bought its liberty from the German king Sigismund, in 1405 the Appenzell estates of the abbot successfully rebelled and in 1411 they became allies of the Old Swiss Confederation. A few months the town of St. Gallen became allies and they joined the everlasting alliance as full members of the Confederation in 1454 and in 1457 became completely free from the abbot. However, in 1451 the abbey became an ally of Zürich, Schwyz, in early 1490 the four cantons supported the Abbot against the rebellious city and the Appenzell.
Following their victory the Confederation took ownership of the city of St. Gallen, starting in 1526 then-mayor and humanist Joachim von Watt introduced the reformation in the city of St. Gallen. The town converted to the new reformed religion while the Abbey remained Roman Catholic, while iconoclastic riots forced the monks to flee the city and removed images from the citys churches, the fortified Abbey remained untouched. The Abbey would remain a Catholic stronghold in the Protestant city until 1803, in April 1798, the territories of the canton of St. Gallen were divided between the Cantons of Säntis and Linth of the Helvetic Republic (along with Appenzell and parts of Schwyz. However, the two new Cantons had immediate financial problems and were forced to institute a number of unpopular taxes, the Abbey was secularized on 17 September 1798 and the Prince-Abbot Pankraz Vorster fled to Vienna. The unpopular laws and the closing of the Abbey caused unrest throughout the area, when the War of the Second Coalition broke out in 1799, an Austrian army marched into eastern Switzerland and returned the Prince-Abbot to his throne at the Abbey
Cantons of Switzerland
The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the member states of the Swiss Confederation. The nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the form of the first three confederate allies used to be referred to as the Waldstätte, with the Napoleonic period of the Helvetic Republic the term canton/cantone/Kanton was fully established. From 1833, there were 25 cantons, which became 26 after the secession of the canton of Jura from Bern in 1979. The term canton, now used as English term for administrative subdivisions of other countries, originates in French usage in the late 15th century, from a word for edge. After 1490, canton was increasingly used in French and Italian documents to refer to the members of the Swiss Confederacy, English use of canton in reference to the Swiss Confederacy dates to the early 17th century. It was increasingly replaced by Stand after 1550, the French term canton was not adopted into German usage prior to 1648, and after that only in occasional use. The prominent usage of Ort and Stand only gradually disappeared in German-speaking Switzerland with the Helvetic Republic, only with the Act of Mediation of 1803 did German Kanton become an official designation, retained in the Swiss Constitution of 1848.
The term Stand remains in usage and is reflected in the name of the upper chamber of the Swiss Parliament. Republic Some cantonal constitutions provide for a formal name of the state. Most of Romandys cantons and Ticino call themselves république/Repubblica officially, at least within their constitutions, for example, the canton of Geneva refers to itself formally as the République et canton de Genève. Though they were part of the Holy Roman Empire, they had become de facto independent when the Swiss defeated Emperor Maximillian in 1499 in Dornach. The old system was abandoned with the formation of the Helvetic Republic following the French invasion of Switzerland in 1798, the cantons of the Helvetic Republic had merely the status of an administrative subdivision with no sovereignty. The Helvetic Republic collapsed within five years, and cantonal sovereignty was restored with the Act of Mediation of 1803, the status of Switzerland as a federation of states was restored, at the time including 19 cantons.
Three additional western cantons, Neuchâtel and Geneva, acceded in 1815, the process of Restoration, completed by 1830, returned most of the former feudal rights to the cantonal patriciates, leading to rebellions among the rural population. The Liberal Radical Party embodied these democratic forces calling for a new federal constitution and this tension, paired with religious issues escalated into armed conflict in the 1840s, with the brief Sonderbund War. The victory of the party resulted in the formation of Switzerland as a federal state in 1848. The cantons retained far-reaching sovereignty, but were no longer allowed to maintain standing armies or international relations. Each canton has its own constitution, legislature and courts, most of the cantons legislatures are unicameral parliaments, their size varying between 58 and 200 seats
Swiss People's Party
The Swiss Peoples Party, known as the Democratic Union of the Centre, is a national-conservative and right-wing populist political party in Switzerland. Chaired by Albert Rösti, the party is the largest party in the Federal Assembly, the SVP initially didnt witness any increased support beyond that of the BGB, retaining around 11% of the vote through the 1970s and 1980s. In line with the changes fostered by Blocher, the party started to focus increasingly on issues such as euroscepticism, when Blocher failed to win re-election as a Federal Councillor in 2007, moderates within the party split off, forming the Conservative Democratic Party. The early origins of the SVP go back to the late 1910s, while the Free Democratic Party had earlier been a popular party for farmers, this changed during World War I when the party had mainly defended the interests of industrialists and consumer circles. By 1929, the coalition of parties had gained enough influence to get one of their leaders, Rudolf Minger.
In 1936, a party was founded on the national level, called the Party of Farmers, Traders. During the 1930s, the BGB entered the mainstream of Swiss politics as a conservative party in the bourgeois bloc. In the partys fight against left-wing ideologies, sections of party officials and farmers voiced understanding, after World War II, the BGB contributed to the establishment of the characteristic Swiss post-war consensual politics, social agreements and economic growth policies. The party continued to be a political partner with the Swiss Conservative Peoples Party. In 1971, the BGB changed its name to the Swiss Peoples Party after it merged with the Democratic Party from Glarus, as the Democratic Party had represented centrist, social-liberal positions, the course of the SVP shifted towards the political centre following internal debates. The new party continued to see its level of support at around 11%. Blocher soon consolidated his power in Zürich, and began to renew the organisational structures, campaigning style and political agenda of the local branch.
The young members of the party was boosted with the establishment of a cantonal Young SVP in 1977 and this was contrasted with the stable level in the other cantons, although the support stagnated in Zürich through the 1980s. The struggle between the SVPs largest branches of Bern and Zürich continued into the early 1990s, while the Bern-oriented faction represented the old moderate style, the Zürich-oriented wing led by Christoph Blocher represented a new radical right-wing populist agenda. The Zürich wing began to politicise asylum issues, and the question of European integration started to dominate Swiss political debates and they adopted more confrontational methods. During the 1990s, the party doubled its number of cantonal branches. In 1991, the party for the first time became the strongest party in Zürich, the party broke through in the early 1990s in both Zürich and Switzerland as a whole, and experienced dramatically increasing results in elections. From being the smallest of the four governing parties at the start of the 1990s, at the same time, the party expanded its electoral base towards new voter demographics
Canton of Fribourg
The Canton of Fribourg is a canton of Switzerland. It is located in the west of the country, the capital of the canton is Fribourg. The name Fribourg is French, whereas Freiburg is the German name for both the canton and the town, on the shores of Lake Neuchâtel and Lake Morat significant traces of prehistoric settlements have been unearthed. The canton of Fribourg joined the Swiss Confederation in 1481, the area is made up of lands acquired by the capital Fribourg. The present extent was reached in 1803 when Murten was acquired, the canton of Fribourg joined the separatist league of Catholic cantons in 1846. The following year, its troops surrendered to the federal army, the canton of Fribourg lies in the west of Switzerland. It is bounded to the west by the Lake of Neuchâtel, to the west and the south of the canton lies the canton of Vaud. To the east the canton of Fribourg is bounded by the canton of Bern, there are two enclaves within Vaud and one within the canton of Bern, as well as a large exclave on the lake.
The area of the canton of Fribourg is 1,669 square kilometers, the canton lies on the elevated Swiss Plateau. In the west the lands are flat, but towards the south east of the canton and this region is commonly called pre-Alps but is part of the Bernese Alps. The highest elevation in the canton is the Vanil Noir with 2,389 m, the river Saane flows from the south to the north of the canton. Together with its tributaries it drains most of the lands in the canton, the river Saane joins the river Aare. The river Broye drains the west of the canton and flows northeast into Lake Morat, the southwest part of the canton is drained by the river Veveyse which flows south into Lake Geneva. The number is decreasing as the canton subsidizes mergers between municipalities, in contrast to the mainly Protestant cantons of Vaud to its west and Bern to its east, the canton of Fribourg is a predominantly Roman Catholic enclave with a Protestant minority. The main centres of population are the capital Fribourg and Bulle, two-thirds of the population speak French, and one-third speaks Alemannic dialects of German.
The French-speaking areas are in the west of the canton, whereas the Alemannic-speaking areas are in the east, there are a number of bilingual towns, a fact that has attracted some businesses, such as telesales. The population of the canton is 307,461, as of 2007, the population included 43,838 foreigners, or about 16. 65% of the total population. Agriculture is important in the canton of Fribourg, the main agricultural activities are cattle breeding and dairy farming
Canton of Schaffhausen
The Canton of Schaffhausen is a canton of Switzerland. The principal city and capital of the canton is Schaffhausen, Schaffhausen was a city-state in the Middle Ages, it is documented that it struck its own coins starting in 1045. It was documented as Villa Scafhusun, around 1049 Count Eberhard von Nellenburg founded a Benedictine monastery which led to the development of a community. This community achieved independence in 1190, in 1330 the town lost not only all its lands but its independence to the Habsburgs. In 1415 the Habsburg Duke Frederick IV of Austria sided with the Antipope John XXIII at the Council of Constance, as a result of the ban and Fredericks need of money, Schaffhausen was able to buy its independence from the Habsburgs in 1418. The city allied with six of the Swiss confederates in 1454, Schaffhausen became a full member of the Old Swiss Confederation in 1501. The first railroad came to Schaffhausen in 1857, in 1944 Schaffhausen suffered from a bombing raid by United States Army Air Forces planes that accidentally strayed from Germany into neutral Switzerland.
The cantonal constitution was written in 1876 and revised in 1895, the distinctive coat of arms bears the Schaffhauser Bock. Schaffhausen is the northernmost canton of Switzerland and lies almost entirely on the bank of the Rhine. It lies west of Lake Constance and has an area of 298 km2, much of the canton is productive agricultural land, with 134.4 km2 of the canton used for agriculture while an additional 128.7 km2 is wooded. Most of the rest of the canton,31.8 km2, is developed, the cantons territory is divided into three non-contiguous segments where German territory reaches the Rhine. The large central part, which includes the capital Schaffhausen, in turn separates the German exclave of Büsingen am Hochrhein from the rest of Germany, the small exclave of Rüdlingen-Buchberg lies to the southwest, and the third part contains Ramsen and Stein am Rhein to the east. With the exception of Vor der Brugg, part of Stein am Rhein, the canton of Schaffhausen is bordered by the Swiss cantons of Zurich and Thurgau, as well as the German districts of Waldshut, Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis and Konstanz, Baden-Württemberg.
Most of the lies on a plateau dominated by the Hoher Randen. The summit of mountain is at 912 m. The slopes of the mountain are gentle towards the south where it reaches the Rhine valley and narrow valleys intersect these gentle slopes. The Klettgau is one such valley, the Rhine Falls are the largest waterfalls in Europe and lie on the border of the cantons of Schaffhausen and Zürich. There are 27 municipalities in the canton as of January 2009, the population of the canton is 79,836
Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps, only 32% of the country is below 500 m. The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene. The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany.
In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919, in 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna, other major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724, the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index.
Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. The German name for Austria, Österreich, meant eastern realm in Old High German, and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi and this word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976, the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean the same as Ostarrîchi and Österreich, the Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern-day Austria, around 15 BC. Noricum became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province